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Chapter 11: Nonverbal Communication in Professional and Educ

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Transcript of Chapter 11: Nonverbal Communication in Professional and Educ

On the Job
Chapter Objectives
Understand the importance of nonverbal communication in professional life

Distinguish between direct and indirect nonverbal communication with regard to the job search process

Identify and describe key nonverbal communication codes to be aware of in job interviews

Apply nonverbal communication codes to the superior-subordinate relationship in professional settings

Understand the importance of coworker nonverbal communication

Describe nonverbal behaviors most important to customer relations personnel
Nonverbal Communication in Two Everyday Contexts
Professional setting
s are organizations and companies in which nonverbal cues are important to getting a job as well as succeeding in a job

Educational settings
refer to institutions such as high schools, colleges, universities, or trade schools
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in Professional Contexts
Direct nonverbal communication
refers to what we do during a live interview with a hiring committee, manager, or business owner, whether it's accomplished through face-to-face interaction, telephone communication, or online via webcam

One primary code related to direct nonverbal communication is physical appearance, which includes choices about clothing and artifacts

Our physical appearance, as well as the decisions we make to maintain or alter our appearance, communicates powerful nonverbal signals to other people in professional settings
Leadership and Nonverbal Communication (cont.)
Status
refers to a person's rank or position in an organization

The
superior
(supervisor/employer) is typically the higher status person

The
subordinate
(employee) is the lower status person

Impression management
refers to the formation of an impression, perception, or view of a person
On the Job (cont.)
Proxemics
, defined as the way distance and space play a communicative role in everyday life, also applies to superior–subordinate communication.

Superiors can more readily invade their subordinates' space and privacy, called a
violation
, which is the use of people's territory without their permission

Through
vocalics
, higher-status professionals tend to sound authoritative, using pitch, rate, and volume properties of the voice to convey status and dominance
Leaders should attend to others' nonverbal cues, as well as the related emotions and attitudes driving those cues

Leaders should make use of the skill of perception checking. Check your perceptions of others' nonverbal cues with trusted people, so as to formulate appropriate responses and realistic expectations for future behavior

Kinesics
, especially posture, is also a critical skill leaders must employ through two primary dimensions:

Immediacy
refers to the degree of perceived physical or psychological closeness between people

Relaxation
refers to a backward lean of the body, asymmetric positioning, rocking movements, and reduced tension in the body
Learning Environments
Learning environments
are spaces and locations within which learning occurs

Elementary-aged students respond better to warm colors (e.g., yellow and pink) in classrooms, while secondary students respond better to cool colors (e.g., blue and green)

The amount of space and the way classroom furnishings are arranged determine what communicative relationships are possible and affect the teaching and learning process
Distance education
refers to courses taught via computer, such that students don't have to be present in traditional classrooms

Blended learning
involves a hybrid of distance learning and a face-to-face interaction

Students in blended-learning environments performed significantly better on measures of factual knowledge than did students in a pure online learning environment

Wireless environments
are built environments that are conducive to the use of laptop computers and other web-based technologies, without the need to plug into the an Internet modem
Coworker/Customer Nonverbal Communication
Proximity
is an important factor in the development of coworker relationships.

The closer we are physically, meaning sheer physical distance, the more likely we will form relationships

Customer relations
, also known as customer service, is the interaction between employees or representatives of an organization or business and the people the organization sells to or serves

Nonverbal communication helps professionals fine tune their relations with customers who expect and demand excellent customer service

In customer relations, nonverbal cues often substitute for verbal messages; that's why it's important for customer service reps to work to develop and improve their nonverbal sending and receiving abilities

We often use nonverbal cues in connection with words, to
complement
our communication or to clarify or extend the meaning of our words

This complementary function allows us to convey more information, leading to a more accurate interpretation by receivers of our communication
Chapter 11: Nonverbal Communication in Professional and Educational Contexts
Identify the nonverbal essentials of leadership

Define emotional intelligence as an essential quality of leaders and describe its similarities to nonverbal communication sensitivity

Understand the importance of nonverbal communication in education settings

Apply nonverbal communication codes to learning environments and teacher behavior

Define teacher nonverbal immediacy and offer examples of immediate teacher nonverbal behavior in the college classroom

Describe the most common student nonverbal cues, including adapting behavior, misbehavior, and cues related to students with disabilities
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in Professional Contexts (cont.)
Nonverbal communication scholars use the term
olfaction
to the role of smell in human interaction

For both women and men, it's a balancing act in terms of how much scent, body powder, or cologne to use since smell is closely connect to our overall appearance

