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ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

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Cesska Catral

on 14 September 2014

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Transcript of ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE
WHAT IS ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE?
Islamic Architecture encompasses both secular and religious buildings from the beginning of Islam to present day, influencing the design and construction of structures within the sphere of Islamic Culture.
The Basic Principles of Islamic Architecture
The Concept of Space
: Sacred vs. Profane; Permanent vs. Temporal
Concept of Man on Earth
: life cycle of a grave
Geometric Drivers
: patterns in nature and sufi elements incorporated in the design
Environmental Constraints
: forms address climate and follow function or vice versa
Elements of Style
Large domes
Minarets
Large courtyard often merged with a central praying hall
Arabesque
Use of Arabic calligraphy
Use of symmetry and Ablution Fountain
Mihrabs in the Mosques to indicate the direction of Mecca
Use of bright colour
Focus on interior space rather than exterior.
How did it begin?
By
following the tradition
of the Prophet Mohammed: building a mosque when they begin occupying a settlement.
By
transforming buildings
used by the people before the Muslims took over the state/country. (Eg. The Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey)
Interpretation of Islamic Style
The concept of
Allah's infinite power
is the main theme considered by Islamic Architecture.
Islamic Architecture can best be interpreted through thorough analysis of the various
styles
and
influences
that affect it.
Styles Influencing Islamic Architecture
1. Persian-Isfahan
Early Islamic architects borrowed and adopted the traditions and ways of the fallen Persian Empire.
Persian architecture may be considered the heaviest influence to Islamic Architecture.

Characteristics:
Tapered brick pillars
Large arcades
2. Moorish-Alhambra
Great Mosque, Cordoba (785 AD)

Peak of design: Alhambra, Granada

This style has a lasting impact on modern Spanish architecture.

Characteristics:
Foliage motifs
Arches
Glazed tile work
Central fountain (adapted in Islam as the Ablution fountain)
3. Turkistan-Samarkand
Erected by Timur

Samarkand, Herat, Meshed, Kazakhstan

Derived from Persian Influence

Gave rise to Mughal design

Characteristics:
Axial symmetry
Double domes
Brilliant exterior colours
4. Ottoman-Istanbul
Byzantine, Persian and Syrian influence

Vast inner spaces covered by seemingly weightless but massive domes.

Vaults, domes, semi-domes and columns

Great architect:
Mimar Sinan

Noteworthy architecture:
Suleiman Mosque
5. Fatimid and Mamluk (Cairo)
FATAMID
A great influence in Turkistan.
Famous Buildings
Al-Azhar Mosque
Al-Azhar University
Al-Hakim Mosque
Al-Jame-al-Aqmer

MAMLUK
Patrons of the arts: their art and architecture are considered to be at the peak.
6. Indo-Islamic (Mughal)
A fusion of Persian, Arabic and Hindu

They use marble, and precious/semiprecious stones

Exhibits power and influence over the region

Famous Buildings
Shalimar Gardens
Delhi Fort
Badshahi Masjid
Taj Mahal
7. Sino-Islamic
The first Mosque in China was the Grand Mosque of Xi'an

Architecture follows traditional Chinese forms; the buildings are highly symmetrical but the gardens are asymmetrical

Wood and concrete blocks are predominantly used
8. Afro-Islamic
Famous structures in Africa:
Grand Mosque of D'jenné
Cairo Citadel
Sankore Mosque

This style was highly influenced by Muslim merchants present in the region.
A presentation by CATRAL, BACAOAT, DOMINGUEZ, BOAGING, and REYES
BSAr HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE III 1:00-2:00TThS

