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Transcript of Democratic Leadership
When and Where Democratic Leadership is not Applicable?
Quality improvement in health care setting
WHAT IS DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP?
Applicability of Democratic Leadership in Clinical Context
To define and discuss Democratic Leadership style and its characteristics
• A democratic leader will encourage team members to participate in sharing responsibilities
• Democratic leadership allows members to voice their beliefs and ideas.
• In turn, this creates high morale and a feeling of team fulfilment (Gastil, 1994).
• Democratic leadership results in an increase in participation and efficiency. (Ray & Ray, 2013)
• It is the democratic leader who will make the final
decision. (Bhatti, Maitlo, Shaikh, Hashmi, Shaikh, 2012)
Democratic leadership consists of 3 key characteristics:
1. Distribution of responsibility (Ray & Ray, 2013)
2. Empowerment (Gastil, 1994)
3. Assisting in deliberation (Ray & Ray, 2013)
Distribution of responsibility
• Democratic leadership works towards stimulating the utmost level of participation by every team member. (Ray & Ray, 2013)
• A Democratic leader will make certain that each member of the team undertakes a responsibility. (Ray & Ray, 2013)
• A democratic leader will strive towards extending responsibility
• This creates opportunities and allows members to feel a sense of worth within the team. (Gastil, 1994)
• In addition, it permits the enhancement of each team
member’s decision-making abilities. (Sharma & Singh, 2013)
• Educating or mentoring new graduate nurses
• General wards in hospital or aged care facilities
• Unfamiliar situations or problems
Fast changing environment
New graduate nurse
Based on Jim Harvey's speech structures
To identify and discuss situational applications of democratic leadership style within a range of nursing clinical practice contexts including the New Graduate nursing context
To identify and discuss the applicability of democratic leadership in relation to quality improvement in clinical setting and ANMC national competencies
Time consuming situation
• Issues regarding the appropriate nursing care for a patient
• Implementation of changes in the nursing practice
ANMC National Competencies
• Competency No. 5 - Conducts a comprehensive and systematic nursing assessment
• Competency No. 8 - Evaluates progress towards expected individual/group health outcomes in consultation with individuals/groups, significant others and interdisciplinary health care team
• Competency No. 10 - Collaborates with the interdisciplinary health care team to provide comprehensive nursing care
What is quality improvement?
• Structured organisational process
• Tool for a systematic change
• Consists of members from multidisciplinary team
• uses strategies to meet NSW health regulatory
• Assist in development of best practices and
Murray et al., 2010;
Covill & Hope, 2012
Quality improvement and Democratic leadership in clinical contexts
• facilitated incident monitoring
• sentinel event monitoring
• clinical indicators
•ad hoc audits
•retrospective chart review
• IIMS (NSW Health Department, 2007c)
• Continous education (Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2010)
• In-services(CSS NSW, 2009)
Process and phases of quality improvement
• Project phase
• Diagnostic phase
• Interventions phase
• Impact and implementation phase
• Sustaining improvement phase
NSW Health Department 2002b
• Democratic leadership is also known as participative leadership. (Ray & Ray, 2013)
• Collaborative style of managing a team. (Ray & Ray, 2013)
• Impacts team members by using basic democratic doctrines. (Gastil, 1994).
• Most effective to employ when leading a team. (Sharma & Singh,2013)
• Democratic leadership inspires a team’s enthusiasm by encouraging contribution and empowerment. (Ray & Ray, 2013)
• As a result, this produces high morale and self esteem for members of the team. (Gastil, 1994)
• It will also allow emotional maturity and moral rationalization skills to further develop. (Gastil, 1994)
• Democratic leadership involves the leader to commit to establishing constructive decision-making. (Gastil, 1994)
• The use of deliberation is the centre of democracy. (Gastil, 1994)
• Democratic leadership promotes productive participation of all team members. (Sharma & Singh, 2013)
• Allows open discussion and creates a higher interest in participation thus increasing team satisfaction and commitment. (Bhatti et al, 2012)
Adverse event monitoring
(NSW Health Department, 2001a)
(Vesterinen et al., 2013)
(Vesterinen et al., 2013)
(Marquis & Huston, 2009)
Health care organisations are undergoing continuing changes, and health care members need to learn leadership knowledge and skills to be able to manage their work appropriately. Leadership contributes to effective performance of a team or unit in a hospital. Democratic leadership involves cooperating and collaborating with the team members and distributes responsibilities to members, supporting and encouraging them to participate, especially in the decision-making process.
Although democratic leadership has been said as the most effective leadership style in nursing, there are several advantages and disadvantage thus, there is no correct or best leadership style, the approach to use would always depend on the setting, task and members involved. Quality improvement is a structured organisational process that composed of multidisciplinary team that works on strategies to meet the
NSW health regulatory requirements
(Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, 2006)
Council of Social Service of NSW, 2009. Quality Improvement Standards for Management and Governance in the Community Sector.
Retrieved from http://ncoss.org.au/projects/msu/downloads/resources/information%20sheets/21-Qual-Improve-Standards.pdf
Covill, C., & Hope, A. (2012). Practice development: Implementing a change of practice as a team. British Journal Of Community
Nursing, 17(8), 378-383.
Landry, C. (2009). Clinical Nurse Leadership and Performance Improvement on Surgical Unit.
Journal of Nursing. Retrieved from: http://rnjournal.com/journal-of-nursing/clinical-nurse-leadership-and-performance-improvement-on-surgical-unit
Kocolowski, M., D. (2010). Shared lidership: it is time for a change?. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 3 (1), pp. 22-32. Retrieved from
Marquis, B. & Huston, C., (2009). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: theory and application. Philadelphia, PA:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Mitchell, G. (2013). Selecting the best theory to implement planned change. Nursing Management, 20,(1), pp.32-37. Retrieved from:
Murray, M., Douglas, S., Girdley, D., & Jarzemsky, P. (2010). Teaching quality improvement. Journal Of Nursing Education, 49(8),
New South Wales Health Department (NSW Health Department), 2001a. The clinician’s toolkit for improving patient care. Retrived
New South Wales Health Department (NSW Health Department), 2002b. Easy guide to clinical practice improvement: A guide for
healthcare professionals. Retrieved from http://www0.health.nsw.gov.au/resources/quality/pdf/cpi_easyguide.pdf
New South Wales Health Department (NSW Health Department), 2007c. Incident Management. (Document Number PD2007_061)
Retrieved from http://www0.health.nsw.gov.au/policies/pd/2007/pdf/PD2007_061.pdf
Nursing & Midwifery Board of Australia, 2010. Continuing professional development
registration standard. Retrieved from http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Registration-Standards.aspx
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2006). National competency standards for the
registered nurse (4th ed.). Retrieved from www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/documents/default.aspx
Stanley, D. (2011) Clinical leadership: Innovation into action. South Yarra, Victoria: Palgrave Macmillan