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IDS Project 2

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Max Humberstone

on 25 February 2015

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Transcript of IDS Project 2

So we went back to our original scenario list and had a think....
Task Constraints
keeping food warm
size must be appropriate for the environment
have to compact all the power sources into a small enough space to still fit in the canoe
must be comfortable to hold/ transport
Summary of findings
The product needs to be made
firmly attachable to the canoe/kayak for several reasons: 1) Safety
2) Function Preservation
3) Practicality

If the product is containing hot/heated food, then keeping the contents away from the user when unwanted is paramount to the safety of the user.
The product may be liable to breaking open if it is being subjected to harsh conditions with no anchoring to a surface to provide stability.
If this criteria inst met, there is a high possibility of burns/ injury to the user.
Function preservation:

Again, if the products is not
anchored then it is liable to breaking open.
this not only poses a threat to the user,
but will also immediately end the products lifespan.

An important aspect of being user friendly and also a point we found from our primary research from the AU club, is that the user wants to forget about the product until they are ready for food.
in practice,. this means storing it in a safe and practical, and accessible place until they are ready for food.
The energy needed to bring 300ml of 10c water to boiling point (100c):

Specific heat of water is 4.179 J/gC. 300g water, 90C temp difference.
4.179 x 300 x 90 =

Amount of energy given by turbine:

Assuming we have an opening of 10cm to capture water and the user traveling at 1m/s:

Area of intake is pi x r2 or 3.14 x .05 x .05 m2 = .00785m2.
The volume of water flowing per second is .00785m3.
kinetic energy is 1/2 m v2. 0.5 x 7850grams x 12 = 3925J, which flows per second, so 3925J/s or 4kJ/s.

Energy required:113kJ Power generated 4kJ/s
Time required: ~30s
Heat Source

Exo/ Endothermic
Harvesting energy
will be key to producing heat
in order to give our device a
viable function
to fit the brief....
Source: "Energy Sources: Solar". Department of Energy.
Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic cells convert light into electric current using the photovoltaic effect.
In practice, for this to be utilized on our product the solar panels used would be vastly smaller than those used in large solar fields.

Unless we placed them on the body/ oars of the kayak.
Solar energy output:
-We need to generate around 113kJ
of energy to boil water from 10 degrees
starting point.

-With a hand held solar panel (22x16 cm) it
would take around 3 hours in direct
sunlight to reach this activation level.
In a similar way that yachts utilize wind turbines, one option would be to explore the possibility of incorporating one of these into out product.

The turbine would be connected to a generator which would then supply energy to our product.
An example propeller would generate double the energy needed, without the unreliability of the solar panels.

This would be 12v being sustained by a speed of around 2m/s
With the product being surrounded by a water environment, it would make sense to utilize the flow of water to generate power for heat device via a turbine.

In basic terms; water would turn a turbine which would generate energy that is stored in a generator. this generator in turn would then power the device.
This method would also be more reliable than the solar panels, and more efficient than the wind turbine.
A further option is to utilize the human power of the rowing to charge the device.

the kinetic energy would need to be harvested by addidng a device to the oars in order to convert the kinetic energy into electrical power.
We found this to be not viable as it would constrain the users movement too much and also be unaesthetic.

Furthermore the device would then be highly unportable and not improve the overall experience.
Exothermic reactions will be our
required reaction as we are looking to
give out energy from a power source in
the form of heat.

This in turn will heat the water (acting as a conductor) which will then heat our food.
Mg + 2H2O → Mg(OH)2 + H2 [+ heat]
U.S. Patent 5,611,329 uses a powdered magnesium-iron alloy, consisting of 95% magnesium and 5% iron by weight, and discloses a heater consisting of 7.5 grams of this alloy, and 0.5 grams of salt. Upon adding 30 milliliters of water, this mixture can heat a 230 gram meal packet by 100 F in about 10 minutes, releasing approximately 50 kilojoules of heat energy at about 80 watts.
The ration heater contains finely powdered magnesium metal, alloyed with a small amount of iron, and table salt. To activate the reaction, a small amount of water is added, and the boiling point of water is quickly reached as the reaction proceeds

Brain, Marshall (15 April 2003). "How MREs Work". Howstuffworks. Retrieved 2014-09-12.
'BMW i is a comprehensive and ground-breaking concept for sustainable mobility. It represents visionary electric vehicles and mobility services, inspiring design and a new understanding of premium that is strongly defined by sustainability. And it thrills with its innovative vehicles: the all-electric BMW i3, a locally emission-free car for city driving that is sustainably designed throughout, and the BMW i8 as the most progressive sports car
Kayak / Canoeing Trips

Max Humberstone, Sam Dempsey, Oliver Campion, Jack Bartlett.
KEYWORDS: Streamlined, Organic,
Future, Green, Smooth, Contoured,
Design Brief
'Design an outdoor eating device that delights the user and enhances
the eating experience
on location'....

We chose water as we felt this environment had not been explored fully. Therefore provided scope for new innovative cooking and eating experiences.
We chose BMWi as a brand with an aim to use new technologies to produce an innovative product. We also found the organic styling used by BMWi fit with our environment.
Possible target user
-Competitive sailing
-Leisure cruising
-Jet skiing


Ellen Mcarther MBE
We have chosen
to explore

Interview with
From the interview with Colin we have found that...
Activities within Kayaking and canoeing...
BMWi Brand Research
Kayak / Canoeing Trips
Companies providing these trips
Interview with AU Canoe Club
Typical itinerary for these trips

Most common form of competitive sailing.

Involves boats racing around a course.
Fleet racing can be either 'one-design' or 'handicap'.

One design racing, as at the Olympic Sailing Competition means that boats racing against each other are all the same - the same design, the same sail area etc.

Handicap racing means different types of boat can race against each other. Each boat has a handicap or rating so that their finish times can be adjusted or their start time determined so that the slowest boats go first.

Can be any length of time with several taking place in a day or as a round the world race such as the Volvo Ocean Race.
cky tours
offer family based tours in and
around windsor
- short; usually around two hours
-need for food?


Consists of two identical boats racing against each other. This is a one-on-one duel of strategy and tactics and the objective is simple - to be the first to cross the finish line.

Each race takes approximately 20 minutes to complete.

A match race begins four minutes before the starting time when each boat must enter the starting area from opposite ends of the start line. As soon as they enter the starting area they will engage in a pre-start battle as each one tries to gain an avantage over the other. They will both be trying to cause the other boat to infringe a rule and so receive a penalty or to simply get the most advantageous position on the starting line for themselves so they are in control of the race.


The format of match racing events varies depending on the number of competitors and the choice of the organizers.

A common format for a match racing event is to sail a round robin where each team sails against everyone else followed by knock out stages which ultimately end in the final to decide first and second and a petit-final to decide third and fourth. There will often be a fifth to eighth place sail off to decide those positions.

With each match lasting approximately 20 minutes there are a lot of matches to make up an event. The race committee will organize the matches into flights. A flight is where one pair of boats start racing and ?? minutes later another pair will start their match on the same course area. There will often be four matches in one flight.

Most match racing events use equipment that is supplied by the event organizers and they will ensure they are as equal as possible. In order to ensure fair play, a random draw is conducted to decide which team sails in which boat each day and during a round robin stage the crews will swap boats between their pairings after each odd numbered match.
Murray river tours; Australia
- More of an adventure based company.
-aimed more at traveling 20-30's as well as families.
-suggests 2 day trips involving camping along the river
-food would be necessary.
Encounter Cornwall:
-Also aimed at families as well
as younger tourists.
-Offers a range of packages
from 2 hour trips to full day trips.
Consists of two teams each of three boats competing against each other. It is a fast paced racing style which depends on excellent boat handling skills and rapid tactical decision making.

The teams will race to try and achieve a winning combination of places - the lowest score wins. The scoring system is 1 for first place, 2 for second and so on. If one boat in the team wins the race they are not guaranteed glory as their combined score must be ten or less to win - 2,3,5 = 10 points v 1,4,6 = 11 points

If a team is lying in 1,4,6 then the boat in first place will go back and try to help his team mates through to 2,3,5 or better. How does he do this?

