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Texas State Government

PSCI 2306
by

Maria Reyes

on 25 April 2016

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Transcript of Texas State Government

Highest Visible Office
Personality
Commander-in-Chief
Set Agenda
Special Sessions
Approve or Veto Bills
Grant Pardons & upholds extraditions
Appoint Secretary of State & more than 200 Commissions 7 Filling Vacancies
Texas State Government
Our capital is Austin
Government: Bicameral Legislation
28th State to enter the union 12.29.1845
Present constitution was adopted on 1876
Our motto is FRIENDSHIP
The Lone Star State
Texas Production
Texas wildlife
We are the 2nd largest state in the country. (268, 820 square miles)
Texas population grows at a faster pase than the U.S.
88% of the population is living in urban areas. Compare to the 1940’s it was predominantly rural
3 of the ten biggest cities in the nation are from Texas; Houston (4th), San Antonio (7th), and Dallas (9th).
52 of the Fortune 500 Companies are based in Texas


Context of Texas politics: Big
Bigger than life Mystique
The Texas Rangers is a

Division of the Texas Department of Public Safety
Crime investigations – major
unsolved crimes/serial investigations
public corruption
officer involved shooting
boder security operations

213 where 150 are Commissioned Rangers

2012 – 3,914 investigations and 1796 arrests (1,601 Felonies, and 194 Misdemeanors)
2013 - 3, 445 investigations and 1958 arrests (1,781 Felonies, and 177 Misdemeanors)

March 6, 1836
Heroic Struggle
Hero
Empresario System
Cheap land to develop
4 years of no taxes
Slaves/ No Slaves

Stephe Austin - from Missouri 1822
7000 American by 1830 (with slaves)

1830 Santa Ana (Dictator)
April 21 1836
Political Subcultures
Daniel Eleazar
Individualistic (Business - from mid-Atlantic)
Moralist (Influenced by Puritanism)
Traditionalist (Semi-Feudal System settled in the South)


Increasing at a higher national rate, we are now the second most populous state

Natural human production has resulted in bigger numbers of population in Texas

Changes in political affiliation from republican to democratic

A third of Texans are other than English speakers
Increase in population places demand in all public services

Water battles,

Aging population

Industry/ From Agriculture to Technology

Changes in Population
In the early 19th century they came from the upper south (individualist subculture) and later plantation slaveholders (traditionalist)

Today the most conservative area of the state is West Texas.

The Anglo population has started to decrease after the 1950, from 74% to 44% according to the 2010 census

Anglos
Restriction of slavery

Slavery and slaves came to Texas with the American settling in Texas
By the time of the civil war it is believed that 30% of the population in Texas were African American. This declined after the civil war leveling off at 12%

Today this still 12%. The African American population is highly concentrates in West Texas and urban areas

African Americans
Not in great numbers from the beginning

Constitutional Convention of 1845 tried to strip Hispanics of their right to vote

It starting growing after hitting a low point in 1887, it is now 38% or higher.

Hispanics in Texas hold the highest number of public offices

In the South of Texas where the highest concentration of Hispanics is, the Traditionalist subculture dominates.

This has resulted in extreme poverty, low levels of education/ This has change with Hispanics increasing political clout

Population 26, 059, 023 (Laredo 242,000)

Population by Race
Whites 80%
Black or African American 12.3%
Asian 4.2%
Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1%
Hispanics 38.2%
Whites (non-Hispanic or Latino) 44.5

Texas Quick Census Facts
Urbanization and suburban sprawl

Wealth and income Distribution

Disparity of education

Basic tenets of political influence that are still dominated by few and kept from the masses which are normally minorities.

Politics and Culture meet
The change in migration patterns projects a rapid increase in Asian population in Texas.

In 1980 it was 0.8%, now it is 4%/ The greatest concentration of Asian population is in Houston.


Asians
Native Texans: In the Early 1800 at least 23 Native American groups resided in Texas
Comanche, Apache, Karankawa, Kiowa, Caddo, Tonkawa

Now, there are three groups living in reservation: Alabama-Coushatta, Tigua, and Kickapoo.

They are about 1% in the state of Texas

They have little influence in politics


Native Americans

Federal court finds discrimination in Texas voting maps drawn by GOP-controlled Legislature

Discrimination has been part of Texas and although progress has been made there are still areas of the state where this takes place.

There is still evidence of housing and employment discrimination. Recently there was a federal court decision considered redistricting discriminatory.

