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The Incas

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Mr. Command

on 4 January 2016

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Transcript of The Incas

The Incas
Mr. Command
Location
South America's western coast
Inca Empire was located along the Andes Mountains
Present day: Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile and Peru
Time Period
Rise: 1400 CE
Fall: 1532 CE
Government
Inca had an Emperor for their ruler
Sapa Inca
He ate from gold dishes
Never wore the same clothes twice
He took his own sister as queen
The noblemen help govern the land
Government Cont...
Instead of declaring war on other tribes the Sapa would try peace talks
He offered the tribe to join them
Had to worship the Inca gods
Incas kept a sacred religious object hostage
If not, they went to war
Why Such A Large Empire?
The Inca believed the Sapa ruled his land after death
Any new emperor had to establish his own land
Perfect Society?
No one was homeless
Everyone had food to eat
The Emperor was responsible for food and shelter
Almost zero crime
No prisons
Punishment for a crime was being thrown off a cliff...
Major City
Machu Picchu - "Lost City of the Incas"
Means old peak
Was not seen until 1911
Capital of Inca Empire
One of 7 Wonders of the World
Capital City
Cuzco - Southern Peru
10,000 ft above sea level
Center of Inca world
First emperor Pachacuti made it in the shape of a puma
Made Inti, the Sun God the Inca's main god
Religion
Polytheists
most important was Inti, Sun God
his wife was the Moon Goddess
Inca's called themselves Children of the Sun
Believed in reincarnation
Do not: steal, lie or be lazy
Follow = warm Sun
Disobey = cold Earth
Gods and Goddess
Kon - Rain and wind
Chasca - Dawn and Twilight
Mama Quilla - Moon
Inti - Sun
Viracocha - Creator
Mama Cocha - Sea and fish
Catequil - Thunder and lightning
Uruchillay - Animals
Supay - Death
Sacrifices
Threw corn on the fire for sun to appear
Sacrifice animals - guinea pigs and llamas
Rarely sacrifices humans
Time of natural disasters
Only sacrificed children
Was a huge honor with a great feast/party
Strangulation, blow to head or buried alive
The Chosen Women
Every year the most beautiful, graceful and talented girls between the ages of 8 and 10 were selected
Taken to study religion
Prepare food and drinks for religious ceremonies
Would leave at age 15
Work in temples or shrines
Became teachers
Became a wife of a noble or Sapa
Currency
Barter system (trading)
Workers were paid in credit to buy food or goods
Gold, silver and copper mines made the Inca rich
Farming
Used terrace gardening
cut steps into the mountains
to hold rainwater
Freeze-dried method of storage
Let their food freeze in the cold
Would also dehydrate food
Food
First to farm potato in Peru
Maize, quinoa, beans, squash
Llamas, alpacas, ducks, gunie pigs
Guinea pigs were cooked by stuffing hot stones inside
Insides were used for soup
Achievements
Roads
Built 18,000 miles of roads

Most still stand today
Postal System & Rope Bridges
Message system where runners would go across rope bridges to send messages
Messengers lived in pairs
One sleeps, one on call
Rope bridges were grass ropes
1,500 year old bridge
still around today
Surgeries
Inca performed successful skull surgeries
Most death came from clubs or slingshots to the head
Slow and painful death
This led to opening the skull to heal the wound
The Fall
Inca just ended a civil war when the Spanish conquest and
Fransico Pizarro
arrived
Civil war was fought between 2 brothers: Atahuallpa and Huascar
Over the right to rule
Atahuallpa killed his brother and became emperor
In 1532 the conquistadors of Spain setup a fake peaceful gathering and kidnaped Atahualpa
Inca paid over $200 million to get him back
Instead was strangled to death
Spain marched on and took Cuzco
Fall cont...
400 Spanish mercenaries took over the world's largest civilization of 15-30 million people
Disease from the New World killed 2/3's of the Inca people
Once Pizarro took the gold, he sent for help from Spain
Forced the people into Christianity
Spain made slaves of the Inca people
Unique Facts
Kids
Children were given intelligence tests
based on results were either taught a trade or sent to school
Children of conquered tribe leaders (who were killed) were sent to the capital to the elite boarding schools
Clothing
Inca clothes depended on your social class
Majority wore a gown that covered the body with no sleeves - with a belt
Marriage
Inca would have trial marriages
try it for a year or two
the woman could go to her parts at the end
or the husband could send her home
if they decided to make it final, you could only divorce if there were no children
Would marry within the same social class
Rare but able to marry up social classes to a nobleman
Noblemen were allowed to have more than one wife
Had one primary wife though
Language
No written language
Spoken language is called "Quechua"
Still spoken in 10 South American countries
Skull Deformations
Incas considered deformed skulls beautiful!
Would wrap bandages tightly around the heads of children
Purposefully deform the skulls by limiting the growth to one direction
Burial
When a person dies all of their gold is buried with them
does not get passed down to family members
Bodies were placed in the fetal position
Full transcript