A team racer has two main weapons. Firstly, he can position his boat between the wind and his opponent, thus blanketing his sails and slowing him down. Secondly he can use the right of way rules to his advantage, approaching his opponent in such as way that his adversary has to change course or incur a penalty. Both these weapons are deployed before the start when the manoeuvres begin, with all six boats performing an intricate and aggressive dance to try and gain the advantage.


The ISAF Team Racing World Championship uses a standard format of racing in two person dinghies with three boats in a team.

The boats are usually supplied by the event organizers who try to ensure they are as evenly matched as possible.

Many clubs begin team racing using a pairs format whereby two teams of two boats each are racing. The rules are simple as the team whose boat finishes last loses.
Some of the shorter trips don't have set
itineraries as they are relaxed about the short use of their equipment....kinda like renting a pedalo at the beach
But we did find useful
information about
equipment/ food provided
The longer trips (over a day) also don't
specify too much. They suggest campsites
for night and times to drop back
the equipment to the start point
We got the impression they just want to let you get on with it....

Defined as any offshore race over 800 miles.

The differences between the types of oceanic and offshore racing, ranging from trans-oceanic racing to short-course day races sailed in protected waters, are reflected in the six categories of the ISAF Offshore Special Regulations which provide for the differences in the minimum standards of safety and accommodation.


ISAF sanctions the ISAF Offshore Team World Championship, a bi-annual event which since it's inception has been sailed using the following boat classes: Farr 40, Swan 45, TP52 and IMS handicap rule.

A national or regional team enters a boat in each of three fleets and their combined results are used to determine the winners. The Championship has been held in 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010 hosted by the Yacht Club Costa Smeralda.
The cornwall trips just suggested 'snacks and drinks' for the short trips

Whatever your background, sailing is a versatile sport that can accommodate many types of disability.

Almost any boat can be sailed by people with disabilities although it is clear that some are more suitable than others.

In 1996 sailing was included on the programme of the Paralympic Games as a demonstration event and it has been full medal sport since then. It is one of the only sports in the Paralympic Games in which athletes of any disability compete together.
After we looked at what existing companies offered there was still some information we needed to find out...

Possible legislation constraints:

-littering (used food bags)
-disposal of chemicals
(possible heat source)
-International waters may have
different laws
-WEEE directive applies to leisure and sports equipment too. Must meet requirements:
Recovery 70-80% by weight
Reuse and recycling 50-80%
Safe disposal
of waste food:
Avoid chemicals:
Limit packaging:
Littering Legislation:
Eat big meals early.
You should aim to have a larger meal around three to four hours before competing, smaller snacks around one to two hours before, and move to liquids under an hour before competing.
Food is only useful once it has been digested and absorbed and the nutrients have entered the blood stream ready for uptake by the muscles as a fuel source.
Hence by having the larger meals earlier you give the body time to turn it into available fuel. A larger meal obviously also takes longer to digest than a smaller meal.
Longer race strategy.
Always keep in mind that you will perform better over a longer race or series of races by being well-fuelled and hydrated rather than on the short term adrenal energy that is a response to this nervous condition.
The best option here is to use liquid meals such as sports drink or a home made smoothie. These may be easier for the stomach to tolerate over solid foods.
Solid food options may be cereal, yogurt, nuts or fruit eaten slowly over a longer period to keep the volume of food small.
'How does your life on the water differ from your existence on land?'


It's different in every respect. There is not the slightest similarity. On the water there's no 24-hour rhythm. No day is like any other, and you never know beforehand what the day will be like. Everything is about survival: you sleep when the weather lets you, you eat because you have to. Eating on board is never a pleasure. Even when I'm hungry, I don't have any appetite for anything specific. I mix the freeze-dried food with hot water from the desalination system and eat it to fill me up. On board I don't need to be a cook.
SPIEGEL Interview With Sailing Great Ellen MacArthur March 06, 2005



'NIKE, Inc. fosters a culture of invention. We create products, services and experiences for today’s athlete while solving problems for the next generation'

Nike uses the emotional branding style to depict heroism and inspire incredible customer loyalty.

You are the hero, and your lazy side is the villain.

Inspiring people to be active.
We felt BMWi may be not be the best brand direction for our new target user group .......
therefore we decided to choose
The Meal, Ready-to-Eat – commonly known as the MRE – is a self-contained, individual field ration in lightweight packaging bought by the United States military for its service members for use in combat or other field conditions where organized food facilities are not available.

Mason, V.C., Meyer, A.V., and Klicka, M.V., Summary of Operational Rations, Natick, MA: U.S. Army Natick Research & Development Laboratory Technical Report TR-82/013 (June 1982)
Each meal provides about 1,200 Calories (1,200 kcal or 5,000 kJ).
Peggy Milhelich (2007-09-13). "Grub, chow, mystery meat – combat food 2.0". CNN.com. Retrieved 2007-09-14.
Each MRE weighs 510 to 740 grams (18 to 26 oz), depending on the menu.

The use of rations for noncombat environments has been questioned.[6] While the nutritional requirements are suitable for a combat environment where servicemembers will burn many calories and lose much sodium through sweat, it has been provided as emergency food or even as a standard meal. The high-fat (averaging about 52 grams of fat, 5 grams trans fats) and high-salt content are less than ideal for sedentary situations.

Martin, Don (February 24, 2008). "Anatomy of an MRE". Neil Gunton. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
Beef Stew (53114)
Servings per Pkg: 2.5
Servings Size: 1 cup
Total Calories: 200
From Fat: 60
Total Fat: 7 grams
Saturated Fat: 1 grams
Transfat Acid: 0 grams
Cholesterol: 20 milligrams
Sodium: 890 milligrams
Carbohydrate: 24 grams
Dietary Fiber: 3 grams
Sugars: 3 grams
Protein: 14 grams
Beef Stroganoff with Noodles (53119)
Servings per Pkg: 2.5
Servings Size: 1 cup
Total Calories: 260
From Fat: 100
Total Fat: 11 grams
Saturated Fat: 4 grams
Transfat Acid: 0 grams
Cholesterol: 45 milligrams
Sodium: 790 milligrams
Carbohydrate: 29 grams
Dietary Fiber: 1 grams
Sugars: 3 grams
Protein: 11 grams
Chicken Teriyaki with Rice (53124)
Servings per Pkg: 2.5
Servings Size: 1 cup
Total Calories: 230
From Fat: 20
Total Fat: 2 grams
Saturated Fat: 0.5 grams
Transfat Acid: 0 grams
Cholesterol: 20 milligrams
Sodium: 700 milligrams
Carbohydrate: 41 grams
Dietary Fiber: 2 grams
Sugars: 13 grams
Protein: 10 grams

Lasagna with Meat Sauce (53127)
Servings per Pkg: 2.5
Servings Size: 1 cup
Total Calories: 250
From Fat: 80
Total Fat: 8 grams
Saturated Fat: 3.5 grams
Transfat Acid: 0 grams
Cholesterol: 25 milligrams
Sodium: 360 milligrams
Carbohydrate: 28 grams
Dietary Fiber: 3 grams
Sugars: 7 grams
Protein: 14 grams

Scrambled Eggs with Ham, Red & Green Peppers (53425)
Servings per Pkg: 2
Servings Size: 2/3 cup
Total Calories: 190
From Fat: 100
Total Fat: 11 grams
Saturated Fat: 3 grams
Transfat Acid: 0 grams
Cholesterol: 315 milligrams
Sodium: 640 milligrams
Carbohydrate: 7 grams
Dietary Fiber: 0 grams
Sugars: 5 grams
Protein: 15 grams

Raspberry Crumble (53541)
Servings per Pkg: 4
Servings Size: 1/2 cup
Total Calories: 150
From Fat: 25
Total Fat: 3 grams
Saturated Fat: 0.5 grams
Transfat Acid: 0 grams
Cholesterol: 0 milligrams
Sodium: 60 milligrams
Carbohydrate: 32 grams
Dietary Fiber: 2 grams
Sugars: 21 grams
Protein: 1 grams

Family size packs
Shipping Weight: 0.79 pounds
Servings: 5
A half day canoe trip would take up to 3 hours. A full day canoe trip would be approximately 4 to 6 or more hours depending on the length of the trip and pace you are paddling.
At a average pace you should be covering around 2.5 miles an hour, and most people find that around 10 to 14 miles in a day is plenty if you haven’t paddled before.
A longer day would be around 18 to 20 miles but some customers who want a real challenge can cover up to 30 miles in a day,
Hoarwithy to Ross, Day 1
Tresseck Campsite, Hoarwithy
Hoarwithy is the start point for your 3 day adventure.
Launch from Tresseck campsite which is a 20 minute drive from our base at Symonds Yat, the 12 mile paddle to Ross is particularly quiet and picturesque with plenty of wildlife and scenery to enjoy.
There is nowhere on route to stop for lunch so you will need to take a packed lunch.
It should take around 4-5 hours to reach Ross and you will know you are getting close when you reach Backney Bridge picnic area.
You can either camp at the Rowing Club or in front of the Riverside Inn or The Hope and Anchor, or B&B at the pubs or guesthouses near the river.

