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Under the Scope: Music

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Abby Rehard

on 28 January 2015

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Transcript of Under the Scope: Music

RHYTHM
MELODY
Elements of Music
TEXTURE
Texture: layers of musical lines and how they interact with one another
melody w/ harmony
HARMONY
HARMONY: multiple notes sung/played @ same time
FORM
Form: organizing principle in music, a composition's structure or shape
balance between unity/variety
symmetry/asymmetry
activity/rest

Philosophy
Under the Scope: Music
of Music
Some degree of the following:
EXPRESSIONS
RHYTHM: organization of sounds in time
METER: grouping of accented/unaccented sounds
SYNCOPATION: accents where they wouldn't normally be in the meter
disturbs the rhythmic flow

ACCENT: stressed note
played louder and/or longer duration
TEMPO: speed of music
"Stars and Stripes Forever"
John Philip Sousa
Simple duple
Waltz No. 2
Dmitri Shostakovich
Simple triple
DUPLE
(strong-weak)
TRIPLE
(strong-weak-weak)
Basic tempo terms:
Largo
– very slow 40-60 bpm
Adagio
– slow (“at ease”) 66-76 bpm
Andante
– moderate, walking pace 76-108 bpm
Moderato
– moderate pace 108-120 bpm
Allegro
– fast, lively 120-168 bpm
Presto
– very fast 168-200 bpm
PITCH/NOTE: highness or lowness of sound
-each has specific frequency
MELODY: coherent succession of pitches
DESCRIBING A MELODY
CONTOUR:
track movement between pitches
INTERVAL: distance between 2 pitches
Steps vs. Leaps
moves mostly by steps = CONJUNCT
moves mostly by leaps = DISJUNCT
RANGE: distance from voice's highest to lowest pitch
Types of Melodies
Vocal-model
: moves mostly in steps, lyrical, connected, narrow range
Instrumental-model
: more leaps, higher/lower notes than voice, faster passages, wider range
Motives
: shortest possible melodic unit
can be as few as 2 notes!
Jaws
theme
Theme from
Schindler's List
John Williams
Vocal-model
Estampes: Jardins sous la pluie
Claude Debussy
Instrumental-model
"So it really doesn't matter" from
Ruddigore
Gilbert and Sullivan
Instrumental-model
Symphony No. 5 - Mvmt I
Ludwig Beethoven
Motive
CHORD: 3 or more notes sounded at same time
CONSONANCE: chords that sounds stable
Each chord in a scale has a specific function; rules on how it can move
CHORD PROGRESSION: series of chords with an end goal
TONALITY: organization of harmony around a central note (tonic)
MONOPHONIC
: single melody, no harmony
HOMOPHONIC:
melody with supporting harmony, MELODY IS MORE IMPORTANT HERE
Homorhythmic
: harmony moving in sync/same rhythm with melody
POLYPHONIC
: multiple melodies with EQUAL IMPORTANCE
helps prompt physical/emotional response from audience
-Timbre, dynamics, articulation, phrasing
DYNAMICS: degrees of loudness/softness in a piece
Crescendo
: gradually becomes louder
Decresendo
: gradually becomes softer
ARTICULATIONS: technique that affects transition between notes
Staccato Legato Accent
PHRASING: shaping of notes in time
Manipulate the dynamics, articulation, and tempo in a melodic phrase
Accelerando
: slightly speed up
Decelerando
: slightly slow down
Tempo rubato
: "To rob" - freedom to speed up and slow down
STRATEGIES
1. Repetition
2. Contrast
3. Variation
CADENCE: stable arrival point
PHRASE: complete musical thought, ends w/ cadence