Our
kinesics
(defined as human movement, gestures, and posture), in particular our body posture, serve as direct nonverbal communication since posture is attached to many attractive attributes in the U.S. culture, such as confidence, positivity, and high self-esteem
Teacher Nonverbal Communication
Teacher nonverbal immediacy
is the use of nonverbal cues (e.g., eye contact, smiling, gestures, appropriate touch, etc.) to signal to students a teacher's approachability, availability, closeness, and warmth

Excessive immediacy
is defined as inappropriate comments, gestures, physical proximity, and touch that can occur in classrooms, hallways, and offices

Teacher misbehaviors
are offensive or disruptive actions by teachers (e.g., yelling, insulting, harassing students) that are detrimental to learning
Corporal punishment
refers to striking a student with a paddle or other object as a form of reprimand

Teachers are encouraged to establish
homophily
—perceived similarity in appearance, background, and attitudes

Teachers viewed as attractive by their students are also perceived as more approachable than teachers viewed as less attractive
Student Adapting Behaviors
Adaptors
are nonverbal behaviors that help us satisfy a personal need, cope with emotions, or adapts to an immediate situation

Leave-taking behavior
refers to nonverbal cues that indicate a departure is imminent (packing a backpack or laptop computer)

Student misbehaviors
are defined as behaviors that are perceived by teachers and other students to be negative, such as talking out of turn, interrupting the teacher or other students, arriving late to class, and other disruptive behaviors
Students With Disabilities
The physical appearance of a person with a disability sometimes causes us to make assumptions about her or his communicative capability, and to interact with the person (or not) based on our assumptions

For the most part, learning disabilities aren’t revealed through nonverbal means (such as physical appearance); students with learning disabilities occasionally reveal their status to their teachers but seldom to classmates
Summary
Nonverbal communication is critical in professional life, from getting a job, maintaining a job, and moving upward at a job

Direct nonverbal communication cues include physical appearance, clothing, hair length, body smell, and the professional handshake

Indirect nonverbal communication includes resumes, handwritten thank-you notes, and cover letters

Superior-subordinate relationships require a strong understanding of proper nonverbal codes (especially proxemics)

Physical appearance has a direct impact during the job interview because it communicates something about us to people in hiring positions

Body smell (studied through olfaction) is closely connected to our overall appearance and therefore has great significance during the job interview

Kinesics, in particular body posture, serve as direct nonverbal communication during job interviews; posture is attached to many attractive attributes such as confidence, positivity, and high self-esteem

Vocalics are critical especially in telephone interviews, which are often precursors to face-to-face interviews

Haptics, especially the professional handshake, are critical to forming first impressions during a job interview

Environment, proxemics, physical appearance, kinesics, vocalics, and touch are all significant codes to superior-subordinate relationships

Just as with other types of relationships, the more we understand and perceive about our colleagues' nonverbal communication, the more likely we will build positive relationship with them

Customer relations professionals should employe affiliative nonverbal communication behaviors such as smiling, making eye contact, and exhibiting a positive attitude through tone of voice
Factors such as impression management, hiring good people, and being aware of one's own and others' verbal and nonverbal communication are essential to leadership

Emotional intelligence refers to our ability to monitor our own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and use this information to guide our thinking and action

Emotional intelligence is similar to nonverbal communication sensitivity because they both strive for the ability to recognize emotional expressions displayed by oneself and others

Vocalics are critical especially in telephone interviews, which are often precursors to face-to-face interviews

Haptics, especially the professional handshake, are critical to forming first impressions during a job interview

Environment, proxemics, physical appearance, kinesics, vocalics, and touch are all significant codes to superior-subordinate relationships

Nonverbal communication is critical in nonverbal communication because many professionals spend a good deal of their lives in classrooms

Teacher nonverbal immediacy is the use of nonverbal cues (e.g., eye contact, smiling, vocal expressiveness, gestures, relaxed body positions, movement around the classroom) to signal to students a teacher's approachability, availability, closeness, and warmth

Student adapting behaviors are nonverbal behaviors that help students satisfy a personal need, cope with emotions, or adapt to an immediate situation

Teacher misbehaviors are offensive or disruptive actions by teachers that are often detrimental to learning

Student misbehaviors include talking out of turn, interrupting a teacher or other students, arriving late to class, and so forth

For the most part, learning disabilities aren't revealed through nonverbal means
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in Professional Context (cont.)
The level of relaxation or tension you feel will tend to show up in body posture and movement, which can be clues to potential employers

Vocalics
, sometimes referred to as paralanguage, refers to the study of how people express themselves through their voices

We can detect physical, emotional, and attitudinal states through
tone of voice
, which is a non-technical term for all the elements that the human voice can produce and manipulate

Vocalics are particularly critical in telephone interviews, which these days are often precursors to face-to-face interviews
One very important aspect of direct nonverbal communication to consider within the category of
haptics
(or touch) is the
professional handshake
, which can be distinguished from the social handshake

In professional settings in the U.S., the handshake is critical to making a good first impression