Ross-on-Wye to Symonds Yat, Day 2
Ross-on-Wye - Wye Canoes
After leaving the historic market town of Ross (pic) you will pass under Wilton Bridge and follow the Wye as it meanders down through rolling countryside until you see Goodrich Castle high up on a hill, this will indicate that you have about
30 minutes before you reach Kerne Bridge and your first option for lunch.

3. The remains of another old railway bridge.
After passing under the 3-arch stone bridge of Kerne Bridge (pic below) around the corner there is the old abutment of what was a railway bridge and soon after is the landing point for Kerne Bridge. There is a pub nearby, the Inn on the Wye, which can be accessed by crossing the road from the landing site.
There is accommodation at the Inn on the Wye, so if you wanted to finish your day here, you can do.

Kerne Bridge
Kerne Bridge - Wye Canoes
On the way down from Kerne Bridge to Symonds Yat there is one pub in Lower Lydbrook –
The Courtfield Arms just over the road from the landing site
, further into the village there is The Forge Hammer , a short walk into the village.
Lower Lydbrook will be found just after an island in the centre of the river, paddle to the left of the island keeping the island to your right and you will see the village on your left soon after a sign for the Courtfield Arms.

Back to Top
Symonds Yat to Redbrook, Day 3
Symonds Yat Rapids - Wye Canoes
The first thing you will notice at the start of your final day are the rapids (pic) as you leave Symonds Yat, we will give you helmets and a further safety briefing before you go through the rapids and should you be nervous about running the rapids you can either portage them or we can raft boats together for additional stability. After the rapids you will be the carboniferious gorge with steep cliffs on either side and paddle past Biblins youth campsite and under the suspension bridge, then past the Seven Sister viewpoint and Hadnock Island and into Wales. You are just 30 minutes from Monmouth where should you want to you can end your trip but we always advise people if they can to carry on past Monmouth and to continue down river through spectacular scenery and back into England to finish at either Redbrook or Whitebrook.

Monmouth Rowing Club - Wye Canoes
Once you reach Monmouth the landing area is the second set of steps on the right hand side, not the steps in front of the Rowing Club, do not use the steps on the left hand side of the river before the bridge either, these are for Monmouth School only.
There are no pubs close to the river here, but the town is about 10 minutes walk if you wish to take a break and walk into town.
Paddle under the large multi-arched Wye Bridge at Monmouth.

Continuing on from Redbrook
If you are paddling on down from Redbrook you continue to follow the A466 on your left until you reach:
Brockweir Bridge - Wye Canoes
1. There is an option of a get out at Whitebrook rather than paddling on to Brockweir to make the trip from Symonds Yat a little longer, Contact Us for details.
2. Bigsweir Bridge an old wrought iron archway bridge, taking the A466 across the river so it will now be following the river on your right. This was originally a toll bridge and you can see the toll house on your right at the end of the bridge.
3. Brockweir Bridge (pic) – a large flat iron bridge.
4. The landing point is just to the left before the bridge.

NB. The get out at Brockweir is not accessible for trailers and as such not suitable for more than 2 boats, unless you are willing to carry your boats across bridge to main road for collection.

Kayaking with seals at Walvis Bay, Namibia

Canoeing the Danube Delta, Romania

Kayaking around the Maddalena Archipelago, Sardinia

Sea kayaking along the Dalmatian Coast, Croatia

Camping and kayaking in the Summer Isles, Scotland

Canoeing the Ba Be Lakes, Vietnam

Alberta national park, Canada

Material options and requirements
The vacuum flask consists of two flasks, placed one within the other and joined at the neck. The gap between the two flasks is partially evacuated of air, creating a near-vacuum which prevents heat transfer by conduction or convection. Heat transfer by thermal radiation may be minimized by silvering flask surfaces facing the gap but can become problematic if the flask's contents or surroundings are very hot; hence vacuum flasks usually hold contents below the boiling point of water. Most heat transfer occurs through the neck and opening of the flask, where there is no vacuum. Vacuum flasks are usually made of metal, borosilicate glass, foam or plastic and have their opening stoppered with cork or polyethylene plastic. Vacuum flasks are often used as insulated shipping containers.

Soulen, Robert (March 1996). "James Dewar, His Flask and Other Achievements". Physics Today
natural rubber or pvc
These trips last for 3 to 5 nights with some involving camping all nights and some the mixture of lodges and camping
Each morning there is a cooked breakfast, after which we make up packed lunches. When we return from a day out kayaking there will be afternoon tea and freshly baked cakes waiting for us. Sarah, our cook on all Barra based trips, produces wonderful evening meals using local produce from her own croft and from the sea (her husband Neil Paul is a fisherman). We use as much locally-sourced produce as possible, which will vary with the season, therefore keeping food miles low. Sarah is a crofter, gardener and local food enthusiast and a member of the Slow Food Movement.
The standard of food we serve is perhaps the biggest surprise of the week for many people. Invariably it far exceeds expectations. We happily cater for Vegetarians, Vegans, Celiacs and other dietary needs.
A sample of our menu is shown below, typically each day will feature a selection from each column.

where can it
be stored?

To a large degree,
it depends
on exactly the shape and
size of the design....

however, we've shortlisted a few
potential spaces in and
around the canoe/ kayak
The canoe cavity.

We found from our
interviews that
this was where the bulk of
equipment is stored, so this
would be a logical place
to store the product.

out of the way
packed with other equipment- practical to have everything in one space.

if the product is hot it may burn the users legs in the canoe
it is not available to make use of many power sources such as wind, water, or solar.
Method of attachment
for canoe cavity:
Existing product example:
Go pro adhesive pads
'Easily attach your GoPro to curved and flat surfaces with these industrial-strength waterproof adhesive mounts. Can be removed by heating adhesive bond with a hair dryer then peeling off mount. Compatible with a wide variety of curved and flat surfaces Industrial-strength adhesive ensures secure mounting Removable by applying heat to adhesive bond and peeling off mount'
How they work....
'Adhesive mounts, either flat or curved, play a vital role in the applications and abilities of your GoPro camera.
Capable of securing a GoPro to the wings of a plane going at speeds of over 200mph
, shows just how powerful of a tool these adhesive mounts can be. GoPro adhesive mounts utilize
3M’s innovative VHB 4991 adhesive
backing that ensures the mounts stay put, but can be cleanly removed when heat (eg. from a heat gun or hairdryer) is applied. VHB 4991 is a very powerful adhesive that can withstand temperatures of up to 250°F (121°C) and is just as effective in the cold. But, like with many GoPro peripherals, there are some pointers that will help you get the best out of your GoPro when using adhesive mounts'
'One of the main factors is called adsorption. When you spread adhesive, it wets the surface you apply it to. Lots of very weak electrostatic forces between the glue molecules and the molecules in the surface (called van der Waals forces for the physicist Johannes Diderik van der Waals (1837–1923) who discovered them) hold the two things together. For adhesives to work well like this, they have to spread thinly and wet the surfaces very well. There's
no actual chemical bond
between the glue and the surface it's sticking to, just a
huge number of tiny attractive forces
. The glue molecules stick to the surface molecules like millions of
microscopic magnets
NOT a chemical adhesive.
that would: a) melt the surface of the canoe
b) Permanently fix the product

Outer canoe frame

This is an option that hasn't
really been explored in
existing products....
away from user- removes potential for burns etc
allows access to elements for power e.d solar wind water

Exposed- has an increased risk to being knocked/ damaged in certain locations e.g rocky rivers.
Method of attachment for
canoe frame
The 3M adhesive would also be a good choice for this method (provided we overcome the attachment issues)

If the product needs to be attached and detached multiple times in a day,

This may be inefficient/ annoying to the user to have to heat the adhesive and remove it.

