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Ch. 11-Nonverbal Communication in Social Situations

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Stephen Edlund

on 18 March 2015

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Transcript of Ch. 11-Nonverbal Communication in Social Situations

Nonverbal Communication
in Social Situations

Chapter 11
Environment, Proxemics, & Chronemics
Morris's 12 Steps to
Sexual Intimacy
Same-sex Friendships
1. A "relationship" is assumed to be the combination of exchanged messages or conversations within a social interaction.

2. Each relationship is composed of a number of message exchanges between individuals.

3. The focus of these messages varies from person to person, situation to situation, & culture to culture.

4. "Liking" is the primary ingredient in relationships (excluding family & job relationships).
1. In the college environment, women have more flexibility when it comes to clothing choices on dates than they might have in other places.
2. Designer clothes are almost always appropriate.
3. Women are expected to appear attractive, but not in overly sexually appealing clothes.

1. Males usually have less to worry about than females when it comes to clothing
2. Men generally choose contemporary styles.
1. Eye-to-body
2. Eye-to-eye
3. Voice-to-voice
4. Hand-to-hand
5. Arm-to shoulder
6. Arm-to-waist
7. Mouth-to-mouth
8. Hand-to-head
9. Hand-to-body
10. Mouth-to-breast
12. Genitals-to-genitals (or mouth-to-genitals)
The nature of a particular environment ranges from place-to-place based on restrictions & social customs:

-Noise level
-Others' presence
-Alcohol options
1. Possibility of losing platonic status if both friends are heterosexual.

2. Must be cautious of tactile behaviors, including frequency of touch.
The sex variable is very often eliminated in same-sex friendships, however, power variable plays principle role. Types of same-sex relationships include:

1. Symmetrical relationships: Sharing of same behavioral traits.

2. Complementary relationships: Exchanging different types of behavioral traits.
Matching Hypothesis
1. The Matching Hypothesis: "people tend to choose partners considered to be in the same category of physical attractiveness as themselves."

2. Since "beauty is the eye of the beholder," perceptions will vary between individuals.
Heterosexuals determine attractiveness based on some of the following issues:
MEN: Concerned primarily with physical appearance-bosom, general body shape, & eyes.

WOMEN: Based on overall physique, grooming & neatness, and eyes.

BOTH: Personality & intelligence will have some effect on relationship building, however the single most important factor initially is physical appearance.
A number of factors go into what an individual considers physically attractive:

-Females are more in agreement about what constitutes physical attractiveness than are males.

-U.S. society uses physical attractiveness as a measurement for sociability, regardless of sexual orientation.
Vocal cues are significant attributes in determining physical attractiveness when two people interact in an intimate environment. These include:

1. Voice quality
2. Assertiveness
3. Response level
4. Intensity
1. Most people feel that it is important to create distance between themselves and the relationship interest in the early stages of the relationship to allow freedom for each other.

2. Initial interactions often become strained because neither person knows what to fully expect from the other.

3. Women were more likely, in the past, to defer to the male in making space & touch choices for a first date. It is often still believed that societal standards dictate that it is too forward for women to make a decision about touching first or invading the man's space.
Public Areas
1. First dates are generally ideal in a public setting as this often helps to alleviate tensions that might be present.

2. The advantage of crowded spaces on a first date, such as an arena, help distract each other from paying too much attention to each other & avoiding any potential awkward moments.
In both male and females, insecurities are particularly prevalent when a person introduces his/her date to their friends and family members for the first time.
Physical appearance factors
1. Hair color/hairstyle

-No indefinite evidence shows that either males or females generally prefer partners of one particular hair color in prospective cross-sex relationships.

-Attractiveness that is based on hair color is a personal preference.
-Most research suggests that males prefer hair styles & lengths that are typical for the time.
2. Makeup

-Most males prefer that their dates use minimal makeup & often favor the "natural" look.
Although women experience more pressure than men when it comes to dressing up on a date, this does not mean men should be doing any less than "dressing to impress" if he really wants the girl!
Women, Stereotypes & Attractiveness
1. There are stronger stereotypes for female attractiveness. Such stereotypes of women are more demanding than that of men, regardless of sexual orientation.

2. Society places a stronger emphasis on women's physical appearance than that of men.
Kissing is said to be used for six things:

1. A sexual act
2. A sign of friendship
3. A gesture of respect
4. A health threat
5. A ceremonial celebration
6. A disgusting behavior
-The first six steps of this process are considered immediacy-type behaviors. The last six are intimacy-type behaviors.

-These steps were designed in progressive order (by societal standards).

-If you fail to respond to a step, that can indicate delay or lack of interest in the other person.

-Skipping a step can be considered "fast," loose, or a "player."
-Bars (or other social venue) allows two people to eliminate some anxieties & inhibitions.

-However, dating situations can vary based upon people's personalities, intellectual level, moral beliefs, religious obligations, or communication tendencies.
Male-male Communication
1. Men more often bond over:

2. Often find themselves competing amongst themselves.

3. Men demonstrate mutual liking for each other through limited touch:
1. Backslapping
2. Playful punches
3. Sports situations
4. The "bro shake"

4. Close distance and eye-contact becomes limited after initial greeting.

5. Males expect each others to be "team players."

6. Male friendships often manifest after meeting at places such as work, places of similar recreation (i.e. gyms), & through mutual friends.
1. Studies indicate that women are better encoders & decoders of nonverbal cues than men.

2. Unlike men, women look at others more, & generally find conversations more difficult when they cannot see with whom they are conversing.

3. Regardless of status, women typically use less space than men.

4. Women behave differently with women who are considered mere acquaintances than with close friends.

5. Women make better distinctions between "friends" & "close friends."

6.Women tend to communicate & bond viscerally, more expressive of emotions, & self-disclose more to their female friends.

7. Tend to engage in more direct eye contact and touch than that of their male counterparts.
Type Behaviors
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