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Italian Unification 1815-1870
Transcript of Italian Unification 1815-1870
Sicily, Naples, Piedmont
Revolutions in 1830-31
France and Italy (Modena, Parma, Papal States)
France and Italy
Italian Unification 1815-1870
Historical Significance: factors of unification
"For a road map of the Risorgimento, we need to consider that the unitary system that emerged by 1861 was a product of a conscious choice - that is other constitutional alternatives were rejected or were no longer feasible..." (Filippo Sabetti)
General Guglielmo Pepe
and about 30
Sure you can have a constitution... no wait, bad idea... no constitution for you
in Palermo (Neapolitan governor heads home...)
Hey Metternich can you put this
Does my hair look like a small baby lamb? Yeah! I can put that down!
King Victor Emmanuel I
abdicates in Turin after popular uprising and military mutiny
Meanwhile... back in Piedmont (Sardinia),
(second in line to the throne in Turin
after V.Emmanual I) grant a constitution. But Charles
(first in line) scares off C.Albert and defeats the Turin liberals at Novara in 1821 with Metternich's help.
July 26-29 Trois glorieuses
days of revolution against
the regime of Charles X (Bourbon)
Louis Philippe (House of Orleans)
Duke Francis IV (Modena) and Duchess Marie-Louise (Parma) both appeal to Austrian help in putting down the rebels inspired by Enrico Misely....
As for the Papal States, the "Government of the Italian Provinces" based in Bologna was squashed by Metternich and the Austrians again (1831)
Xenophobia is dumb but nations are
definitely the future... we need a unified, republican Italy at best or a least one with friendly nationalist monarchs so we can end poverty and provide education for everyone - even women
Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872)
Founds Young Italy 1831
Calls on Charles Albert to lead revolt
Exile to London 1837
President of Roman Republic 1848-49
Exile again, death in Italy
Inspires Giuseppe Garibaldi
90 % agrarian, peasant economy
Piedmont and Tuscany call of customs union with the Papal States
Crop failures 1846-1847
Revolt begins in Sicily (cholera outbreak)
I guess some reform is okay...
I'm concerned about this liberalism and nationalism
Sicily: independence from Naples is fine, thanks... whatever with "Italy"
Five Days in Milan
17-22 March 1848
Tobacco and lottery boycott (revenues)
Austria retreats into Venezia but defeats Charles Albert in 1849
Italia fara da se
Revolt in Vienna 1848
Louis Napoleon 1848...
Napoleon III 1851
Charles Albert takes back throne
in Piedmont in 1931 (Felix dead)
Early repression leads to liberal concessions and constitution (
Revolutionaries in Austrian Lombardy, Naples, Sicily, Venetia (San Marco) call for unified revolt against Austria
1849 (on false assurances that Louis Napoleon (a.k.a Napoleon III) would help him out
Victor Emmanuel II
Call me King Bomba
Republic of San Marco
Pope Pius IX rejects war on Austria
His chief minister, Count Pellegrina Rossi is murdured and riots force the Pope to flee to Naples (Nov. 1848)
Mazzini and Garibaldi set up the Roman Republic but France doesn't back it up
The French siege forces Garibaldi to march off to the coast hoping to reach the Republic of San Marco in Venice but this, too, is taken back by Austria
Roman Republic (Feb 1849 - June 1849)
1821 Victor Emmanuel I abdicates
1831 Charles Felix replaced
by Charles Albert
1849 Victor Emmanuel II (!)
Railways are great
1852 PM in V. Emmanuel II's Piedmont
1855 Send troops with Britain / France in Crimea
1856 Sat with Great Powers in Paris
1858 Met secretly with Napoleon III in Plombières
Nice, Savoy traded for victory and Lombardy (Milan)
1859 (April 29) Austria declares war
June 4 Magenta
June 24 Solferino
Napoleon III signs peace at Villafranca and Cavour resigns
Cavour returns and Tuscany, Modena, Parma, Romagna unite with Piedmont after vote in 1860
Overwhelming votes in favour of union w/ France in Savoy, Nice
1807 b. Nice
1831 Met Mazzini
1848 Returns from S.America to support the Republic of Rome
1849 Republic fell: exile again (USA) then farm on Caprera Isle
1859 Piedmont supports Victor Emmanuel II
May 11 Sicily
Oct 26 Met V.Emm in Teano
Nov 7 March into Naples
Garibaldi had been planning to blow up
ballot boxes in Nice in 1860 but was diverted from this plan to invade Sicily following the uprising in Palermo!
The "Garibaldini" went from 1200 to about 60 000 at the end of 1860!
1862 Attempt to take Rome from French fails and tries again in 1867 (fail #2)
Catholics will love me!