Also- if it is in close proximity to the heating elements, the adhesive may fail.
“Innovation is in Nike’s DNA, and sustainability is an integral part of Nike’s design process, We’ve created the MAKING app to empower any designer around the world to make better materials choices in the initial stages of the innovation process to ultimately create products that are better for consumers and better for the planet.”

-Lee Holman, Nike VP of Apparel Design

started in 1964 as a running shoe company and originally named blue ribbon sports.

In 1972 the company name changed to Nike and it adopted the 'swoosh'.

By 1980 they dominated the running shoe market.

Throughout the 80s the company expanded its products designing for a much larger range of sports, resulting in a huge target market.

By the 90's Nike had become known for its innovative and compelling marketing.


Having a single permanent bracket on the side of the canoe, with a 'clip' feature to easily attach/remove the product at the users convenience.
....a possible alternative would be to incorporate a form of strap that connects to product to the outside of the canoe via the inside cavity
Background information
On some level the materials connecting the heat source and the cavity where food is placed will need to have appropriate conducting properties to enable the heat transfer to flow to the food via the heat source.
Once the food is heated, there will need to be two things insured;
a) the food stays hot
b) the user is protected from high temperatures.
This could incorporate the elasticated
bands that run across of the
kayak/ canoe.....
Being in a water based environment for extended
periods of time, the internal components/
cavities need to be protected from water damage
The product will be being transported to and from the
water and so to prevent the user from becoming fatigued
the product will need to as lightweight as possible.
Also, if the product is too heavy it may even start to
impact the buoyancy of the canoe/kayak.
For an outdoors product it is an essential
requirement that the product is hardy/ strong enough to stand up to the various elements. in our case, this means being rigid/ firm enough to withstand standard encounters such as being dropped, knocked, and also be used multiple times.
Heavy focus on 'looking forward'.

Always trying to enhance and improve products.

Experimenting with materials and the manufacturing of products.

Diverse range of materials and colors used in shoes.

Option to create personalized shoes (Nikeid) makes them seem fun and unique.

obvious inspiration taken from forms of the natural/ organic world.

An inevitable part of being in the water is that the product will occasionally be dropped in the water due to human error.
by utilizing buoyant materials and enabling the product to float, it will greatly increase the product lifespan
although in our research we have already specified that users do not want to be dealing with flames in the device, the product still needs to be non flammable as it is around heat and potential combustible substances
High Impact Strength
Vivos® Films delivery system is a patent pending blend of both synthetic and natural ingredients. All the ingredients used in the manufacture of Vivos® Films are food grade ingredients. Due to the unique nature of this formulation, we only share the detailed ingredients under a confidential disclosure agreement.
This film is designed to dissolve in any water temperature. The higher the water temperature, the faster the film will dissolve. For example, in warm to hot water the film will dissolve almost instantly, while it may take about 35 to 40 seconds to dissolve in cold water.
This film will dissolve in any aqueous solution.

For example, water, alcohol, milk, and juices.
This film can be run on various existing converting technologies. Examples include Vertical Form Fill and Seal (VFFS) machines that utilize heat to seal and high speed rotary drum machines that utilize a patent pending MonoSol custom sealing solution.
• Sustainable: Eliminate solid waste from landfill with no primary package to throw away
• Convenient: Time saving for consumers on-the-go
• Portion control: Optimum dosage directly from manufacturer
• Customizable: Ability to deliver multiple products that may be incompatible via
multi-compartment or pouch construction
Mini Trangia Camping Stoves

The Mini Trangia is an ultralight alcohol stove. As with all Trangias it is a beautiful piece of kit perfect for the lone camper. The burner clips into the stand and both nest inside the 0.9L pot. The frying pan can also act as a lid and clips onto the top of the pot to form a single unit. The base of the pot is contoured so that it will not slide around on the pot stand. The supplied burner is the 'standard' brass Trangia model which is common accross the entire Trangia range.

Mini Trangia
Stove with
1 Pan 0.8 litre in aluminium
1 Non-stick lid/frypan, 15 cm
1 Windshield
1 Spirit burner
1 Handle
Weight 330g

Chemical Cooker
The product only comes with enough supplies to cook 5 meals.
The review described the product as bulky and heavy.
Each bag comes with 5 components (not including food bags).
It can only be used with drinking water.
The salt tablet is added to the water, then poured over the heat pads. (Takes 20 minuets to cook).
Was described as a burning smell.
Lots of steam coming from the bag. Bag was too hot to touch.
had to be weary of the steam when opening the bag.
Lots of condensation on the food bag. was also to hot to handle at first.
The reviewer mentioned he burnt himself on the packet.
Unclear on what to do with his rubbish. Was afraid to throw it straight away due to the heat from the cooking.
Beryllium, an alkaline earth metal, has a high elastic modulus, high heat capacity, and low density
, making this rare material appealing for lightweight aerospace applications. However, its usefulness is offset by its brittleness and cost. It is also highly dangerous if inhaled (15% of the population are highly susceptible to Chronic Beryllium Disease, an incurable respiratory disease), so needs careful handling in manufacturing.

Combining aluminum’s excellent specific stiffness and processing characteristics with the lightweight strength of beryllium yields an alloy with high thermal stability and good isotropy in mechanical properties.
Aluminum beryllium alloys display high thermal conductivity, light weight, and high specific stiffness.
This means they are well suited to semi-conductor assemblies, inspection equipment, avionics, and satellites. The dramatic improvement over the properties of raw aluminum means such alloys can be used in mission critical applications: for example, the high modulus-to-density ratio (3.8 times that of pure aluminum) reduces the chance of mechanically induced failure by minimizing flexure.
The product is "heavy and bulky". It only has enough of supplies for 5 meals. It requires 5 different components plus food bags. There are issues with the amount of heat the bag is giving. the product gives off a "burning smell". The food was cooked well but this is not a sustainable product.
Beryllium/Aluminum Composites:
AlBeMet 162
Beryllium 62%/aluminum 38% composite
Lighter than aluminum
Density 78% that of aluminum
Stiffer than aluminum
Young's Modulus 2.8 times stiffer than aluminum
Thermal conductivity
Closer CTE to nickel than beryllium for nickel plated optics
Cost in between aluminum and beryllium
Alternative methods of production e.g. casting, welding
Scope for varying composite percentages

Our product will need to be able to take a considerable amount of impact however not to the extent to that of a commercial airliner.

Aluminum alloys are a good choice because they offer a good impact resistance without being too expensive.

We also have to consider that rubber casing will probably feature around the aluminum casing to offer other properties that aluminum cannot.

Because of this the impact strength will be further increased by the elastic properties of rubber.
A general rule of buoyancy states that the less dense the material is the better its ability to float will be.
one option would be to place a layer of foam in between the rubber and aluminum to create a low density pocket.
The problem with this is that the heat transfer from the aluminum may cause the foam to deteriorate and in turn cause the product to lose its floating properties.
Superhydrophobic coatings can
be made from many different materials:

Manganese Oxide Polystyrene (MnO2/PS)
Zinc Oxide Polystyrene (ZnO/PS) nano-composite
Precipitated Calcium Carbonate
Carbon nano-tube structures
Silica nano-coating
We originally investigated sailing for the following reasons...
1. Some group members had previous experience in recreational sailing
2. The sporting side presented several issues that could be overcome (e.g. ensuring competitors got the right nutrition during their races)
3. The Activity linked well with the BMWi brand and offered scope to investigate and develop an existing brand identity.
We refined our focus and decided to further explore competitive sea racing for the following reasons...
1. long distance racers have specific nutritional need that needs to be met
2. Space is precious on board a competitive racer and felt it offered a starting design issue to be overcome/ investigated
3. We had several sources available to contact would could yield some quality primary research to broaden our research process.
MacArthur is a successful solo
long-distance yachtswoman.
On 7 February 2005 she broke the world record for the fastest solo circumnavigation of the globe, a feat which gained her international renown.
Her aspect on boat living
Australia to New Zealand by Kayak

On November 13 2007 James, Justin and Lot 41 departed Forster, Australia. 62 days later they arrived in New Plymouth New Zealand.

