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Transcript of Ancient Greece
Chapter 9 Summery
Chapter 10 people
Chapter 10 terms
Chapter 11 terms
Chapter 11 terms
Theseus: a young greek prince who was sacrificed to the minotaur.
Homer: A blind poet who wrote poems about history.
Odysseus: A Mycenaean warrior who suggested to build a hollow horse and burn Troy.
Helen: Fell in love with Paris and went away with him and caused the Trojan War
Polis: Is a city-state which was the geographic and political center of Greece life.
Acropolis: Is a fortified hill.
Agora: Is an open area used as a marketplace.
Aristocrats: Are nobles.
Oligarchy: Is a form of government in which few people have the ruling power.
Constitution: Is a set of principles and rules for governing.
Mercenaries: Men hired to be soldiers for a foreign country.
Solon: He was a rich merchant who prepared the constitution.
Cleisthenes: He overthrew the Spartans.
Darius: He was a Persian King who wanted to punish the mainland Greeks for helping the Ionians.
Xerxes: He sent 250,000 soldiers across the Aegean and conquered northern Greece.
Pericles: He was known as the ''first citizen'' of the Athens, he was also a general.
Chapter 10 Summery
Oracles are people who, it was believed, could speak to the Gods.
A prophecy is a statement of what might happen in the future.
Pancratium is a combination of boxing and wrestling in which no holds were barred between the two fighters.
The Pentathlon is an olympic game made of five events.
Philosophia is the love of wisdom, according to the Greeks.
Socratic Method is a form of questioning developed by Socrates.
A hypothesis is a possible explanation for a problem.
Syllogism-Syllogism is a form of reasoning developed by Artotle.
is a form of bullfighting. A young man will hold on to the bulls horns, as the bull lifts his head the man will be tossed into the air and would do a summer salt landing on his feet on the bulls back. then he would do a back flip in a woman's arms.
is a network of paths and rooms in which it is difficult to find ones way. (Maze)
is a martial made from a thin animal skin used for windows and paper.
are sacred places to worship.
Is a square room with a fire place in the middle.
are people who work and live on someone else land.
Is a series of wars posing groups of citizens.
Chapter 11 People
Chapter 11 people
Chapter 11 summery
Chapter 12 terms
Chapter 12 people
Chapter 12 summery
Chapter 9 terms
Spartan women can mix freely with men. Spartan babies had to have all the right number of limbs or else they were abandoned on the Acropolis to die. An Acropolis is a fortified hill surrounded by an Agora. A polis is a city-state. Each city-state had its own government and laws. Only Aristocrats could be spartan citizens. The Spartans tried to become the strongest people in Greece. In 490 B.C. , Darius sent a fleet of 600 ships and a well equipped army to Greece. In 508 B.C., the Spartans themselves were overthrown by a noble named Cleisthenes. Cleisthenes opened the assembly to all males over 20 years old. The Constitution was prepared by a rich merchant named Solon. Under Solon Athenians began to take part in government. Spartan boys went into the army at the age of 7 years old. Spartan soldiers deafened the past with 700 other soldiers. Athens was first ruled by kings. Athenian nobles, merchants, and manufacturers took over the government. Fights broke out between them and the farmers and artisans over land ownership.
Herodotus- Herodotus was known as the ''Father of History'' first read his poem for the olympics accounts to the Persian War.
Socrates-Socrates was a 70-year old Athenian philosopher who was interested in the thinking proses.
Plato-Plato was an athinian Aristocrat who recorded the speaches Socrates made at his trial befoer death.
Aristotle- Aristotle was one of Platos puples, he was 17-years old and stayed 20-years. He founded in his own school and wroet more than 200 books before he died in 322B.C.
Socratic faced his death with self control and dignity.
Greek prists and priestesses often served as oracles.
There were 12 major gods, because the Greeks believed the temple was the gods home so they didnt enter it without the gods permission.
During war the Greeks would call off the war to be in the olympics.
If the enemy didnt stop the war they would have to pay a fine.
The olympics are made of several events.
They had boxing.
Boxers did not use their fists.
They would wrap there hands with strips of Ox hide and slap one another with the flats of there hands.
For the Pancration eye gouging and biteing were not aloud every other move counted.
The Mionoan civilization rose around 2800 B.C on Crete. Since there were many woods they became good carpenders.They also learned to work with metal.
They held games in the arena. they had one game called bull leaping. Bull Leaping is a form of bull fighting were a young man would hold on to the bulls horns when the bull lifts his head to toss the man in the air the man would do a somersault on to the bulls back landing on his feet then he would do a back flip landing in the woman's arms.
The Mycenaeans came from the grasslands of southern Russia. Shortly after they settled in Greece they were visited by Minoan traders from Crete. They started to imitate Minoans gold and bronze work. The Mycenaean's also started to grow olives for the oils. They used the oils for cooking, fuel for lamps, and as body perfume that they rub on their bodies.
Greek priests and priestesses often served as oracles. There were 12 major gods. The Greeks believed that the temples were the gods homes. So they did not enter without the gods permission.
During the wars the Greeks would call them off to play in the olympics. If the enemy they were fighting didn't stop the war they would have to pay a fine. The olympics were made of several events. Boxing was one of the events.
The boxers would rap their hands with ox hide and they would only slap one another with the flats of their hands. For the Pancratium every move counts except eye gouging and biting.
Hostage- A hostage is a person who is held by an enemy until certain promises are carried out, for three years in Thebes.
