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function Of Teeth

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by

nehal solaiman

on 16 December 2012

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Transcript of function Of Teeth

Teeth are named by their: Set / Arch / Side / Class 1-Set : 2-Arch: 3-Side: 4-Class: Permanent & Deciduous Maxillary & Manbibular Right & Left (4 Quadrants ) Incisors , Canines , Premolars & Molars Human Dentition 1-Primary Dentition 2-Permanent Dentition 1-Primary Dentition -20Teeth : 10 upper & 10 Lower - 2Incisors , 1 Canine , 2 Molars -Dental Formula : I 2/2 , C 1/1 , M 2/2 = 10 2-Permanent Dentition -32Teeth: 16 upper & 16 lower -2Incisors, 1Canine, 2Premolars, 3Molars -Dental formula: I 2/2 , C 1/1 , PM 2/2,
M 3/3 =32 -Hyperdontia or Hypodontia Numbering System 1-Universal System 2-FDI (International numbering system) 3-Palmers Notation System Enamel Dentin -Softer than enamel
-Does not have a nerve supply but can be sensitive -white outer part of the tooth.
-Highly calcified and hardest tissue in the body
-Crystalline in nature
-Fluoride and saliva can help with
remineralization -is the main substance of crown & root Cementum -A thin layer of connective tissue covering the root
-Softer than enamel and dentin
-Not sensitive Dental Pulp -The softest tissue
-Innermost part of the tooth
-Rich with blood vessels and nerves
-Responsible for nourishing the tooth
-Typically sensitive to extreme thermal
stimulation (hot or cold) Gingiva -It is the soft tissue covering the bone encircling the tooth serving as support structure for subadjacent tissues. Periodontal Ligament -Connects the cementum of the tooth root to the alveolar bone of the socket. Alveolar Bone -The thickened ridge of bone
containing the tooth sockets in the mandible and maxilla. The Structure 1-Dental Caries: Dental Diseases Progressive bacterial damage to teeth exposed to saliva.
caused by bacterial acid
production followed by destruction of remaining tissue -Adherent deposit that is formed on the tooth surface.
It can only be removed by tooth brushing 2-Plaque 3-Pulpits: Pulp Diseases Inflammation of the pulp causes the blood vessels to be compressed by edema & the thrombosis Cutting of blood supply pulp death. 4-Oral Cancer: -It’s found in the oral cavity ( e.g. lips, labial & buccal mucosa ,floor of the mouth , soft palate, tongue )
-90% of these cancers are squamous cell carcinoma Treatment Symptoms Causes of gingival recession 5-Gingival Recession It refers to exposure in the roots of the teeth caused by a loss of gum tissue and/or retraction of the gingival margin from the crown of the teeth. -Abnormal tooth position -Hereditary thin, fragile or insufficient gingival tissue. -Overaggressive brushing -Eating disorders, from self-induced vomiting. -Dipping tobacco -Adult orthodontic movement of teeth -Intentional gingival retraction. -Teeth may appear longer than normal -The roots of the tooth are exposed and visible -The tooth feels notched at the gum line -Change in the tooth’s color -Sensitive teeth -Spaces between teeth seem to grow -If overactive brushing is the cause, the patient should consider purchasing a softer toothbrush -If poor plaque control was a contributing factor, improved oral hygiene must be performed -If severe calculus (tartar) was the cause, then a procedure called scaling and root planing may be necessary to clean the teeth and heal inflammation in the gingiva -If malocclusion (incorrect bite) was a factor, an occlusal adjustment (bite adjustment)or bite splint may be recommended. -If cause-specific measures are insufficient, soft-tissue graft surgery may be used to create more gingiva before after Function of teeth *General Functions: 1-Mastication: 2-Appearance: 3-Speech: 4-Growth of jaw: -It is the most important function of the teeth -Well arranged clean teeth give nice appearance to the face and support to the facial expressions Teeth are important for clear pronunciation and for production of sound. -Teeth teeth play a role in the growth of the jaws in some periods of life. *Specific Functions: -Incisors Chisel like for Cutting or incising food. -Canines Wedge like For Cutting and tearing food
they support lips and facial muscles. -Premolars Tearing and grinding food and support the corners of the mouth. -Molars Grinding food to make it smooth enough to go down easily to the esophagus. *Importance of the geometric outlines -All aspects of teeth except "incisal or occlusal" aspects are outlined roughly within three geometrical figures of different dimensions.
Trapezoid / Triangle / Rhomboid Trapezoid 1-facial and lingual aspects of the crown ADVANTAGES:
-creates interproximal spaces.●
-●creates a contact area between adjacent teeth.
●-provides plenty of spaces for a bulk of bone.
●-allow proper relationship between upper and lower jaw which serves to distribute occlusal forces. 2)proximal aspects of maxillary posterior teeth ADVANTAGES:
-provides a narrow occlusal surface.
-provides a wide base.
-protects the gingival from excessive trauma.
-facilitate self-cleaning process of the teeth Triangle proximal aspects of anterior teeth: ADVANTAGES: -●provides a narrow incisal surface,which facilitate penetration and cutting of food -●afford a wide base which provides support. Rhomboid proximal aspects of mandibular posterior teeth: ADVANTAGES: - inclines the crowns lingually to the root bases, bringing cusps into proper occlusion with the cusps of their opponents. -provides narrow occlusal 1-Cusp: -Pyramidal elevation located on the occlusal surfaces of posterior teeth and on the incisal edge of the canines. 2-Cingulum: - It is enlargement on the cervical third of the lingual surface of the crown of anterior teeth 3-Tubercle: -It is a small elevation on the crown produced by an extra formation of enamel. 4-Mamelon: -It is one of the three rounded protuberances found on the incisal ridges of newly erupted incisor teeth 5-Lobe: -It is one of the primary parts of formation in the development of the crown. 6-Ridges: -They are linear elevation on the crown surface and are named according to their location. *TYPES OF RIDGES: A- Marginal Ridge B- Triangular Ridge C- Oblique Ridge D-Transverse Ridge 1-Fossa: - It is a small hollow or depression found between the marginal ridges on the surfaces of teeth. A- Lingual fossa .
B- Central fossa
C- triangular fossa *TYPES: 2- salcus: -Is an occlusal depression between the cusps that is seen on all posterior teeth Elevations & Depressions 3-Grooves: Is a shallow linear depression on the surface of a tooth . *TYPES: A- Developmental Grooves
B- Supplemental Grooves 4-fissure: Is a narrow opening at the depth of any groove, caused by the incomplete fusion of enamel between cusps or lobes during development . 5-Pits: -Is a small pinpoint depression found at the depth of a fossa where two or more grooves join. Function Of Teeth By: -Nourhan Solaiman Ibrahim
-Yosstina Saad Gad Elrab
-Nouran Mahmoud Ibrahim
-Hebatallah ElSayed El Khazendar
-Shrouk Abdelsalam ElAgamy
-Omar Essam Mohamed Abdou 5211289 5211314 5211297 5211287 5211141 5211168
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