They had kayaked 3318km, braved 10 metre swells, faced howling winds of over 50 knots, endured severe food and sleep deprivation, wasting muscles and adverse winds and currents to become the first kayak expedition across the tasman sea as well as become the longest trans oceanic kayaking expedition undertaken by two expeditioners.
'Cas and Jonesy are two Australian Explorers constantly pushing the boundaries of human endurance.

Most recently, on the 26th January 2012, they made history by completing the longest unsupported polar expedition of all time. In 100 years of polar exploration no-one had EVER walked from the edge of Antarctica to the South Pole and back without assistance. Many had tried, none had succeeded. After 89 gruelling days they made it back to the coast after having skied 2275km with everything they needed to survive in the harshest environment on Earth.

Four years earlier they Crossed the Ditch – paddling 3318km without assistance across the Tasman Sea for another world first. They braved 10 metre swells, howling winds, endured severe food and sleep deprivation and adverse winds and currents'
Although the response was not as detailed as we'd hoped, the YouTube link they sent us of what they used gave us a good understanding of existing products in this market, from a highly experienced source
After we had done some initial research we reflected on whether were still happy with our chosen brand and scenario.....
We realized that what we had so far had infact limited us in the long run; because of these issues:

-Sailing (especially competitive) does not feature the 'eating experiences' very heavily

-The act of eating and cooking food is seen as a process which is necessary, not enjoyable.

-This led us to believe that we would be designing a product which would meet the basic needs of the users nutrition....which is something they already have from existing products.

We wanted to create more of an 'experience' with our product, which would fill a gap in a market
Attaching to canoe
More experienced will often go on multi day trips camping over night.
Thinking points;
-safe disposal of
waste food
-avoid chemicals
-limit packaging used
Packet food
pre cooked food
Some users may wish to bring pre cooked food from home with them and then warm them up.

This doesn't impact on our product designs too much, as it can be left as an open option to create a device which has a heating cavity that can store either packeted food or pre cooked food- the heating will still be the same.
Soup is a popular option during camping, countless websites advertise it as a good food to have as it is warming and easy to prepare over an open fire. Soup may not be the most suitable option for our prodict as the actvities we are aiming at will require a more substantial calorie intake (roughly 300 kcal per hour of canoeing for an average sized person)
Most canned soups (taken on camping trips) have between 50- 100 calories per serving
within sailing

New technologies:
Being viewed by many to be the next generation in electrically powered travel, BMW i is a brand that would lend itself well to a product that invests in new and upcoming technologies, as well as focusing being environmental responsibility
What type of racing did you participate in?
Match racing
How long did you do this for?
I started when I was about 15 and I think I was about 30 when I raced last
How did you prepare for these races?
Went to bed early as it was an early start the next morning and had hearty breakfast something like eggs. I then kept some sweets or chocolate in my pocket while racing
What were the main challenges during a race?
If it was choppy then the waves and spray but normally just keeping concentration.
How did you stay energized?
We had lost of water and as said I kept some sweets for emergency.
Did you eat whilst on the boat? If so what types of food and where did you store it?
We sometimes kept snacks for in between races but normally no we eat after the race or races as it can make you ill with the waves.

Do you think sailors would benefit from a hot meal or snack during a race day?
There might be an opportunity for after the race but normally we want to get off after being rocked about for 3 or 4 hours.

The user group for competitive high end sailboat racing would have fitted well with a BMWi product. the users would largely have a high disposable income with the expectations of a high quality 'posh' product.
Nike users still have high expectation of a qualify product, with the brand dominating various markets. However this brand allowed us to aim it towards a larger group of recreational users whilst still being relevant to professional kayak users and or adventures.
Brand Ethos
Companies Reseach
Nike brand board
Existing Products
Kayak Specs
Persona Development
Primary User Research
Secondary User Research
Who would use this Product?
people who are into adventure lifestyles and want to try new products that enhance the cooking experience, whether it requires less luggage or cooks faster.
Who Goes on these trips?
people of all ages go on these trips as theres so many different themes. however we found its most likely males aged 16-30.

Who are Nike's target users?
one of nikes biggest strengths is their ability to appeal to anyone.

they reach out to different people for different reasons.

Who would the user share the experience with?
from out research so far, we understand that bonding around fires is a hugely important social activity. our product could definitely look into cooking systems that provide an experience for a group of people at one given time.
How will the user carry this product?
carried in kit bad on arrival to start point?
from there attachment to kayak/ canoe is a good option- easily accessible and out of the way
during camp a small sized compact product would be useful to transfer from kayak to camp
How will the product be cook or heat food?
- investigate multiple heating methods:
How will the food be stored?
Depends largely on type of food used
if ration bags, then a compartment within product can be utilized to store multiple meals and the used to store used food bags after
once the food is in the product a vacuum flask cross section would be useful to keep the food warmer for longer and stop heat transfer to outside environment
How will the user eat the food?
Standard system- disposable plastic cutlery bought with the user to eat out of product
food will likely be in a state where at least a spoon will be needed
ideally a knife and fork/ spork
potentially incorporate an eating utensil into device?
stored in lid of product?
How will the product be cleaned after use?
Standard system- hand washing product using water- possibly taken from river bank/ water sources at camp
Investigate disposable containers that could be taken within product and disposed of after use

Why do people go on these trips?
many people choose this activity as a relaxing and different hobby as there are few sports today that allow for a secluded, and active pass time
Many competitive white water or still competitors take these trips as a way to enjoy their sport ina more relaxing environment without the pressure of being competing
Why would people use our product?
There isn't a specialized product on the market for this activity.
many product currently used are all a generalized product for use when outdoors/ camping
our product (if successful) will make the experience easier whilst enhancing it
it should also give the user more options (to cook on the water or on the riverbank.
Why do they want or need food?
Extended periods on the water burns alot of energy
(300 kcal per hour)
Part of the recreational experience involves food in most activities, a good meal will enhance the whole experience and add to the experience of being on the water as whole
Why do users choose Nike products?
A Trusted, known, and experienced brand.
by buying the product, they are buying the Nike brand
this brand is know for offering a versatile and well tested product range (state university beginnings)
the environments for it to fit into are not limited, it wouldn't be out of place on the water, or in any environment.
What does the product need to do?
Heat food
keep food warm
enhance the eating experience
give the option to cook on the water and on camp site
be easily stored/ carried.
What food does the user want?
HOT food
especially if they are cold/ tired
hot food offers a huge psychological boost as opposed to cold. this is seen in militaries throughout the world on training excerices and in live combat.
Something more than standard sausage and beans
Nike offers a path to a me gourmet food range with exciting flavors
e.g.- Thai green curry, miso soup, paella
street food
What are the users priorities?
they need to know the product wont endanger their trip
they already have a lot of kit to carry and store, so space will be precious on camp and on the water
The user doesn't want to be going through long process to get food
we've come a long way since rubbing sticks together to make a fire, and there is an expectation that the product will be intuitive and not time consuming.
What existing products do they use?
- used by au canoe club and other canoeists
Pressure cooker
- used on campsites but cant be used on water
- used to carry pre cooked foods in air tight tupaware conatiners

Where will this product be used?
The product will be used nearby water. e.g rivers, lakes and the sea.
potentially could be used by people in other locations that arent near water.
Where do people go on these trips?
trips can take place anywhere in the world.
they happen in rivers, lakes and sea.
Where will users purchase this product?
outdoor adventure style
Travel companies
When will this product be used?
the product will be used when the user decides they are hungry and want to take a break.
the product will be usable at any time of day.
When do users need/want food?
Apart from the need to eat at breakfast, lunch and dinner, many canoeists mentioned the sport uses alot of energy so they feel very hungry throughout the day.
we also found people enjoy eating at camp at night where they can relax.
When do users go on these trips?
trips go on all year round across the globe.
people paddle through the day the setup camp at night along the route.