This also is predominant in the allocation of funds and social services where the poor “minority” or health and social services


Discrimination
Texas & Texans
Texas Constitution
Texas Institutions
Political Parties
Interests Groups
Policy Making
Established Assumption
Political Subcultures
Coahuila Tejas
Anglo Texans disliked:
Limited representation (2/12)
State religion (Catholic)
Limits on slavery
All the laws were published
only
in Spanish
No trial by jury, unjust (by US standards) justice system

Mexican legal system influenced Texas property and land laws, water rights, community property laws, and local control of schools

Republic of Texas
Positives
Brief, concise, flexible – resembles US Constitution
Checks & balances
Bicameral legislature
Popular sovereignty
President serves two-year term

Texas (State)
1845
Civil War Texas
Texas secedes in 1861
Changes required to confirm Texas removed
Under the authority of The Confederacy
Greater emphasis on protecting slavery
Influence of Civil War Era
Origins of Democratic Party factionalism
Legacy of state’ rights

Post Civil War
Texas subject to national control/ State constitution under liberal readmission requirements of President Johnson
Lincoln’s reconstruction plan
Favored quick reintegration of the South
Abolish slavery
Repudiate 1861 Secession Ordinance
1845 Constitution used as framework
Slavery ended
Limits placed on African American rights
1866 Constitution invalidated /Rejected by Radical Republicans in U.S. Congress because failed to grant civil rights to former slaves and not punitive enough against former Confederates

What is a Constitution?
It defines the principles of a society
its political objectives
outlines specific institutions & its objectives
who can participate in decision making
run for office
outlines the relationship between governors and governed

Purposes:
Outlines the powers of the state and local governments
Defines the (implicit and explicit) limitations on these governments
Speaks to the relation of the state to the economy

What is a GOOD constitution?
Grant authority to specific institutions
Brief
General Principles
Create a basic government framework
Provides for orderly change
U.S. Constitution
Brief: 7,000 words; amended 27 times
Flexible document: a “living document”

Texas Constitution
93,000 words; continually amended [474 as of 2012]
Restrictive document/ Compilation of detailed statutory provisions


What a constitution should NOT be!

Counterproductive to effective modern governance

U.S. vs Texas
Structure
Authority
Culture
Define & Reflect
Political & economic Power
Values
Interests
Hispanics
1827
1836
Negatives
Allowed for Slavery
Unstable Social Reality
Mexico maintained claims to Texas
Quick Transition from Colony to Republic


Annexation delayed because of slavery
Increased immigration and expansion policies
Modeled after state constitutions of other Southern states
Elected legislature to meet biennially
Originally strong but with a dual executive – governor & lt. governor
Weakened by amendments in 1850s
Included a number if individual protections
Twice as long as Republic Constitution (1836)

Daniel Webster – called it the best of all state constitutions of that day


1861
1866
Reconstruction
1869
Reconstruction Act of 1867
14th Amendment (June 1866)
Most Southern States refused to ratify it
Reconstruction Acts
Impose the 14th Amendment
Imposed by Congressional Radical Republican reconstruction/ New Terms to gain readmission to the Union
5 Military districts
Required New Constitutions from the Southern States
Right to vote for persons of all races
Centralized state power/ Increasing power to the governor
Governor elected to 4-year term
Appointed Secretary of State, Attorney General, & all Judges
Weakened local governments
All proceeds from sales of public land to support public education

A unionist Republican, elected governor in 1869
A Brigadier General in the Union army!
He was a Texas Democrat until the Civil War who supported Sam Houston stand against the succession of Texas
Which made him the perfect candidate to run in Texas for governor and gather high support which resulted in the most corrupt, oppressive and authoritarian government in the U.S.

1869 elections
Confederates disenfranchised
Republican-controlled legislature passed authoritarian laws
Governor Edmund Davis’s administration marked by abuse of power and corruption

1872 and 1873 elections
Democrats recapture legislature
Governor Davis refuses to step down after loss to Democrat Richard Coke
Consequences
Established an activist government that created an integrated state police force, required mandatory integrated education for all children, six to eighteen, and expanded Texas’ tax base to pay for these policies.
The Constitution of 1869 had given the governor power to appoint more than 9,000 offices, impinging on the independence of local government and the will of the people.
A taxpayers' convention met in September 1871 to protest high taxes, “needless” expenditures, and the legislature's cancellation of that year's regular elections
1869
Governor Edmund J. Davis
1873
Constitution of 1876
Based upon popular sovereignty
Anti-big government/ Limited government/ Three branches of gov.
cut salaries for governing officials
placed strict limits on property taxesand restricted state borrowing
governor's term was reduced from 4 to 2 years and many of powers removed
many state officials, formerly appointed by the governor, would be popularly elected.
Legislature: sessions were to be limited to once every two years
Schools were segregated

One of the longest of the state constitutions
(2nd longest – only Alabama’s is longer)

