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CHAPTER 3: MOLECULES OF LIFE
Transcript of CHAPTER 3: MOLECULES OF LIFE
compounds with the same formula but different arrangement
has a carbon skeleton
CHEMICAL GROUPS THAT ARE KEY TO THE FUNCTIONING OF BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES:
affect a molecule's function by participating in chemical reactions in specific ways
polar due to oxygen's and nitrogen's strong electronegativity
-hydrogen bonded to oxygen bonded to carbon skeleton
- carbon linked to an oxygen atom by a DOUBLE BOND
- carbon bonded to an oxygen and to a hydroxyl group
- nitrogen bonded to 2 hydrogens and the carbon skeleton
- phosphate bonded to four oxygen atoms
- usually ionized
- carbon bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms
- any compound that has a methyl group
methylation is important in gene expression
major molecules of life
made up of monomers bonded together to form polymers
- process of linking together monomers to form polymers
- occurs through
is the breaking down of polymers into monomers by adding water
POLYMERIZATION WORKS LIKE ANAGRAMS
OIL GO BY
I LOG BOY
I LOGO BY
THE MAJOR BIOMOLECULES
e.g. glucose, fructose
e.g. starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP:
disaccharide made up of 45% glucose and 55% fructose
HFCS is a suspect in the obesity epidemic.
From 1980 to 2000, sugar and HFCS consumption increased by 25%.
average consumption of 22.2 tsp of sugar and sweeteners a day
made up of carbon chains bonded to hydrogen using nonpolar covalent bonds
MONOMERS: glycerol and fatty acid
POLYMERS: fats, oils, waxes, steroids
major component of the cell membranes
lipids with a carbon skeleton that forms 4 rings
synthetic variants of testosterone
MONOMERS: amino acids
covalent bond between amino acids
Amino acids have to be arranged in specific sequences to form the correct protein.
A PROTEIN'S SHAPE DETERMINES ITS FUNCTION.
PROTEINS: hair, nails, CT
PROTEINS: muscle proteins
PROTEINS: found on
- the unraveling of a protein that results in the alteration of its shape
: deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid
important for protein synthesis
LACTOSE TOLERANCE IS A RECENT HUMAN EVENT IN EVOLUTION.
CHO from the oxidation of alcohols