Users like the adventure side of these trips such as cooking over a fire.(survival experience)
How might we keep the feeling of adventure but make it easier to cook this way?
How might enhance this feeling of adventure through this product?
How might we integrate the fire with our design?
How might we make it easier for the user to create this adventure experience?
People take extra implements to cook which are stored separately to cooking stove. This increases the weight and bulkiness making it hard to load into the kayak
How might we remove the need for cooking implements?
How might we remove the need for preparation using implements?
How might we reduce the weight of necessary implements?
How might we decrease the size of the necessary implements?
Users can be left with a lot of packaging that they have to store in their kayaks until the end of the trip
How might we decrease the combine ingredients to minimize packing?
How might we integrate disposable packaging that can be left on site?
How might we design a way of storing packaging in a more efficient and hygienic way?
How might we remove the need for packaging?
Users Carry a lot of ingredients which adds weight and bulkiness into the kayak.
How might we remove the need for multiple ingredients?
How might we provide a way to store prepared food thus decreasing amount of ingredients?
Solar cooker
'GoSun have produced one of the finest efficient fuel-free cooking device we’ve ever seen. Described as “The first of its kind” the GoSun Portable Solar Cooker Stove. Cook, bake, boil or fry your food in as little as 20 minutes. And weighing less than 4lbs this portable device can be deployed in seconds.

The stove is powered soley by the sun. This means that you can cook in any weather provided there is sun, and it is completely unaffected by wind/


How might we
/The Flash steps up from the Zip with a push-button igniter, heat indicator, and increased volume.

This system lights with the click of a button and in just over 2 minutes provides two cups of boiling water for cocoa, coffee, instant soup or a gourmet freeze-dried meal. The newly designed burner secures the igniter, protecting it from bumps along the road. Flash™ is designed to be one of the safest cooking solutions out there. The cooking cup clips onto the burner, preventing accidental spills, and the fuel canister tripod ensures overall stability. The insulating cozy has a color-changing heat indicator that signals when contents are hot'

Strictly, all land in England and Wales is owned so you must gain permission before camping. However, wild camping within reasonable limits is often tolerated in many upland and remote areas, particularly in Snowdonia and the Lake District.

One exception is Dartmoor, where camping is allowed for up to two consecutive nights in the same spot or for longer in a permitted camping area, except within 100 metres of a public road or in any enclosure or other restricted area.

Wild camping in Scotland was made legal in 2005 after a campaign by groups such as the Ramblers. You can camp wild on hill land but should respect any nearby dwellings or livestock. The exception is the east part of Loch Lomonds National Park, where wild camping (and alcohol) was banned in 2010 due to antisocial behaviour such as noise, littering and vandalism, with a consultation held in 2012 to discuss extending the ban to four islands in the area.

In Ireland, wild camping is not strictly legal but is tolerated in many upland and remote areas, and the Northern Ireland Forestry Service issues camping permits at some of its sites.
There are 4,540 kilometres (2,820 mi) of inland river and canal in England and Wales with navigation rights.
There are over 65,000 kilometres (40,400 mi) of inland rivers with no access.
In a global survey of 30,000 consumers, 72% of people said that business is failing to take care of the planet and society as a whole.
in 2015 – fueled by everything from mass affluence to digital narcissism – hundreds of millions of ‘post-status’ consumers will care less about what they have or buy and more about what they can do or create.

Nothing new there. But, with cravings for lifestyle maximisation still as intense as ever, reducing if not eliminating the barriers to the creation of high-quality output will be the key to delighting aspirational consumers everywhere in 2015.*

Users like the adventure of survival type living:
making fire
Pitching tent using simple methods
exploring the wild
cooking over the fire
one with nature

The product will need to be sold and delivered in a form of packaging, however this can be limited in a some ways

For example:
a simple vacuum formed HPDE casing with a cardboard backing will provide a protective coating
It will also give the user a clear view of the product
whilst all materials involved can be recycled.
Items carried
Compartment at the back of kayak
mess kit
aluminum pot and pan
titanium mug and sporks
towel, scrubber and soaps
alcohol stoves and 2 8oz fuel bottles
windscreen for stoves
fire stater flint
mat for sitting
candle lantern and torch
ground sheet
fire starter sticks wrapped in foil - if wood is damp
Crocs for walking around camp

Second compartment lined with foam to keep cool
canned and bottled drinks
2 food bags - one pre cooked food- other for cooking

Foot well
safety whistle, compass, flares and headlamp
50ft rope
small saw
charts of route

The packaging for the food being cooked in the product will depend largely on the type.

If it is a dissolvable food bag then the products packaging dissolves during cooking
If it is a ration bag then packaging will need to be disposed of/ recycled appropriately
As a general aim, chemicals that are permanently added to the environment should be avoided. if chemical heating is used as the cooking method, then all chemicals should be designed to be easily removed from the environment after use

By utilizing a vacuum into the layers of our product the food, once cooked, will have the ability to stay warm for up to 10 hours. this will eliminate the need to throw away food once full up, as you can still eat it later. if the food is no longer wanted then it can be stored until a time that it can be disposed of into a bin.
If Disposable food containers are used then they can be held onto until the trip has ended. we found from our interview with canoe clubs that they take waste bags with them to store their rubbish so as not to impact on the environment. this is where they would typically place litter so the waste foo could also go in here.
Camping accessories such as chairs, hammock and inflatable pillows. Moe comfortable living than other two users.

Coal and fold up grill used to cook food. Steaks and potato wrapped in foil.

Fire made to sit round when it got dark

A lot of items to be packed up (in certain way to fit back in kayaks)

Rubbish stood on to flatten - allow rubbish to be stored in kayak
Live Food
Whilst on the water, it is reasonable to assume that some people may want to cath their dinner and cook it on site in the evming. thiparticularly applies to the 'adventurer' persona we have looked at
In the same way as pre cooked food, this largely unchanged our design direction. The only function that needs to be enusred is that the heating system is capable of reaching atleast 80 degrees to kill al bacteria in the food to make it safe
In practice this may not happen as in many countries there is leglsation in place where the catching and killing of animals is strictly prohibited (see Political)
Soluble food bag
Older user wanting to stay active by using products to make physical activities easier. How might our product make a kayaking/canoeing trip easier?
Users turning to health food kits to make eating healthily an easier process. People who go on these trips are keeping active are they health conscious? would they want a healthy meal as well?
levels of participation in sporting activity are increasing, especially amongst ABC1 men – fastest growing activities are running, cycling, canoeing, and tennis.

Solo travellers are strongly drawn to more active breaks; the future singles population aged 25-44 is projected to rise by 50% over the 2007-2031 period.

Thailand, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Japan and Egypt offer best value for long-haul adventure trips.

Cautiously active
(18% of adults or 9.2 million adults)
This group has the highest potential for future growth, essentially pro-activity but yet to be fully converted.
Low cost short breaks within the UK and demonstration/tuition days for more technical activities can help to build confidence and provide a gateway into longer holidays.
Most likely to include ABC1s aged 35-54, particularly families with children aged under 10, and peaking strongly in the South.

(11% of adults or 5.9 million adults)
This is the core market for activity holidays. Meeting like-minded others is the key point to emphasise alongside the self-improvement/de-stress messages.
Most likely to include ABC1 consumers, aged 15-54 with household income above £40,000 – pre-family, families with children aged over ten as well as third age couples.

Active bonding
(14% of adults or 7.3 million adults)
The emphasis should be on gentle activity interspersed with plenty of opportunities for rest.
The activity needs to be primarily promoted as a means of connecting with others – either within the family unit, with other families/kids of similar age or with other like-minded people
Most likely to be ABC1 pre-family and family groups.