Bill of Rights
Several rights not included in US Constitution
Forbids imprisonment for debt
Prohibits discrimination based upon sex
Prohibits suspension of writ of
habeas corpus
under any circumstances
Article I - The People
Article II - Powers of Government
separation of powers between the major organs of government
also sets up a system of checks and balances
the constitution fragments power to the point where it is not certain who can do what
Article III- The Legislature
longest article – great detail
Bicameral & Biennial (140 day session)
31-member senate and a 150-member house of representatives
Four year term of office for state senators and two year term of office for state representatives
the incredible salary of $7,200.00 a year plus $128.00 per diem
Article IV - The Executive
Plural Executive -divides executive power among a number of independently elected officers: Lieutenant governor, attorney general, comptroller of public accounts, treasurer, commissioner of the general land office and railroad commission
Governor is severely limited in terms of control over the executive branch

Article V - The Judiciary
Fragmented and Complex Judiciary
Two courts of final appeals:
The Texas Supreme Court: civil matters.
The Court of Criminal Appeals: criminal matters.
Creates
courts of appeals
district, country
justice-of-the-peace courts
describes the selection of grand & trial juries
and administrative officers as sheriff county clerk, and county and district attorney

Article X – Railroads
Article VII – Education – extremely detailed
Article VI – Suffrage
Article VIII – Taxation – also very detailed
Article IX – Counties
Article XII – Education
Article XI – Municipal Corporations
Article XIII – Spanish & Mexican Land Titles (repealed 1969)
Article XIV – Public Lands
Article XV – Impeachment
Article XVII – Amendment Procedures
Article XVI – General Provisions
474 amendments [as of 2012]
One sentence of over 500 words!
Texas Constitution
Proposed by 2/3 vote of the full membership of both houses of the legislature
(100 House members and 21 Senators)
Adoption requires a majority vote among Texas voters
Texas lacks a statewide initiative or referendum process
U.S. Constitution
Proposed by 2/3 votes from both houses of congress
or
Proposed by two-thirds vote of national convention called by congress on request of 2/3 of state legislator
¾ of state legislators
or
¾ of special state conventions
Too long – too complex
Too much statutory law as constitutional provisions
Too much “deadwood” [obsolete provisions]
Too many amendments
State government too weak for modern urban state
Inflexible – cannot deal with change
Less than 20% of voters vote in amendment elections (12% in 2003)
Interests groups diligently protect their concerns
Courts have taken a more active role in interpreting the Constitution
http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/Docs/SDocs/THETEXASCONSTITUTION.pdf

American Federalism: A View from the States (1966)
The Texas Legislature
Chief policy making branch:
enact laws
formulate the budget
taxes
oversee agencies
educate the public
Represents
Article 3 of the Texas Constitution
Terms of Office & Qualifications
Senate (31)
4 yr term
Qualifications
26 years of age
state resident for 5 yrs
district resident for 1 yr
Eligible to vote
Membership
Hispanic 20.1%
African American 11.1%
White 61%
Asian 1.7 %
Population by Race
Hispanics 38.2%
African American 12.3%
Whites 80%
Asian 4.2%
Lawyers & Business Executives
High school graduates & 4% Unk
Protestant, Catholic, Unspecified
Low Turnover
Changes
Increased partisanship
Power shift (rural to urban)
More complex issues
Higher demand
Interest groups
Outdated constitution
Redistricting
Every 10 yrs
Legislature
Lt Gov, Land Commissioner, Attorney General and Comptroller
2011
Massachusetts, 1812
Not Clear Yet?
Leadership
House of Representatives
Speaker: Joe Strauss (R)
Speaker Pro-Tempore: Dennis Bonnen (R)
Power/ Control
Leadership
Committee appointments
Determine committee jurisdiction over bills
Voting (when politically necessary or in case of a tie)
Committees
Gatekeepers (correct, build consensus, amend, draft)
Chairs of committees
Ignore Bills
Misdirect or facilitate bills
Receive and may follow cues from the Leadership
Appropriations
Land & Resources
Redistricting
State Affairs
Finance
Education
Rules and Resolutions
Senate
Standing (Permanent)
Special (Subcommittees)
Voting Rights Act
House
Substantive (Standing)
Procedural (regulates operations and procedures)
Lt. Governor votes only in case of tie.
Speaker may vote to give direction to members.
Governor's Actions
Sign the bill into law
Pass without signature
veto
line-item veto
Bicameral
Part-Time
http://www.capitol.state.tx.us/
http://www.senate.state.tx.us/75r/Senate/members.htm#dist
District 21
http://www.senate.state.tx.us/75r/senate/members/dist21/dist21.htm
Senator Judith Zaffirini
Odd Number Years
140 Calendar Days
Senate
House of Representatives
http://txredistricting.org/
http://www.tlc.state.tx.us/redist/redist.html

