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Rocks

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Cassie Henderson-Moulton

on 4 February 2016

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Transcript of Rocks

A mixture of minerals, rock fragments, volcanic glass, organic matter or other natural materials.
Rock
The Rock Cycle.
So many of them.
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
Rocks that have been viciously tortured.
Metamorphic Rocks
Forms when sediments are pressed and cemented together - OR - when minerals form from solutions
Sedimentary Rocks
Sediments: loose materials such as rock fragments, mineral grains, and bits of shell that have been moved by the wind, water, ice or gravity.
Some sediments are formed from already-existing rocks that have been weathered and eroded.
When magma or lava becomes cool and hardens, if forms igneous rocks.
Igneous Rocks
Extrusive Rocks: rocks that form above the surface (when lava cools) are called extrusive igneous rocks.
The rock that form from lava cool quickly, and very rarely have large or visible grains.
Some are even referred to as glass, because they cool so quickly.
Rocks
Sediments
Sedimentary Rock
Igneous
Metamorphic
Magma
Compaction and Cementation
Weathering and Erosion
Weathering and Erosion
Weathering and Erosion
Heat and Pressure
Heat and Pressure
Melting
Melting
Melting
Cooling
Magma is beneath the surface. Lava is above the surface.
Intrusive Rocks: rocks that form below the surface (when magma cools) are called intrusive igneous rocks.
They're only found at the surface after all the Earth above them has been removed (by natural or unnatural processes.)
These rocks form very slowly because it takes a long time for the magma to cool. This allows for large grains to form.
Rocks that have changed because of changes in temperature and pressure or the presence of hot, watery fluids are metamorphic.
Two different classifications:
Foliated: when mineral grains line up in parallel layers.
Nonfoliated: when minerals grow and rearrange but don't line up.
Pressure increasing
Granite
Gneiss
Sedimentary rocks form as layers. The older layers on the bottom and the younger layers on top.
Kind of like your notebook: new notes in front, older notes in the back. Until you drop your binder and everything scatters then the order of ages gets mixed up.
Detrital sedimentary rocks: form from broken fragments of other rocks.
Weathering and Erosion: when rock is exposed to air, water, or ice, it breaks down chemically and/or mechanically. This breaks rocks into smaller pieces in a process called
weathering
. The movement of those smaller pieces (or sediments) is called
erosion
.
Compaction: Erosion moves sediments to a new location where they are deposited. Layer upon layer will build up. Each layer adds pressure to the layers below it causing them to stick together and form rock. This is called
compaction
.
Larger sediments can't just stick together, and have a lot of space between fragments. When mineral solutions fill the spaces between fragments, it forms a cement and holds the fragments together in a process called
cementation
.
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks: form from dissolved minerals. These are usually salts. Examples are:
Gypsum, rock salt and limestone.
Organic Sedimentary Rocks: form from the remains of once-living organisms (or just from their shells that they lived in.) Examples are:
Chalk and coal.
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