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SCLY1 - Demography

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on 10 September 2013

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Transcript of SCLY1 - Demography

Children have now become an economic liability because they are financially dependent on their parents. This means, in an economic climate where we all are watching the spending, children can be a danger.
Also because children are more in the centre of a family, parents will have more children and treat then very well instead of having many and giving them little time and attention.
Reasons for the decline in birth rate
More women are remaining childless as a choice then in the past, decreasing the birth rate.
Women are now postponing having children because of increased career opportunities.

Changes to the Birth Rate
The factors that will affect the birth rate are;
The number of women who are at childbearing age (15 – 44)
How fertile they are (how many children do they have)
The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is the average number of children that these women will have.
Total Fertility Rate
The birth rate is the number of live births per 1000 of the population.

In 1900 is was 28.7
In 2007 it was 10.7

The Birth Rate
AS Sociology
Smaller families mean that women are more likely to be free to go to work. This will mean that children would cause problems with this lifestyle, although rich people can afford the childcare.
Children are also more dependent on benefits so it is better for the Government if the birth rate is down.
Also less children means less schools and less healthcare facilities for children.
Effects of Changes of Fertility
Women have more rights, so they will take advantage of these rights, including the right to work and to vote.
There has also been a decline in the infant mortality rate. This is argued to cause the fall in the birth rate, because parents don’t have to ‘replace’ children.

Reasons for the decline in birth rate
After both World Wars there was a baby boom because soldiers put off having a family until the war was over. This meant that the birth rate went up.
However in Modern Society were there is more childless people, the birth rate has decreased.

Baby Boom
Some people believe that aging population is a problem for society.
They say that they are economically dependent on the state and this will add even more strain
They are also stereotypically seen as weak and in need of care.
The social construction of ageing as a ‘problem’
Because there are more elderly people in society then there is more people claiming state pensions. This means a bigger demand for the system.
Healthcare also has a bigger strain because older people will need more care.
There has been an increase of one-pensioner households, where there is only one elderly person in a house.
Ageing people and the effect on society
Because people are living longer, there is more elderly people who need care.
The average age of a person in the UK is 42.6 so the population has more elderly people
However this aging population will provide effects on society.
The Aging Population
This is how long you are expected to live for using the averages
In 1900 the life expectancy was:
50 for MALES
57 for FEMALES
In 2007 the life expectancy is;
77 for MALES
81 for FEMALES.
Life Expectancy
There has been a decline in the number of manual positions so there is less death at work. Also Health and Safety has been increased so less people die at work.
Smaller families prevent transmission of fatal diseases. This means that it is harder for these to be transmitted very far.
Other Social Changes
There has been a decline in the number of deaths due to infectious diseases.
There is better healthcare.
Rich and poor people get the same healthcare and rights.
Why do less people die?
The number of deaths was quite stable at around 600000 deaths per year. However death rates increase when there is epidemics.
Unfortunately that nice, stable number was in 1900. The death rate was 19 in 1900 but is now down to 10 in 2007.
A stable 600,000
AS Sociology
The NHS is better than ever now as well as the technological advances in the medical area.
These allow more conditions to be treated and more lives to be saved and this directly affects the death rate.
Medical Improvement
In the past people didn’t eat very well especially when in poverty or in the middle of a war.
Better nutrition allows people to live longer.
There is also better awareness about what is healthy.
Less Death – More Good Food!
The Government have realised that problems could start so they are trying to persuade older people to move into retirement homes or trade-down into smaller houses so that larger accommodation can be used to house large families.
Social Policies
There is a lot of social stigma against immigrants. These are the people who have moved to the country because it could provide a better life.
People have started to emigrate outside of the UK. There are many ‘push’ factors that have caused this change.
The economy is better in some places so cost of living is cheaper
There is a very high level of unemployment
There is also ‘pull’ factors from other countries.
Better jobs and pay
Better education opportunities.
Migration is the movement in or out of a country

EMIGRATION – Moving out of the country
IMMIGRATION – Moving into a country
What is Migration?
AS Sociology
This is the people who are moving around the country. This would be to move to a better job or a better house. It could also be to live with family.
Internal Migration
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