(22% of adults or 11.1 million adults)
Generally very low response levels to most attitudes in the survey, but one quarter still think that activity holidays are ideal for families.
The least likely group to take any kind of holiday. Over half have not been away at all over the last year. Lack of money rather than hostility to the idea of activity is the key obstacle.
Includes those on low income, Moderate Means/Hard Pressed, DEs and those aged over 75.

(34% of adults or 17.6 million adults)
This group is 100% committed to R&R on holidays and mostly uninterested in trying anything more energetic.
This is the largest group and highly unlikely to try any kind of activity holiday. Many are classic fly and floppers, and if they are to be drawn into trying anything more energetic it will be as a result of trying an activity whilst on a beach package holiday.
This is the largest group across all demographics except for ABC1 families, peaking amongst retired people and C2DEs.

Key Points
Overseas activity holidays grew by 22% over the 2004-08 period, but fell 16% in 2009.
The total activity holidays market is worth an estimated £4.7 billion in 2009 (excluding overseas transport).
Long-term growth factors still in place once economy recovers: demographic trends, health and fitness concerns, diversification by tour operators, influence of the internet, the media and celebrity.
Soft adventure, cycling, overseas boating/sailing/beach club and schools activity holidays are likely to lead future market growth.

ThermoElectric Generators.
'The flow of charge carriers between the hot and cold regions in turn creates a voltage difference. In 1834, Jean Charles Athanase Peltier discovered the reverse effect, that running an electric current through the junction of two dissimilar conductors could, depending on the direction of the current, cause it to act as a heater or cooler'

New experiments on the heat effects of electric currents), Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 56 : 371-386.
These Devices transfer heat into electrical energy..
'Open wood fires are inefficient, wasting potential energy and creating toxic smoke due to incomplete combustion. Carefully designed stoves that use fans to blow air into the fire can dramatically improve combustion.
Using our patent-pending thermoelectric technology, BioLite Stoves convert heat to electricity that powers a fan to make the fire ultra-efficient. Extra electricity can be used to charge small electronics like mobile phones and LED lights'
Wood Kettles are simple products which have a small air intake whihc allows the fire made at the bottom of the fire to producte an extremely hot envirnment with little fuel. they are typically used to boil water howvee rould be adted to cook food
The Conversion of heat to electrical energy is interesting to our project as research has show how the experience of 'sitting round the fire' after a days activities a highly valued experience. the correct application of this technology could enhance the experience alot.
Material Selection
Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of two different types of materials.

A Peltier cooler, heater, or thermoelectric heat pump is a solid-state active heat pump which transfers heat from one side of the device to the other, with consumption of electrical energy, depending on the direction of the current. Such an instrument is also called a Peltier device, Peltier heat pump, solid state refrigerator, or thermoelectric cooler (TEC). It can be used either for heating or for cooling,[1] although in practice the main application is cooling. It can also be used as a temperature controller that either heats or cools.[2]

The device has two sides, and when DC current flows through the device, it brings heat from one side to the other, so that one side gets cooler while the other gets hotter. The "hot" side is attached to a heat sink so that it remains at ambient temperature, while the cool side goes below room temperature. In some applications, multiple coolers can be cascaded together for lower temperature.

Two unique semi-conductors, one n-type and one p-type, are used because they need to have different electron densities. The semi-conductors are placed thermally in parallel to each other and electrically in series and then joined with a thermally conducting plate on each side. When a voltage is applied to the free ends of the two semiconductors there is a flow of DC current across the junction of the semi-conductors causing a temperature difference. The side with the cooling plate absorbs heat which is then moved to the other side end of the device where the heat sink is. TECs are typically connected side by side and sandwiched between two ceramic plates. The cooling ability of the total unit is then proportional to the number of TECs in it.

Some benefits of using a TEC are:

No moving parts so maintenance is required less frequently
No chlorofluorocarbons
Temperature control to within fractions of a degree can be maintained
Flexible shape (form factor); in particular, they can have a very small size
Can be used in environments that are smaller or more severe than conventional refrigeration
Has a long life, with mean time between failures (MTBF) exceeding 100,000 hours
Is controllable via changing the input voltage/current
Some disadvantages[4] of using a TEC are:

Only a limited amount of heat flux is able to be dissipated
Relegated to applications with low heat flux
Not as efficient, in terms of coefficient of performance, as vapor-compression systems
1.Flexible USB Light
Light your site and keep device charging

2.Bucket Handle
For easy portability

3.Group Format
Large surface area fits 8 burgers

4.Grill-to-Boil Lever
Transform flame at the flip of a switch

5W output to charge your gear

6.Smart LED Dashboard
Monitor your fire & power

7.Burn Chamber
Powerful combustion and easy refueling via side entry

8.Fuel Rack
Keep fuel stable up to 20”

9.Ash Tray
Keep your site clean

10.Folding Legs
For adjustable cooking height
and sensitive surfaces
USB Power Output 5W@5V, charging times vary by strength of fireBattery Lithium ion, 2200mAhCompatible Devices Powers most USB-chargeable devices including smartphones.Charging Time 30 min of charging (based on a strong fire) = 5 hours talk time, 5 hours video, 20 hours of audio (average smartphone)
USB Power Output 10 W (5V, 2A)Battery Safe lithium iron phosphate (LiFeP04), 1250mAhCompatible Devices Powers most USB-chargeable devices including tablets.Charging Time 15 min charge = 5 hours talk, 5 hours video, 20 hours of audio (output varies by strength of heat source)
The Thermoelectric Generator [TEG], located on the base of the KettleCharge, uses a difference in temperature to produce electricity. This comes from having a hot side and a cold side within the device. The Kettle filled with water serves as the cold side; the flame of your stove in contact with the baseplate is the hot side.

As you bring the water to a boil, electricity is produced and sent to the Power Handle, leaving you with potable water and 10W of usable power – and you can do a lot with 10W
Practical Magic

The PowerTrekk is a smallish brick-sized plastic device that sports a removable lid, indicator lights and a USB port where the magic, I mean electricity, comes out. Removing the lid reveals two circular chambers (one with a plastic flap over the top) that look like miniature cup holders. One contains the water reservoir, which holds the tablespoon of water required to start the reaction; the other holds a "puck" containing the catalyst that reacts with the water to produce the hydrogen that in turn produces electricity. Once used, the catalyst is rendered an inert, sand-like substance that requires no special disposal -- although the company says the puck can be returned for recycling.

Each puck generates enough electricity to recharge an iPhone about two times, according to myFC, Our review unit did not come with full-capacity pucks, however, so we could not verify this. A 1500 mAh internal battery in the device captures the electricity and, if necessary, stores the excess charge. Once begun, the process can't be halted, so each puck is good for a single use. A three-pack of pucks is expected to sell for US$9-10, according to myFC. In case you’re trekking destination requires air travel, the company says both the charger and pucks can be brought aboard an aircraft cabin.
The PowerTrekk delivered its charge immediately and at an impressive rate -- right on par with charging from a wall outlet. The device's manufacturers say the PowerTrekk's output is 5 watts -- the same as an iPhone charger -- and we saw no reason to doubt this. Although it can also power an iPad, performance will be similar to the trickle charge you'd get if you used an iPhone charger -- including the "Not charging" message while the iPad screen is on.
Looking at these devices will allow us to design a mire inclusive product that adds to the overall experimce of camping and cooking during a canoeing trip
Fuel Intake Lid provides direct access to fuel source for easy re-stoking and flame control. A closed lid sends flames into the grill body for cooking.
Fit up to four burgers or six hotdogs on the steel Grill Grate with HI, MED, and LO temperature zones.
Unique Grill Body design brings flames upward from burn chamber and into Grill Grate area.
Folding Grill Legs provide both stability and portability.
Hot Can
The double-chambered aluminum Hot Can contains the beverage or soup in its outer chamber, and a mix of water and calcium oxide in its inner chamber. When activated, the water and calcium oxide mix, causing an exothermic reaction that heats the beverage by a total of 50 to 55 degrees Celsius in about three minutes. This means that a drink which starts out at room temperature (20ºC/68ºF) heats up to 70ºC (158ºF) – from a cold cup of mud to a piping hot cup of coffee. A polypropylene outer shell insulates the beverage for about 45 minutes and protects the hands from burns.