ISLAMIC BUILDING TYPES
Mosques
The most notable type of building in Islamic Architecture.
Originally, this was a large open area where the faithful would gather.
The original Mosque was the courtyard of Mohammed's house in Medina.
KEY FEATURES: MOSQUE
The Courtyard (Sehan)
Descendant of the Basilica's Atrium and the Egyptian temple court, the courtyard remains a key feature of Mosques today.
Pictured:
Courtyard of the Delhi Mosque
Ablution Fountain
Located within the courtyard, the Ablution Fountain is where the worshipper symbolically washes before prayer.
Pictured:
Ablution
Fountain
of the
Umayyad
Mosque
Mihrab and Qibla
The Mihrab, or prayer niche, indicates the Qibla, the direction of Mecca, which the faithful must face when praying.
Pictured:
Mihrab and Qibla of the Madrassa Mausoleum Mosque
Mimbar (Pulpit)
Sermons are delivered by the priest who stands before the worshippers at the Mimbar. This Pulpit serves as a podium.
Pictured:
Mimbar of the Abu Dhabi Mosque
Minaret
The tower from which the Muezzin call the faithful to prayer
Originally, before the Minaret, this call was made from the main roof of the Mosque
Minarets were developed from Christian bell towers
Pictured:
Minaret
of the
Central
Almaty
Mosque
OTHER BUILDING TYPES
Madrassa (School)
The social obligations within the religion later led to the addition of Madrassas.
Pictured:
Ulugbek Madrassa in Bukhara
Tombs
Muslims distinguish five types of burial sites:
Gumu
: for Islamic scholars and historic figures
Gongbei (Qubba)
: for the Jiaozhu (leader) of an Islamic menhuan (sufi order)
Mazha
: Sufi tombs in Xinjiang
Huimingongmu
: Muslim graveyards
Muslims are buried with the head of the deceased oriented to the north, with the face turned to the right in the direction of Mecca.
Pictured:
Humayun's Tomb in Delhi, India
Palaces
Where the Jiaozhu (leaders) and their families reside. Caliphs as living quarters, reception halls, and baths, and were decorated to promote an image of royal luxury.
Pictured:
Aljafería Palace in Zaragoza, Spain
Forts
Fortified castles which served as military facilities or prisons.
Pictured:
Arad Fort in Bahrain
OTHER BUILDING TYPES
Islamic Homes:
Muslim houses are still heavily decorated in accordance with other structures implying their beliefs.
Islamic Hospitals:
Muslims built Hospitals to receive and treat patients. Hospitals are divided into two departments: inpatient and outpatient.
Pictured:
A hospital doubling as a Madrassa in Damascus
The Spread of Islam
Expansion by:
Creation (632 to 750 AD)
Trade (750 to 1500 AD)
Migration (1500 to present)