Eye gaze
(commonly referred to as eye contact) is extremely important in U.S. culture, because we make all kinds of judgement about people - particularly about trustworthiness and sincerity - on the basis of whether or not they make eye contact
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in Professional Context (cont.)
Indirect nonverbal communication
refers to those job interviewing decisions or actions that tend not to occur face-to-face

The
cover letter
is the letter of introduction to a potential employer

The
resume
is a document that details your educational and professional experience

Typos
(mistakes in typing) are the most common mistakes students make with their cover letters and resumes

Since so much pre-interview communication takes place via email, it's important to think about nonverbal elements of email exchanges

As email has become more utilized, people have begun to move away from providing their real name and that reflects their identity in their email address

While there is a sense of play or freedom when setting up an email address, it's important to think about the impressions others will form about us based on such a simple thing as our email address
The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in Professional Context (cont.)
In addition to the email address we use in our job search process, it's also important to be mindful about what we post online

Nonverbal communication is a critical part of what we call your post-interview activity. Business etiquette specialists and personal effectiveness consultants advise people always to send a thank-you note after such encounters as job interviews

Many people have moved away from sending hand-written thank-you notes via traditional mails since email is faster and cheaper

While sending a thank-you email is indeed faster, it doesn't take much time or effort, and employers know that

Such attention to detail and the care involved can communicate many positive things about you and set you apart from your competitors
Customer Nonverbal Communication (cont.)
On occasion, our nonverbal cues
contradict
rather than complement our verbal cues

Those who work in customer relations, either part-time in college or as a career, need to remember that our nonverbal and verbal communication need to coordinate so as to represent the organization professionally

Customer service personnel must often use the nonverbal
repeating
function, because many times customers won't understand or accept a verbal message alone

Customer service representatives must be able to regulate conversation, because when customers perceive positive conversational regulators - bodily, facial, and vocal cues of patience and concern - the entire exchange is affected in the right direction

Nonverbal behaviors in customer relations often accent or provide emphasis for a verbal message

Customer service representatives need to be trained in how to use their voices to calm and reassure customers, but nt patronize or appease them
Customer Nonverbal Communication ( cont.)
Unresponsive behavior
, defined as verbally and nonverbally communicating an apathetic or uncaring attitude, is deadly in customer service

Some of the most highly trained professionals in industries of all kinds need a reminder that their nonverbal skills are crucial in fostering a work environment in which people treat others with respect
Leadership and Nonverbal Communication
Leaders should be effective receivers and interpreters of the verbal and nonverbal cues tht their employees, coworkers, superiors, and customers/clients give off as they attempt to affect perceptions formed about them

One of the essential leadership abilities is
impression management
, defined as the formation of an impression, perception, or view of a person

Leaders should present their real selves, not false fronts to the various audiences; reality makes the best impression

Leaders should be well versed in first-meeting (initial interaction) strategies, in which such nonverbal cues as the professional handshake are critical

Leaders should make use of the skill of perception checking, checking their perceptions of others' nonverbal cues with trusted people so as to formulate appropriate responses and realistic expectations for future behavior
Leadership and Nonverbal Communication (cont.)
Another essential for leaders is to wear clothing and use accessories (artifacts) that signal to others that they're leaders

Leaders may need to strategically "dress down" when a situation calls for it, such as in situations where they're expected to build rapport with clients or employees or informally celebrate an organization accomplishments

Leaders should know how to make an entrance and work a room; understand appropriate proxemics (the amount of space of space between people in conversation)

Leaders should be well versed in first-meeting (initial interaction) strategies, in which such nonverbal cues as the professional handshake are critical

Leaders should practice making business and social introductions with confidence and poise, making the best use of vocalics and other important nonverbal codes
Leadership and Nonverbal
Communication (cont.)
Effective leaders not only pay attention to their own nonverbal communication, they also pay attention to the nonverbal cues of people they hire and who others hire to work for them, from the initial interview to performance on the job

Effective leaders strive for
emotional intelligence
- our ability ot monitor our own and others' feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and use this information to guide our thinking and action
Teacher Appearance and Attire
Physical appearance is another nonverbal communication code that applies to educational contexts, especially student ratings of teacher attractiveness

Teachers viewed as attractive by their students are perceived as more approachable

Research shows that formally dressed teachers and teaching assistants are generally perceived as organized, competent, and prepared, while informally dressed teachers are viewed as friendly, fun, understanding, and flexible
Teacher Chronemics
Some teachers have strict rules about time, meaning they're very punctual to classes and meetings, as well as demanding with regard for students arriving on time and not wasting time

In U.S. culture, we tend to be rigid about time compared to other cultures, such as European cultures who have more flexible views of time than Americans

Chronemics, among other nonverbal cues, communicate a great deal about people
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