Phalanx- A phalanx are foot soldiers forming a solid body some 16 rows deep those in each row stayed together so their shields over lapped.
Alliances- An Alliance is like a partner ship.
Orator - An Orator is a public speaker.
Barbaroi- Barbaroi's are people who didn't speak Greek or follow Greek customs.
Factories- Factories are places were goods are made.
Emigrated- Emigrated is to move from one place and settle in another.
Philip of Macedonia- Philip developed an infantry formation called a Phalanx.
Demosthenes-Demosthenes was an Athenian orator who tried to warn the Greeks that Philip was dangerous, but many didn't listen.
Alexander the Great- Alexander took over Philips throne at the age 20. He had been a commander in the army since he was 16. He was also physically stronge and nice looking.
Philip the 2nd believed it was his destiny to unify the Greek city-states and spread Greek culture. He was able to conquer Greece in 338 B.C.Philip viewed marriage as an alliance.when he died in 336 B.C., his son Alexander took over power. Alexander was a great general whose conquests stretched from the Nile to the Indus. He tried without success to unite the Macedonians, the Greeks and the Persians. Alexander took in Persian soldiers for his army. Next, he married a Persian woman and had 80 of his leading officers do the same. He also started to dress in Persian clothing and follow Persian customs. The Greek language came to be spoken by many people. Students studied literature in school. Business people took up Greek ways of Banking. Most Macedonians were farmers. They cared very little for the Greeks and had fought them in the Persian wars. How ever Macedonian Kings were of Greek descent and admired greek culture. Most Greek city- states were under Roman control by 146 B.C.Greek Manufacturers now found they could not compete with these Great factories that had been built in the new Hellenistic cities. The Columns of an ancient greek temple influenced the style of the United States Government Buildings.
Troy and the Trojan Horse
Chapter 12 Summery Continued
Most Greek city- states were under Roman control by 146 B.C.Greek Manufacturers now found they could not compete with these Great factories that had been built in the new Hellenistic cities. the Columns of an ancient greek temple influenced the style of the United States Government Buildings. Alexander conquered amounts of territory. His empire stretched from Greece to Northern India. During Alexanders rule he founded 70 cities 16 of which were named Alexandria after him. Greek ideas were influencing people from Gibraltar to India.Greek architecture was copied for new buildings. Alexander was a great general who feared nothing. He crushed the Persian empire and marched as far as India. He would have gone farther than the 22,000 miles he already went but his troops refused. The light house of Alexandria was one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world. It towered over two of Alexandria's harbors. A fire ontop provided light to guide ships to port. The harbors were protected by breakwaters, or barriers that break the force of waves. The most famous city founded by Alexander was Alexandria, Egypt. After Alexander died in 323B.C., his empire was divided among three of his generals. Despite Alexander's death, Greek city-states again independent following Alexander's death, economic conditions in Greece grew worse.
The Theater Fact 1
The Temple of Zeus
Those who took place in the Pancratium had to run, jump, throw a discus wrestle and throw the javelin. Between the different events poets would read their work aloud. They Kept track of events by the olympics.The winner of the olympics would get a crown made of olive leaves.
The theater is were they held plays. Aeschylus wrote about power. Sophocles showed that people suffered because of there sins and mistakes. And he wrote about how suffering can make you a better person.They also had tragic plays.
Chapter 11 Summery Continued
Philip of Macedonia
Once the statue had been built by the artist Epeius, a number of the Greek warriors, along with Odysseus, climbed inside. The rest of the Greek fleet sailed away, so as to deceive the Trojans.
One man, Sinon, was left behind. When the Trojans came to marvel at the huge creation, Sinon pretended to be angry with the Greeks, stating that they had deserted him. He assured the Trojans that the wooden horse was safe and would bring luck to the Trojans.
Only two people, Laocoon and Cassandra, spoke out against the horse, but they were ignored. The Trojans celebrated what they thought was their victory, and dragged the wooden horse into Troy.
That night, after most of Troy was asleep or in a drunken stupor, Sinon let the Greek warriors out from the horse, and they slaughtered the Trojans. Priam was killed as he huddled by Zeus' altar.
After the war, Polyxena, daughter of Priam, was sacrificed at the tomb of Achilles and Astyanax, son of Hector, was also sacrificed, signifying the end of the war.
The theater pictured here, for example, is set on the slopes of Mt. Parnassus above the famous temple of Apollo at Delphi which is home of the Delphic oracle that figures so prominently in the myth of Oedipus.
Ancient Greek theaters were very large, open-air structures that took advantage of sloping hillsides for their terraced seating. Because of drama's close connection with religion, theaters were often located in or near sanctuaries.
The core of any Greek theater is the orchestra, or the “dancing place” of the chorus and the chief performance space. Almost nothing remains from the fifth-century structure of the Theater of Dionysus in Athens, but later theaters suggest that the original orchestras were full circles.
The roots of ancient Greek theater lie in the cult of Dionysus, the god of wine and fertility, one of the Olympian deities honored in the Greek world.
In ancient Greek times, Dionysus' followers sometimes assumed these roles (pretended to be satyrs/ being half goat or horse or maenads/ an unnaturally excited or distraught woman) in their religious rituals, resulting in much singing, drinking, and dancing in honor of their god.
An old Greek Theater
The Alexandria Light House
of Ancient Greece
Chapter 9 summery ContinuedThe Mycenaean's