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CHAPTER 3: MOLECULES OF LIFE

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Jay Jolito

on 16 September 2015

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Transcript of CHAPTER 3: MOLECULES OF LIFE

MOLECULES OF LIFE
organic compounds
carbohydrates
lipids
proteins
nucleic acids

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
BIOMOLECULES
ETHANE
PROPANE
isomers
compounds with the same formula but different arrangement
butene
benzene
carbon-based molecules
has a carbon skeleton
CHEMICAL GROUPS THAT ARE KEY TO THE FUNCTIONING OF BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES:
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS
affect a molecule's function by participating in chemical reactions in specific ways
polar due to oxygen's and nitrogen's strong electronegativity
hydrophilic
HYDROXYL GROUP
-OH group
-hydrogen bonded to oxygen bonded to carbon skeleton
ethanol
CARBONYL GROUP
- carbon linked to an oxygen atom by a DOUBLE BOND
CARBOXYL GROUP
- COOH
- carbon bonded to an oxygen and to a hydroxyl group
carboxylic acid
AMINO GROUP
- NH2
- nitrogen bonded to 2 hydrogens and the carbon skeleton
PHOSPHATE GROUP
- phosphate bonded to four oxygen atoms
- usually ionized
METHYL GROUP
- CH3

- carbon bonded to 3 hydrogen atoms

methylated
- any compound that has a methyl group
methylation is important in gene expression
major molecules of life
made up of monomers bonded together to form polymers
POLYMERIZATION
- process of linking together monomers to form polymers
- occurs through
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS
HYDROLYSIS
is the breaking down of polymers into monomers by adding water
POLYMERIZATION WORKS LIKE ANAGRAMS
BIOLOGY

IGLOO BY
OIL GO BY
I LOG BOY
BOG OILY
I LOGO BY
THE MAJOR BIOMOLECULES
carbohydrates
MONOMER
: monosaccharide
e.g. glucose, fructose
POLYMERS
: polysaccharide
e.g. starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin
HIGH FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP:
disaccharide made up of 45% glucose and 55% fructose
HFCS is a suspect in the obesity epidemic.
From 1980 to 2000, sugar and HFCS consumption increased by 25%.
2001-'04 survey:
average consumption of 22.2 tsp of sugar and sweeteners a day
lipids
made up of carbon chains bonded to hydrogen using nonpolar covalent bonds
hydrophobic
MONOMERS: glycerol and fatty acid
POLYMERS: fats, oils, waxes, steroids
PHOSPHOLIPIDS:
major component of the cell membranes
STEROIDS:
lipids with a carbon skeleton that forms 4 rings
cholesterol
ANABOLIC STEROIDS
synthetic variants of testosterone
protein
MONOMERS: amino acids
POLYMERS: polypeptides
peptide bond
covalent bond between amino acids
Amino acids have to be arranged in specific sequences to form the correct protein.
A PROTEIN'S SHAPE DETERMINES ITS FUNCTION.
STRUCTURAL
PROTEINS: hair, nails, CT
CONTRACTILE
PROTEINS: muscle proteins
DEFENSIVE
PROTEINS: antibodies
SIGNAL
PROTEINS: hormones
RECEPTOR
PROTEINS: found on
plasma membrane
STORAGE
PROTEIN: ovalbumin
denaturation
- the unraveling of a protein that results in the alteration of its shape
nucleic acids
MONOMERS
: nucleotides
POYMERS
: deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid
important for protein synthesis
LACTOSE TOLERANCE IS A RECENT HUMAN EVENT IN EVOLUTION.
CHO from the oxidation of alcohols
glucose
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