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Transcript of The Self
Please rate yourself on the following items by writing a number in the blank before each statement, where you
1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Agree 4 = Strongly Agree
_____I feel that I'm a person of worth, at least on any equal base with others.
_____I feel that I have a number of good qualities.
_____All in all, I am inclined to think that I am a failure (R).
_____I am able to do things as well as other people.
_____I feel I do not have much to be proud of. (R)
_____I take a positive attitude towards myself.
_____On the whole, I am satisfied with myself.
_____I wish I could have more respect for myself. (R)
_____I certainly feel useless at times. (R)
_____At times I think I am no good at all. (R)
Note. (R) denotes an item that should be reverse scored. Subtract your response on these items from 5 before calculating the total. Data are from Rosenberg (1965).  Rosenberg Self-esteem scale Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale
Higher numbers=higher self-esteem,
The average score for college students who complete the scale is about 3 on a 1 to 4 scale,
This demonstrates that generally people have high self-esteem. What do you think contributes to HIGH self-esteem?
What contributes to LOW self-esteem? Our self-esteem is determined by
how well we view our own performance,
our own appearance,
how satisfied we are with our relationships with other people Positive feelings of high self-esteem are experienced when:– We believe that we are good and worthy and that others view us positively Negative feelings of low self-esteem are experienced when:
– We believe that we are inadequate and less worthy than others Self-Esteem is measured using both explicit and implicit methods:– Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale– Implicit Association Test Social status: The extent to which we are viewed positively and esteemed by others Attempting to obtain status, and feeling good about ourselves when we have it, is a natural part of life Self-presentation: The tendency to portray a positive self image to others, with the goal of increasing our social status The goal of ingratiation is to create liking by using flattery or charm
The goal of intimidation is to create fear by showing that you can be aggressive
The goal of exemplification is to create guilt by showing that you are a better person than the other
The goal of supplication is to create pity by indicating to others that you are helpless and needy
The goal of self-promotion is to create respect by persuading others that you are competent Edward Jones and Thane Pittman described five self-presentation strategies: Overly high self-esteem creates narcissism
– Narcissism: A personality trait characterized by overly high self-esteem, self- admiration, and self-centeredness Perceived Self-control self-efficacy the belief in one's capabilities to achieve a goal or an outcome. Students with a strong sense of efficacy are more likely to challenge themselves with difficult tasks and be intrinsically motivated. WHY? Locus of Control extent in which we perceive things that happen in our life as internally controllable by our own efforts and actions or as externally controllable by chance or outside forces What do you think? Are we in charge of our what happens to us?
Are we victims of circumstance? (things happen to us out of our control) LET US SEE
Take this TEST to see Those who feel more in
control tend to:
get better grades
enjoy better relationships
exhibit better mental health After learned helplessness animals and humans take on behaviors similar to depression Learned Helplessness hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or animal perceives no control over repeated bad events Once established, learned helplessness generalizes to new situations and decreases the motivation of both people and animals to try different responses that might bring relief from an unpleasant situation Self-Presentation How many of you look in the mirror when you leave a restroom?
How many of you do your hair in the morning (most days)?
Before you go out on Friday, do you fuss over which outfit to wear? expressing one's self and behaving in way to impress others or to fit our own image of ourselves Think of ways we try to impress others. Self-Monitoring personality characteristic that makes an individual pay closer attention to a social situation so that they can change their behaviors to fit that situation. high self-monitor is someone who is concerned about how they are perceived by others and will actually change their behavior in order to fit different situations low self-monitor is someone who is less concerned with how other people perceive them and will be more likely to act consistently False Modesty saying or doing things that will elicit some sort of praise Self-handicapping protecting one's self-image with behaviors that create a handy excuse for later failure Why do you think we do this?
How do we do this? Now, lets read a poem