Local Government
We have over 4800 in Texas, created by the Texas constitution & statutory law
Counties (limited/created by State)
Municipals (home v. general)
Special districts (invisible gov)
Unitary System in Texas
Dillon's Rule (1868) Clinton v. Cedar Rapids
Cooley Doctrine (1871) People v. Hurlburt
Texas Municipal League
80% Urban
254 Counties
1196 Municipal Gov.
1089 School Districts
Home Rule
Municipalitites
vs.
General Law
Fewer than 5,000 people
More restrictions in organizing their governments, setting taxes, and annexing territory
More than 5,000 residents
Are allowed to function as home rule cities, choosing a form of government that satisfies community needs as long as it does not conflict with the state constitution or statutes
Laredo - Home Rule
Laredo, Texas
City Council
City Major
City Manager
Recall Process
Initiatives
Referendum
Types of Local Government
Council Manager
Weak Major
Strong Major
Elections
Nonpartisan
At-Large Elections
Single-Member Districts
Eights members & Mayor
Single Member-Districts
8
Registered voters
Reside in their districts for about 90 days
remaining residents for their term of office
4 yr. Term
2 term limit
Staggered
10% of Registered Voters
Revenue Expenditures
No State funding
Depend on Regressive Taxes
Property
Sale
Fees
Franchise
Amusement
Court
Local utilities
City of Laredo
Limits through Restrictions
Recall
Pay-As-You-Go
Unfunded Mandates
Retirement
Counties
254
Serve as Admin units for the state
Partisan elections
Structured by the Texas Constitution
Population
Size
Budgets
Economic Development
Webb County
Issues
No home rule
Little state supervision
Disparity in performance
Property tax restriction
Limited use of civil service
UISD
Schools 42
Students 41, 876
Student/Teacher Ratio 17
Graduation rate 99%

LISD
Schools 30
Students 24, 706
Student/Teacher Ratio 16
Graduation rate 86%

# Students
Facilities
Graduation Rates
Financial Resources
Boards / 3-9 members / Superintendent
Addressing Issues
Privatization
Annexation
Modernization
Economic Development
Inter-local Contracting
Consolidation
Public Improvement Districts
Bureaucracy
Part of the executive
Necessity of modern society
Policy implementation
What is it?
Bureaucracy
Max Weber
Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft
(The Theory of social and Economic Organizations)
(1922).
Fixed and official jurisdiction
Hierarchy
Written documentation
Management should have expert training
Full working capacity of the official
General rules which need to be stable, exhaustive, and can be learned.

Rational
Predictable
Reliable
Professional
Patronage System v. Merit System
Spoil
Practice of giving jobs as a reward
through political party afiliation
family ties
friendship
favor exchanges
Job assignment based on merit
examination
systematic evaluation of job performance
competitive professionalization
1883
1826
Mugwumps
Jacksonian Era
Pendleton Act
Legislative Oversight
Legislative Budgetary Control
Performance Review
Sunset Legislation (1977)
Sunset Review every 12 years
Revolving Door
Whistle Blowing
Checks and Balances
http://www.texastribune.org/library/data/government-employee-salaries/
More than 674000
Quasi-Legislative
Quasi-Judicial
APA
Fourth Branch
Politics - Pursuit of different interests
http://www.laits.utexas.edu/txp_media/html/bur/features/index_02/slide1.html
More responsive to the legislature
$94,256,920,213
Article V
At the state level we live under state and federal jurisdiction. In Laredo we are also under county and city jurisdiction.
The Judicial
Federalism
Interpretation is handed down from the federal level
U.S & Texas Constitution
Codes of criminal & Civil Procedure
Texas Penal Code
Legal Foundations
Legal Framework
Criminal Activities
Felonies
Misdemeanors
Civil Lawsuits
Texas Penal Code
Court Structure

Jurisdiction
Original
Appellate
Bifurcated
Qualifications
Licensed Lawyer
Resident of the City
4 yr Term
2 Term limit
Demographic Profile
Other Court Personnel
Clerks
Bailiffs
Law Enforcement Officers
County Attorneys
District Attorneys
The Jury
Grand Jury
Trial Jury
Issues
Elected Judges
Campaign contributions
special interests
under representation
long ballot
Impropriety / Corruption
Merit Base Selection
Judicial Activism