RONDO: 5 or 7 parts
Refrain
: memorable theme that returns
Episode
: contrasting sections between refrains, in DIFFERENT KEY than refrain
BINARY: 2 parts
A: statement
B: departure
TERNARY: 3 parts
A: statement (exposition)
B: contrast
A: restatement of A
1.
EXPOSITION
: introduces main themes, tonic key
2.
DEVELOPMENT
: restless "journey away from home," modulates to different keys
3.
RECAPITULATION
: return of themes from expo, "back home," tonic key
SONATA
Building Blocks
Minuet in G
J.S. Bach
Binary example
Dance of the Reeds,
The Nutcracker
Tchaikovsky
Ternary example
Sonata Pathetique
Beethoven
Rondo example
Symphony No. 41, mvmt. I
Mozart
Sonata example
Short, detached
Smooth, connected
Emphasized notes
"Mrs. Robinson"
Simon & Garfunkel
Homophonic
Canon/Round
: melody followed by imitation by another voice
"Row, Row, Row Your Boat"
"Summertime Sadness"
Lana Del Rey
Monophonic
What IS music?
Rhythm
Melody
Harmony
Texture
Timbre
Form
BEAT: basic unit of rhythm
regular pulse - divides time into equal segments
Tap your toe to this, think of a metronome
SIMPLE METER
- beat divided in 2s
COMPOUND METER -
beat divided in 3s
Rhythmic notation:
DUPLE
TRIPLE
Moonlight Sonata
, mvmt. 1
Beethoven
Compound duple
Clair de lune
Debussy
Compound triple
Music vs. Noise
Music & Emotions
POLYRHYTHMS: 2 or more rhythmic patterns that conflict with underlying beat
"I've Got Rhythm" - Gershwin
perf. Charlie Parker
http://www.npr.org/2014/06/16/322561463/rhythm-section-spending-a-week-trying-to-catch-the-beat
Compare melodies and sentences
PHRASES: unit of meaning within larger structure
CADENCE: punctuates end of phrase, a resting point
some act as commas - more to come
others act as periods - conclusive
usually where a breath is taken
What makes a melody coherent?
consistent motive
satisfying shape
"Sound of Silence"
Simon & Garfunkel
vocal-model melody
Chords are built from a
SCALE: set of notes based on pattern of intervals from the starting note
Diatonic scale
: 7 notes + repeated octave
Major scale
Minor scale
Certain notes are more important than others
1st note of scale=
TONIC
(HOME)
DISSONANCE: chords that sound unstable, harsh
wants resolve to a pleasing sound
Western music: Movement of harmony towards resolution
moments of tension and release
TENSION
RELEASE
It's a HIERARCHY!
Spem in alium
(16th cent.)
Thomas Tallis
40 part motet
Jesu, Joy of Man's Desiring
(1716)
J.S. Bach
Lutheran cantata
STROPHIC: same melody repeated each stanza of text
THEME: melodic idea in a larger work
Thematic development thru-out piece
Sequence: idea repeated @ higher or lower pitch
Ostinato: constantly repeated pattern in same voice
Sequence example Tchaikovsky's
Nutcracker
Famous ostinato
Ravel's
Bolero
Little Fugue in G
J.S. Bach
Polyphonic
Symphony No. 41, IV
Mozart
Fugue (10:31)
"Black Water"
Doobie Brothers
polyphony (3:22)
Sonata No. 11, Op. 22, Rondo
Beethoven
Sonata No. 5, Op. 11 Finale
Beethoven
Sonata
Music as Art
Abstract
Representational
Expression in Music
"Samba de Orfeu"
Arr. Cal Tjader
Syncopation
Type of scale based on the intervallic pattern
Chromatic scale: 12 half steps
Functional Harmony
standardized during the Baroque era
Chords have certain roles:
TONIC
PRE-DOMINANT
: will go to tonic or dominant
DOMINANT
: will always go to tonic
Non-Functional Harmony
chords whose resolution is deliberately avoided
Static Harmony
holds onto same harmony for long period of time
In a landscape
John Cage
Mode de valeurs et d'intensites
Olivier Messiaen
Full transcript