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Basic Cell Structure and Function

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Justin Bigelow

on 5 March 2015

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Transcript of Basic Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function


All Organisms are Made Up of One or More Cells
Unicellular Organisms = one cell
Characteristics of Cells
A CELL is the smallest FUNCTIONAL and structural unit of ALL living things
The Size of Cells
Surface Area-to-Volume Ratio
Cell Theory
Cells - Basic Unit of Life
All living things are composed of cells
Basic Parts of a Cell
Cell Membrane:
protective layer surrounding the cell.
Chemistry of Life
Atoms & Molecules:
atoms join together to form molecules that make up the components found in all cells
Molecules in Cells
LIPIDS
An ORGANISM is any LIVING thing
Some organisms are made of 1 cell (SINGLE CELLED)
Others made of trillions of cells (MULTICELLULAR)
Hooke was the first person to describe cells in 1665; named them "cells" which means "little boxes" in Latin
Cells can only get so large; they need to be able to take in enough food and get rid of enough waste to function. If they become too large, they cannot get enough nutrients to support their functions.
ex: Living in a large house...the larger the house the harder to maintain.
Cell Theory: 3 characteristics of all cells and organisms:
1. All organisms are made up of 1 or more cells
2. The cell is the basic unit of all organisms
3. All cells come from existing cells

Multicellular Organisms = more than one cell (with unique specialized functions)
plants
humans
grass
sunflowers
ants
Cytoplasm:
the fluid found inside the cell
Organelles:
small parts of a cell that are specialized for a particular function. (ex: waste management)
DNA:
genetic material inherited from parent(s) cell.
Over 100 types of atoms on Earth, known as elements.

Only SIX elements make up the human body.
Molecule
- group of atoms (same or different) held together by chemical bonds.
Compound
- a substance made up of 2 or more different elements held together by chemical bonds
PROTEINS
CARBOHYDRATES
NUCLEIC ACIDS
Lipids = fats
- Do not mix with water
- Used for storing energy
- Cells obtain lipids from the foods you eat
Example: olive oil
LIPIDS
CARBOHYDRATES
Sugars, Starches, Fiber
- Used as energy, energy storage
- Cells break down carbs and release the energy
Simple Carbs = table sugar (few sugar molecules)
Complex Carbs = starch (many sugar molecules)
PROTEINS
- Proteins build and repair body structures and to regulate body processes
- Proteins called ENZYMES help chemical processes happen in cells
NUCLEIC ACIDS
- A molecule that carries information in cells
- DNA = nucleic acids
Protect & Support
- Every cell is surrounded by a membrane that protects what comes in and leaves the cell...
Delivering Nutrients
Delivering Oxygen
Homeostasis & Cell Processes
Homeostasis - the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment
Levels of Cellular Organization
Organism
- living thing that can carry out life processes by itself
Unicellular organisms
- made of one cell
Multicellular Organisms
- made up of more than one cell
Cells
Multicellular organisms = larger size and longer life span
Cells in multicellular organisms are specialized for a certain function but depend on one another to help the organism survive
Into Tissues
Tissue
- group of similar cells that perform the same function
4 basic Tissue Types:
nervous, epithelial, connective and muscle
NERVOUS
EPITHELIAL
protective and forms boundaries, such as skin
CONNECTIVE
Includes bones and blood
Holds parts of the body together
Provides support and nourishment to organs
MUSCLE
Helps in movements
Very dense, long and strong
PLANT TISSUE
3 types:
Transport
Protective
Ground
moves water and nutrients through the plant
protect the outside of the plant
provides internal support and storage and absorbs light energy to make food in photosynthesis
Into Organs
Organ = a structure made up of a collection of tissues that carries out a specialized function
Different types of tissues work together to accomplish a function
Plants have organs!
Leaf - contains protective tissue, ground tissue and transport tissue which then form organs.
Organ Systems
A GROUP of organs that work together to perform body functions
The stomach is an organ that works with other organs of the digestive system to digest & absorb nutrients from food.
Structure & Function
Cells, tissues, organs & organ systems make up the structure of multicellular organisms
STRUCTURE
= how it is put together
FUNCTION
= determined by the structure; it's the purpose of the cell, tissue, organ or system.
Structure Determines Function
Cells, tissues, and organs vary in structure
A lung differs in structure from the stomach and therefore they have different functions.
A group of specialized cells in the lung help to increase surface area and let enough oxygen and carbon dioxide get between the lungs and blood
What tasks do systems perform to meet the needs of cells?
Multicellular organisms have several different specialized cells that perform specific functions and work together to fulfill the needs of the organism.
cells
tissues
organs
organ systems
Functions as a messaging system within the body
Many connecting fibers/tendons for optimal communication
Removing Wastes
ensures all cells can carry out the tasks in a changing environment
Example: Body temperature
Balance In Organisms
Multicellular organisms have cells that work together to maintain homeostasis
How do cells get energy?
Photosynthesis
- plants use sunlight to change carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen
occurs in chloroplasts
Cellular Respiration

- cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
How Do Cells Divide?
The Cell Cycle
DNA is copied and packaged
The cell splits equally in a process called
MITOSIS
Results in 2 identical cells
How Do Organisms Maintain Homeostasis?
Reptiles bask in the sunlight
Humans shiver to produce heat
Trees lose their leaves to reduce water loss during the winter
How do cells in an organism function?
Obtaining energy
Creating their own food
(producers)
like an Oak Tree
Eating other nutrients
(Humans)
Cells Get Energy From Food
Cells of all living things need energy
Energy can be used or stored
Breaking down dead organisms or waste
(decomposers)
How do plants make food?
Photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O ------> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Chlorophyll
- green pigment in chloroplasts
Storing Chemical Energy
Glucose stores energy; stored as starches in roots and stems
Break down proteins to form amino acids
Example: Your brain is an organ; so is your tongue
Why do skin cells rapidly undergo mitosis?
Not all cells need oxygen
Tasks Needed to Support Cell Life
These tasks are performed by ALL cells despite their specific functions
bacteria
Movement of Material In & Out of the Cell
Three methods:
Diffusion-
movement of molecules from area of high concentration to low concentration.
movement of water through a membrane by diffusion
movement of molecules through cell membrane requiring energy
Osmosis-
Active Transport-
Diffusion
Osmosis
Active Transport
Movement of materials from low to high concentrations
Requires energy to move particles against the way they want to go.
When cell becomes too large it divides in a process of cell division.
Cell Growth & Division in
Multi vs. Single Cell
cell growth leads to division
cell division = more cells = larger organism
more cells = larger organism
ex: infant to toddler
cell specialization
Single cell-
cell growth increases cell size
limited to cell growth; no division
Multicellular-
Cell Specialization in Multicellular Organisms
How come cells in multicellular organisms can specialize to perform specific tasks?
LOTS OF CELLS
Cell Reproduction
Passing on of genetic material by parent cell(s)
Required for species survival
Two Types:
Asexual-
Sexual-
one parent cell.
results in identical cell.
two parent cells.
results in cell with a combination of characteristics from both parent cells.
Sexual Reproduction
Happens in both plants and animals
Offspring is NOT identical to parents
May result in advantages for survival
May result in disadvantages
Advantageous features survive in future generations
Require 2 sets of genetic material
Both sets of genetics represented
Asexual Reproduction
Only one parent required
Offspring has identical DNA
Can of produce large # of offspring
Can take advantage of "good" conditions
At disadvantage if conditions change
Bad if genetic defect
Cloning is an example
Reproduction Comparison
Ex: Potato Buds, Star Fish, Bacteria
Characteristics of Life
Have cells
Use energy
Grow and reproduce
Respond to their surroundings
Maintain a stable internal environment

Features of ALL Organisms
Light Makes it Happen
Light provides the energy to combine carbon and hydrogen from water and carbon dioxide into a larger (higher energy) molecule (glucose).
Plants store the glucose and use it for growth.
Extra is stored in roots, stems, and leaves.
ex: carrots, potatoes, fruits, beans and more.
Carbohydrates & Energy
Glucose is a carbohydrate
Carbohydrates are used to make larger higher energy molecules (lipids, and proteins) with the use of minerals from soil.
These molecules are used when needed to help growth, structure, and reproduction.

What do plants do at night without the sun?
Binary Fission- Eventually the parent cell will pinch apart to form two identical daughter cells.
Multiple fission- A multinucleated cell can divide to form more than one daughter cell.
many cells in close proximity forming a boundary
All specialized cells form from a "stem" cell
organelles
organism
Ex:
This is called selectively permeable
Hypertonic- High solute concentration outside cell
Hypotonic- Low solute concentration outside cell
Isotonic- Equal concentration inside and outside.
Movement of water from low solute to high solute concentrations
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