Texas
Death Penalty
The Executive
This is an office that is institutionally weak
No appointed cabinet
Limited power of appointment
It shares powers with other elected officials
Articel 4
Powers
Expanded Powers in the Twentieth Century
Salary could be raised by the legislature (1954)
Term of office expanded to four years (1972)
Given removal power over persons appointed to boards and commissions (1980)
150, 000 plus 92, 000
Plural Executive
Operate independently of the governor
Can claim their own electoral mandates
May clash with the governor over policies
Potential for conflict increases in a two-party state
Makes it difficult to pursue coordinated policies
Does serve to constrain the power of the governor
Railroad Commission
Agricultural Commission
Comptroller of Public Accounts
Governor
Lt. Governor
Attorney General
Land Commissioner
State Board of Education
Qualifications
Constitutional
At least 30 years old
U.S. Citizen
Resident for Texas for At least 5 yrs
Traditional
Well educated, middle-aged, wealthy, white male, protestant
Dan Moody - 33
Democratic
Rick Perry, Allan Shrivers, Price Daniels and John Connally
Miriam M. Ferguson &
Ann Richards
Unofficial
Wealthy, ability to conduct media, previous expereince
Impeachment
Initiated by the House
Trial and Conviction by the Senate
No recall
Leadership Styles
Management Style -
Bill Clements (R) 1979-83 & 1987-91
Activist Style -
Ann Richards (D) 1991-95
Cowboy -
George W. Bush (R) 1995-2000
Lt. Governor
Duties
Presides over the Senate
Chairs the Legislative Budget Board (LBB)
Succeeds the governor
Railroad Commission
Agricultural Commission
Comptroller of Public Accounts
Attorney General
State Land Commission
State Board of Education
Texas Railroad Commission
3 members
6 yr Term (Staggered)
Railroad safety, oil, natural gas, and mining industry
Christi Craddick
David Porter
Texas Comptroller
Tax Administrator
Accounting Officer
Revenue Estimator
States Treasurer
Glenn Hegar
Sid Miller
4 yr Term
Consumer Protection
Economic Development
Healthy Living
Production
TDA
4 yr Term
Attorney General
Chief Legal Officer
Enforces Anti-Trust laws and Consumer Protection Laws
Creates Advisory Opinions
4 yr Term
TGLO
George P. Bush
Manages state-owned land & Mineral Rights
Responsible for Veteran Land Programs
Develops Environmental Programs
4 yrs Term
SBOE
Commissioner - Appointed
Administrator
investment of money; oversight of text book selection & curriculum standard
15 Member - Elected
Michael Williams
4 yr Term
James E. Ferguson: impeached in 1917
What is public policy?
A general plan of action, designed by government to solve a problem
Types of Policy
Distributive policies
- Representative John Murtha’s “pork”
Redistributional policies
- Seattle’s proposed espresso tax
- Alabama’s proposed redesign of state tax code
Regulation
- Mexican trucks traveling in U.S.

Public Policy Tools
Incentives (Encourage Behavior, Charity as tax exceptions)
Disincentives (Discourage Behavior, Sin Tax)
Direct provision of services (Gov. Services)
Setting rules (Regulation, balance in the market place)
Tools can be combined
Policies not static: means, goals, and situations change

Making Policy
1. Issue Definition under government responsibility
2. Formal plans developed to address issue (occur in all three branches, incremental, and not always enacted).
3. Implementation (involves bargaining).
4. Policy Evaluation (outcomes, cost-effectiveness)
Harold Laswell
Politics: Who gets What, When, How
1936
Legislation
EO
Local Ordinance
Court Orders
Separation of Powers
Fragmented
Coordination
Issue Networks
/
Hugh Heclo, 1978
"Issue Network and the Executive Establishment"
Economic
Environmental
Foreign Policy
Global Policy
Education
Prison
Health and Human Services
Regressive Tax
vs. Progressive Tax
Equity vs. Quality
Local & State Taxes
Property Taxes
Measurement of Success
Crowded Prisons
Privatization
Death Penalty
Political Action Commission of Private Prison
19th Century Monroe Doctrine (Isolationism - 1823)
WWI “To make the world safe for Democracy” (Moralist)
WWII U.S. as Superpower
Cold War (Containment/ Holding Soviet Power in check)
NATO 1941
Arms Race/ Space Race
Nixon Doctrine (Intervention where it makes a real difference and is considered our interest- Triangular Diplomacy)
Reagan Peace Through Strength, Star Wars
Enlargement and Engagement (Increasing Democracies with Market economies and membership to NATO)
Bush Doctrine – Preemptive Action (our right to self-defense)