Influences on Islamic Architecture
RELIGIOUS INFLUENCES
The basic tenet of Islam is subsumed in the declaration:
"There is no God but Allah and Mohammed is his Prophet"
The Muslim's reverent faith in Allah is the biggest influence on their Architectural Design and innovations
Mohammed received
revelations
which, to Muslims, represent
the word of Allah
The word
"Islam"
literally means
"to submit"
or
"to surrender"
. Muslims submit and surrender their will and desires to the will and the laws of the Creator. This is what "Islam" truly means. By referring to,
"The Creator"
, Muslims are talking about
"Allah."
Pictured:
Muslim peoples in worship.
Kaaba
is the
Qibla
i.e. the direction Muslims face during their prayers. It is important to note that though Muslims face the Kaaba during prayers, they do not worship the Kaaba. Muslims worship and bow to none but Allah.
GEOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCES
Mohammed (the "prophet") first traveled to the
Arabian cities of the Roman empire
to begin laying out the framework for Islam
Islam originated in the
holy cities
of
Mecca
and
Medina
, from which it spread throughout the Middle East
Westernmost extent:
Eastern Europe (Bosnia-Hercequinff; Albania)
Easternmost extent:
Indonesia (world's largest Muslim nation)
Northernmost extent:
Turkestan region of Eurasia/Central Asia, including Kazakhstan and etc.
Southernmost extent:
East and Central Africa (Tanzania, including the island of Zandibar)
GEOLOGICAL INFLUENCES
Despite the arid environment, Muslim builders developed a very sophisticated system of
building in stone
with highlights in
ceramic tiles
,
gypsum plaster
,
glass
and
metal works
Primary building elements were
brick
and
masonry
Roof construction was of
timber
, laid as pole joisting with
brushwood
and
palm frond
covering finished in
mud
Pictured:
Mud Mosque at Djenne in Mali. Here, the palm wood beams extend out in order to support scaffolding for workers who annually plaster the Mosque's surface
CLIMATIC INFLUENCES
Excessive sunshine
in the desert regions gave importance to the construction of wide eaves and sheltering arcades with window openings kept to a minimum
As Islam spread, its art forms developed and were modified by the different climatic conditions. The climate was, however, largely
arid
Pictured:
A mosque in Oman. Notice the lack of window openings and the use of thick concrete blocks to keep the harsh environment out.
CULTURAL INFLUENCES
Islamic social life is centered in the
Mosque
, which, other than being a place of
prostration
, may have
attached facilities
like a
school (Madrassa)
,
hospice
,
lodging house
and etc.
The precepts governing the lives of Muslim imply requirements for buildings peculiar to its believers
The
Annual Pilgrimage (Hajj)
brings the faithful from all parts of the Muslim world to Mecca. This added a large consideration of
unity
in Islamic Architectural style
Laws
are extracted from the
Prophet's Instruction
,
tradition
and
example
Islamic faith
produced a way of life and a set of attitudes which has great effect and influence on their architecture
Pictured:
The Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan. The Mosque was designed to include schools for all four Sunni schools of thought (Shafi'i, Maliki, Hanafi, Hanbali)
HISTORICAL INFLUENCES
In 622 AD, Mohammed migrated to Yatrib (now known as Medina). There, a community of believers, who accepted Islam, prayed in the
compound of the Holy Prophet's house
The compound was in a simple setting:
"an enclosed oblong courtyard with huts; along one side, a wall and a rough portico (the zulla, originally for shade) at one end for the followers"
Modern mosques are derived from this compound
Pictured:
The Prophet's house compound in Medina as it is today
ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER
Islamic buildings are fundamentally related to a
principal axis (Quibla/Kibla)
The general concept was derived from the
line of balance and symmetry
implicit in the concept of
perfect creation
The Mosque is removed from the immediate impact of wordly affairs---inside, there is no positive object of attention or adoration
The use of the human form was discouraged. Instead, Muslim designers used
Arabic calligraphy
and
geometric interlacement
The concept of
Allah's infinite power
is evoked by design with
repetitive theme suggesting "infinity"
The use of
calligraphy
is actually
a means of education and reminder
as they take from
the verses of Al-Quran
It has been called
"Architecture of the Veil"
because the
beauty lies in the inner spaces
not visible from the outside
Use of
impressive forms
such as large domes, towering minarets and spacious courtyard has
symbolic meaning and scientific purpose
Pictured:
An Islamic Garden. Notice the use of a repetitive pattern to suggest "infinity"
BEST EXAMPLES OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE
TAJ MAHAL
A white marble mausoleum in Agra, Uttar Pradesh,
India
Built by Mugal Emperor
Shah Jahan
in memory of his third wife,
Mumtaz Mahal
Recognized as the
"jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage"
Built from
1632-1653
Pictured:
the Taj Mahal.
Incorporates the designs and traditions of
Mughal and Persian Architecture
(since Shah Jahan was a Mughal Emperor and Mumtaz Mahal was a Persian Princess)
The Taj Mahal drew inspiration from:
Gur-e Amir (Samarkand), Humayun's Tomb, Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb (also known as the Baby Taj), Shah Jahan's Jama Masjid in Delhi
The use of
white marble inlaid with semiprecious stones
was preferred over traditional red sandstone
DOME OF THE ROCK
"Qubbat-As-Sakhrah"
A
shrine
located on the
Temple Mount
in the
Old City of Jerusalem
One of the oldest works of Islamic Architecture
Jerusalem's most recognizable landmark
The rock at the heart of the temple, called the
Foundation Stone
, is greatly significant to Jews, Christians, and Muslims
Pictured:
the Dome of the Rock
The octagonal plan of the structure was influenced by the
Byzantine Chapel of St. Mary (Kathisma/al-Qadismu)
The rock is supposedly the spot from which
Mohammed ascended to Heaven
accompanied by the angel
Gabriel
. It is also believed that Gabriel brought Mohammed here to
pray with Abraham, Moses, and Jesus
Other Islamic scholars believe Mohammed ascended from the
Al-Aqsa Mosque
Construction was completed in 691 CE
HAGIA SOPHIA
Formerly a
Greek Orthodox patriarchal basilica
, later an
Imperial Mosque
, now a
museum (Ayasofya Müzesi)
in Istanbul, Turkey
The building was a Mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1931
It was opened as a museum on 1 February 1935
In 1453, Ottoman
Sultan Mehmed II
ordered the conversion of the church into a Mosque
Pictured:
the Hagia Sophia
Was the Principal Mosque of Istanbul until 1616
Served as the
inspiration
for many other Ottoman Mosques such as
the Blue Mosque, the Şehzade Mosque, the Süleymaniye Mosque, the Rüstem Pasha Mosque,
and
the Kılıç Ali Paşa Mosque
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