An interests group is an organizes group of people with common values, and ideas that make demands on political institutions in order to achieve certain goals that they are unable to achieve on their own.
Encyclopedia of Associations
Explosion since 1950
Competing Interests
62%
Educated
Higher Income
Higher Status
Higher standards of Living
Men
Older
Anglo
More groups/ more active
"Mischief of Factions"/ Pluralism
James Madison, Federalist Paper #10, 1787
own ends at the expense of the welfare of the nation
Special Interests
Who Joins
Why Join
Social Benefits
Personal Identification
Cause or objectives
Elitism
Elmer E. Schattsneider
The Semi Sovereign People (1960)
F. Gregory Hayden
"Policymaking Network of the Iron-Triangle Subgovernment for Licensing Hazardous Waste Facilities(2002)
C. Wright Mills
The Power of the Elite (1956)
Hyperpluralism
Single-Issue groups
Power
Size
Geographical Area
Financial Resources
Reputation
Leadership
Banks
Oil Companies
Agricultural
Communication
Big Business
Professional Groups
Teachers
Doctors
TBA
TARA
TBA
Lawyers
TMA
TEXPAC
TSTA
TEA
Public Interest
ADAPTA
Sierra Club
CPPP
Environment
Public Protection
TTLA
Minorities
Labor
LULAC
NAACP
CWA
AFSCME
Louder Voice
Lobbying
Organized and strategic effort of influence
Protests
Activities
Public Opinion
Personal Contact
Drafting/ Implementing Policy
Coalitions/ Networks
Research
Texas Ethics Commission
http://www.texastribune.org/library/data/lobbying/
Is it Worth it?
http://www.ethics.state.tx.us/guides/LOBBY_guide.htm
Interest Groups
Shape public policy by influencing public officials
Focus on a narrow range of policy issues
Engage in electoral activities
Do not nominate candidates

Political Parties
Recruit and nominate candidates
Take responsibility for management of government

Difference Between
Political Parties and Interests Groups
Political Parties in A Democratic Society
Essential
Process
Representation
Responsiveness
Policy Alternatives
What are they?
Functions
Organize participation/ management
Aggregate interests
Link social force
Recruit and nominate candidates
Contest elections and mobilize voters
Mediate the effects of separation of powers
Provide accountability
Manage conflict
Set political agenda
Party Influence
Electorate
Governance
Access
Information
Educate
Transform
One party dominance
Ideology
Conservative
v.
Liberal
Political Parties
Voters under age 30
Less likely to express party identification
Less likely to vote
More tolerant of lifestyles
In Texas
One Party
Domination

Texas Electorate
Republicans

College educated
Newcomers to Texas
Anglos
Suburban residents
Higher income
Middle-aged

Democrats

Minorities
Central city residents
Native Texans
Lower incomes
Less education
Populism
Anti-Republican Sentiment
Class Politics
Constitutional and legislative Restrictions
Dealignment
Realignment
Ticket Splitting
Texas Election Code 10
Party Organization
State & National Party Rules
No membership Requirement
Determined by State Primary
Court Decisions
Permanent Organization
Precinct chairs
County executive committee and chair; State executive committee, chair, and vice-chair
Temporary Organization
Consists of a series of party conventions held every two years
http://www.statutes.legis.state.tx.us/?link=EL
V.O. Key
"A Theory of Critical elections"(1955)
http://www.gallup.com/home.aspx
http://www.npr.org/blogs/itsallpolitics/2013/07/01/197655444/democrats-face-the-two-states-of-texas-urban-and-rural
Voting ID Requirements
http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x16dh4n_the-daily-show-with-jon-stewart-suppressing-the-vote_fun
Political Action Committees PAC
4
1972
Federalism
Unitary System
Confederate
+
=
Federal
Why?
Strong central gov. (Order)
Strong state government (freedom)
It allows for many political subcultures
Why Not?
Powerful states
Inequalities across states
Division/ Factions
James Madison
Federalist Paper 10
"Great and Aggregate"
James Madison
Federalist Paper 51
Checks and Balances
The Federal System
Authority Divided
Written Constitution
Central and Constituent Government
Advantages
Allows for diversity
Diffuses power
More access points
Protects individual rights
Foster transformation - through experimentation and innovation
It is ideal for large countries
Disadvantages
National unity becomes difficult
State governments may resist national policy
May allow inequality (economic, social, racial)
Law enforcement and Justice are not equal
Smaller units may lack expertise and money
Powers
National
Enumerated (specifically granted by the Article 1 Section 8 of U.S. Constitution)
Implied (Necessary and proper clause or Elastic Clause; article 1 Section 8/ McCulloch v. Maryland 1819)
Inherent (Sovereignty; mandate; etc)
State
10th Amendment (Not delegated tot he National government are delegated tot he state)
Taxing of exports
Foreign policy nor coining money
Supremacy Clause
Third neutral party for the states
full faith and credit
privileges and immunities
extradition
compacts
Theories and Metaphors
Dual Federalism
Cooperative Federalism
Morton Grodzins
The American System: A new View of the Government of the U.S. (1966)
Terry Sandford (Former Governor of N.C.)
Storm over the States (1967)
1789-1945
1945-1969
New Federalism
Too Big to Fail
National Crisis
Judicial Interpretations
Expansions of Grants in Aid
Professionalization of the System
Federalism Transformed
Beginning
Civil War
Jacksonian Era
The New Deal
Supremacy Clause (Article IV)
7 Amendments to the U.S.
13th prohibits slavery
14th guarantees Due Process and Equal Protection of the law
15th states may not deny the vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
17th - direct election of Senators rather than by state legislators
19th may not deny the right to vote on the basis of sex
24th forbids poll taxes in national elections
26th sets the minimum voting age at 18.

Limits on State power
Globalization
The Great Compromise
Texas operates within a Federal System
Expressed powers (national- the power to regulate interstate commerce)
Exclusive powers (national- making treaties, conducting war)
Concurrent Powers (both state & national - the power to tax, borrow)
Reserved Powers (state – law enforcement, public schools, elections)
Implied powers (national - by nature "necessary and proper clause”)
Intergovernmental Relations
Relations between / Coordination /
federal
state
local
counties
districts
Transnational
4836 Governments in Texas
Cities; Counties; Municipalities; School Districts; and Special Districts
Transnational Regionalism
Making intergovernmental relations even more complex
Maquiladoras (1964)
NAFTA (1993)
Issues : economic, social, labor, environmental
Immigration
Drug

The Media
The Political
Aristotle
Nicomachean Ethics (350 B.C)
The Village
Humans are social and political animals whose motive is happiness (eudemonia) which requires a community.
Hannah Arendt
The Human Condition (1958)
Vita activa v. vita contemplativa/ private -public
Action is the most important element of the human condition (labor, work, and action).
Camilla Stivers
Governance in Dark Times (2001)
Importance of the political, information, and open conversation (reduction of emotion to reason)

Mass Media
Written
Spoken
Broadcasted
Television
Radio
Music
Movies
Advertising
Newspapers
Magazines
Internet
Gatekeepers/ Watchdogs
Provides information
It helps accountability
At times has forced transparency (Watergate)
Promotes communication
Helps control power
Functions
Entertainment/ Cultural Glue
Original intent
Information
The latest happenings (health, weather, finance, politics, fashion, music, movies, etc)
Political Awareness / Public Forum
Overseer of the political system
Education
To educate the masses at a very little cost
Public announcements
Used by public officials and or agencies of all levels to make announcements.
Advertisement/ Profit
All business use the media to promote products
Shapes public policy
Seeks to remain independent and objective
Influences
Agenda Building
Priority setting
Create a climate for political action
May play a reactive role, mirroring society

Downs, Anthony, Up and Down with Ecology-the Issue-Attention Cycle , Public Interest, (1972:Summer)
Dream Act in Texas
Abortion
Affordable Care Act
Electoral Process
Media-centered campaigns
Sound bites
Party platform = link between voters and government officials
Draw attention through issues: advertisement, news reports, editorials, press conferences, etc
Horserace Coverage
Campaigning for Television
Division/ Negative Campaign
Ethics & Regulations
Newspapers
Newspapers emerged as political tools, financed by parties and advocating party causes. They were mainly read by the elite.
1775 -When the Revolutionary War broke out there were about 37 Newspapers (Mainly weekly)
1880- There were about 9604 (Daily and Weekly)
1950s - Newspapers were already declining (competition amongst themselves)
1960s – Further decline (competition with Radio and Televison)
2000s – Further decline (competition with internet)
Newsweek going fully electronic

Magazines
Radio
Fireside Chats
1920
1933, FDR
1937
1st Coast to Coast
1922
Representative Vincent M. Brennan
Television
1940's
23 Stations
Hearing Senate Committees
1950's Army-McCarthy Hearings
1973 Watergate Hearings
House - 1978
Senate - 1986
House Television System
(Thomas - Tip - O'Neill)
Shared Experience
Radio
Pearl Harbor (December 7th 1941) within 8 hours 90% of the population knew about the Japanese Attack
Radio & Television
Assassination of President John F. Kennedy within 1 hour 94% of the population knew about the event
Television
911 Actually been experienced as they are unfolding
Internet
Arab Spring (2011)Populous movements around the middle east
The World has Changed
Social Media Important to Understanding Constituents
Facebook
64%
Twitter
42%
You Tube
34%
Makes more responsive politicians
62%
Enables Politicians to Reach People
88%
Technological based social interactions where the public share and discuss information about each other, their lives, and point of views on religion, sexuality, organizations, and politics.
This expression is in the form of words, pictures, audio, and videos (blogs, wikis, virtual worlds, tagging, digital story telling, podcasts, etc.)

http://owni.eu/2011/11/25/infographic-media-consolidation-the-illusion-of-choice/
Who owns the radio waves
Federal Radio Act (1927)
Federal Communication Act (1934)
Created the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) which is an independent regulatory (five members)
Telecommunications Act (1996)
Eliminated limits on ownership
Regulation of Content
1st Amendment
FCC

https://votesmart.org/interest-groups/TX/#.Uz7L3fldV8E
sanctions, regulations, taxes and subsidies
Public Inactivity
Individualistic (business venture)
• Role of Government – to serve the individual (limited)
• Role of Politics/ The Political – as market place, competition
• Drive or Politician’s Motivation – self-interest (power and profit)
• View of Bureaucracy – negative (red tape, impediment)
• Role of Elections – competition. Partisanship
• Origin – middle Atlantic states settled by German and English
• Populated – the lower Midwest, Missouri and the western states
Moralistic (a good society)
• Role of Government- to serve the commonwealth, the collective
• Role of Politics/ The Political – as a place to find consensus, a duty
• Drive or Politician’s Motivation – the public interest
• View of Bureaucracy – a way to achieve a good (allows access)
• Role of Elections – selection of leadership and expression of priorities
• Origin – Puritans, New Englanders
• Populated – the upper great lakes into the Midwest to the Northwest

Traditionalistic (political order)
• Role of Government – to uphold the social order established
• Role of Politics/ The Political – to serve the elite, a system
• Drive or Politician’s Motivation – control and self-interest
• View of Bureaucracy- to serve those in power (as a red tape to personal relationships)
• Role of Elections- interchange of favors, or transactions (Competition for those already established)
• Origin – settlers of the Southern Colonies

Individualist and Traditionalist emphasize self interest
Moralist emphasizes the collective & the group
Diverse
Agriculture
Energy
Technology
3/4 (birds) Identified Species have been found in Texas
142 Animal Species
100 of eptile Species
Not Everything Big is Good
Big income disparity
25% of Texans live in poverty
Political Ignorance
Political Inactivity
9 out of the 25 Poorest Counties in the US
Webb is 47
About 40 Billionaires
10% Above 116,000
1% Above 414, 500
Regressive Taxes
12th
3rd
9th
14th
16th
47th
19th
13th
22nd
24th
http://bea.gov/
www.census.gov/#
Who are we?
Political context is BIG
Our ideology is Conservative
Our dominant political party is Republican
Government Apathy & Cowboy Politics
Pulling yourself by your bootstraps
Freedom to
pursue dream
exercise tradition
minimal or no government intervention
Conservative Values
Personal Responsibility
Limited Government
Free Markets
Individual Liberty
Traditional American Values
Strong National Defense
Role of Gov (limited): freedom to
Texas ideology
What is the Role of Government?
Thomas Hobbes
Leviathan
(1651)

Hedonistic drive; all against all

Government's role is to control man, reduce discord, contract enforcement, allowing the pursuit of pleasure
John Locke
Second Treatise of Government
(1690)

We are all rational & driven by betterment, progress; Government's role is to facilitate progress and serve as a third neutral party with limited power that can be overthrown
Jean-Jaques Rousseau
Of The Social Contract
(1762)

We are driven by self-preservation and empathy; evils are created by society; Government is us and needs to be created by true moral agents; humans in a social context
Absolute Power
SON
Hedonism
Social Contract
Tabula Rasa
SON
Progress
Social Contract
Tacit Agreement
Social Contract
SON
Dumb Brutes
Baron De Montesquieu
Spirit of the Laws (1748)

Every man that has power is led to abuse it and therefore measures of prevention are needed.
Dissonant Harmony
Checks and Balance
Despotic Power
Is a hypothetical situation where one imagines the absence of government and society to reveal or understand the role of government and members of the society
State of Nature
"During the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that conditions called war; and such a war, as if of every man, against every man”
– Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651)
"...he that will not give just occasion to think that all government in the world is the product only of force and violence, and that men live together by no other rules but that of beasts, where the strongest carries it...must of necessity find another rise of government, another original of political power...”
(John Locke, Second Treatise 1690)

“What man acquires in civil state, moral liberty, which alone makes him truly master of himself”
Jean-Jacques Rousseau in The Social Contract
"In republican governments, men are all equal; equal they are also in despotic governments: in the former, because they are everything; in the latter, because they are nothing.“
Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws
Philosophical Perspective
Empathetic

CONTROL OF POWER
American Cultural Basis

Senate
Lt. Governor/ President of the Senate: Dan Patrick (R)
President Pro-Tempore: Craig Estes (R)
http://www.mystatesman.com/interactive/news/more-red-Texas/
House (150)
2 yr term
Qualifications
21 years of age
state resident for 2 yrs
district resident for 1 yr
Eligible to vote
http://www.house.state.tx.us/
http://www.texastribune.org/2015/01/14/demographics-2015-texas-legislature/
Representation
http://www.lrl.state.tx.us/sessions/sessionYears.cfm
http://thecolbertreport.cc.com/videos/um981i/the-end-of-the-voting-rights-act
Dan Patrick
Greg Abbott
Ryan Sitton
Ken Paxton
http://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Leadership/State_Board_of_Education/Board_Members/SBOE_Members/
http://www.house.state.tx.us/members/member-page/?district=42
District 42
Rep. Raymond Richard
Full transcript