Sitting directly on top of the BioLite CampStove burn chamber, the Fuel Intake Lid from the BioLite Portable Grill allows you to directly feed the fire while continuing to cook your food. Close the lid and the flames are spread up through the grill body. The vortex flame of the CampStove creates three temperature zones (HI, MED, LO) satisfying any typical grilling need.

Using the Hot Can sounds pretty easy. You turn it upside down, remove the protective tab and press the button to begin the heat reaction. Then you shake it for 20 to 30 seconds and stand it upright until it heats up. The heat indicator label lets you know it's hot and ready with a green emblem. If it should get too hot, a red warning sign activates instead.
raising the temperature of an 8 ounces (226.8 g)
With the legs folded, the BioLite Portable Grill packs down to 3.5 inches tall by 12 inches wide and
weighs only 1.9 pounds
. Combined with the CampStove, that puts your whole system around 4 pounds - as a frame of reference,
most tabletop grills weigh anywhere from 8-20 pounds on their own, not including the charcoal or propane you'd need to carry.
Portable Grill Attachment
cooking system uses a gas or electric stove element to heat a bed of lava rocks, creating the flavor of a traditional grill without the smoke or charcoal dust. Other features include a specific section for catching grease — making for easy cleanup — an adjustable grill height, and a removable handle.
The Brassé BBQ is an indoor cooking system that uses a gas or electric stove element to grill up all your BBQ favourites. We like to think of it as a triumph for modern man, bringing all the flavor and fun of a traditional BBQ to the convenience of your stove top.
The adjustable grill height and removable handle allows you to have complete control throughout the cooking experience. With a specific section for catching and removing grease, it is easily cleaned and can be stored right beside the rest of your cookware. Free of costly propane and charcoal refills, it provides the full-flavor and healthy cooking experience of an outdoor BBQ within the comfort of your own kitchen - a must-have for the urban man with a hearty meat tooth.
Compact Storage
Grill slides into middle compartment
Living a more environmentally responsible life is all well and good, but in practice the accessibility of such a lifestyle will improve drastically once products like the Electrolux EMS Cooker hit the market.

This entry was another semi-finalist in the Electrolux Design Lab 2011 competition -- and for a very good reason. Designer Simona Hruskova of the Czech Republic conceived this cuff-shaped hot-plate so that the user can wear it around on his wrist, harnessing the heat emitted from his body for later use for cooking. After sufficient time, the device will have accumulated enough kinetic energy to warm a cup of coffee. If the bracelet form is not conducive to preparing food and drinks in larger dishes, the Electrolux EMS Cooker can be rolled out into a flat heating pad.
The task
Task Related Goals
What must the product be able to do:
The product will allow the user to cook hot food on location, in a practical way that is space and time efficient
What does the user want from the experience
The user wants a unique product that enhance the experience of their trip through practicality, and added functions to make their experience special.
What type of meals
The user needs to cook hot meals to sustain them after a long day of kayaking which is liable to leave them cold if they have been in the water. This meal should contain over 600 calories as the user burns around 300 per hour of intense activity on the water
Where will the product need to be stored
The product will need to be fitted to the canoe/kayak as is has to be taken on the water to be able to cook on location, and also because it cannot be left behind. the product could be attached to the inside of the canoe cavity where the bulk of the gear is stored during trips. Alternatively it could be attached to the outside, either position would use the 3M adhesive patches.
How long will the food take to cook
The food must be cooked ideally in under 10 minutes. If on the water, the user does not want to be waiting for their food to cook if they need to carry on the water, or if they setup camp after they have finished they need to food to nourish them after the day on the water
Totem is a solution for anyone who lives in a small space apartment or travelers. It is a multi functional modular food system that enables you to prepare and cook by simply stack and flip the units. Due to its simplistic design, this unit allows you to perform in any situation; in fact, it doesn’t require main power source since the exterior has been coated with EnSol, spray-on solar cell technology. Totem is capable of performing various kitchen tasks in any location by stacking flipping, and building the units for your specific requirements. It uses less energy and space. Even when you are in remote locations, you can still use this cooking device.
Each unit has the same capabilities to cook, clean, chill, and freeze. However, the orientation of each unit determines the mode. If you want to bake a cake, just combine several units together to form a hexagon. If you want to fry something, just flip it.
Our product will allow the user to cook hot food on location, in a practical way that is space and time efficient.
The product could be attached to the canoe/kayak and used whilst on the water
It could also be detached from the canoe/kayak and taken onto the camp location
The product could be powered by both a chemical exothermic reaction whilst on the water, and then used as a cooking interface over a campfire to add to the 'adventure' experience that many users value highly.
The food could be in the form of a soluble food package that comes with the product, and would take roughly 10 minutes to cook depending on which method of cooking is used
Pre packed cutlery could be used to consume the food, or alternatively an integrated piece of cutlery could be used as part of the product
The product could then be cleaned either with water, or disposable food container cartridges could be disposed of once they have been eaten out of
The user can then (depending on the time of day) either go to sleep, or continue on their activities for the day.
There have been only minor changes since the last consumer survey on attitudes to activity holidays was carried out in January 2008.
However the dominant view – that holidays are fundamentally about R&R rather than activity – has hardened slightly. Meanwhile, the positive associations of de-stressing/escapism and sociability that some consumers have with activity holidays have declined.
The view that ‘I would want a degree of luxury on such a holiday’ has also fallen by seven points since 2008. These changes may all reflect the impact of recession, with luxury moving down most people’s agenda, and the attractions of undemanding ‘fly and flop’ more powerful than ever in difficult times.
Amongst those who actually have experience of activity holidays, one third see them as a great way to escape the pressures of everyday life, three in ten see them as ideal for families or for making new friends and one quarter see them as ideal for self-improvement.
Key analysis: Even among both previous activity holidaymakers and potential first-timers, over four in ten still say they would ‘prefer to go on a relaxing holiday’. The idea of an energetic, physically demanding holiday has minority appeal, but in order to enter the travel mainstream, activity holidays must project an image of relaxation, unwinding and rejuvenation, as well as actual practical opportunities for more sedentary pleasures, to provide contrast with the activity.
‘I would rather try one of these holidays in the UK first’. 17% of potential first-timers say this compared to the overall average response of 9%. At the same time cost concerns are also higher for this group. Entry level, budget short breaks closer to home are the ideal way to draw new customers into the activity market.
Those who see activity holidays as ‘a great way to escape the pressures of everyday life’ are most likely to be ABC1s aged 35-54, with household incomes of over £40,000, and families with older kids. There is only a slight male bias in this attitude.
Key analysis: In other words activity holidays can act as a safety valve for mature individuals – men and women – to let off steam in the midst of their careers at a time in life when financial and family responsibilities are likely to be paramount. The physical and outdoorsy aspects of these holidays can have a romantic appeal for those mired in office politics at work or drowning in their children’s adolescent angst at home.
Sociability and the chance to make new friends is of most importance to singles in the ABC1 pre-family group. However one quarter of ABC1s aged 35-54 also cite this as an advantage of activity holidays.
Activity holidays are seen as ‘ideal for families’ by 37% of families as a whole, by 41% of ABC1 families and by 42% of working mothers. Parents aged over 35 have the highest response, and family enthusiasm peaks in the South.
Those who are most likely to take activity holidays for reasons of self-improvement (fitness or technical skills) fall into two camps: the ABC1 pre-family group and 45-54 year old urban professionals, again peaking in the South.
ABC1 third agers are the most concerned about having an element of luxury, but the response is still fairly low at just 16% of this group.

Key analysis: ‘Luxury’ is not a concept generally associated with activity holidays – those who crave ostentation or indulgence are unlikely to choose this type of trip on the whole. However trade interviews suggest that the idea of ‘comfort’ is of growing importance in attracting third age travellers who want to recapture the adventure of backpacking without the Spartan accommodation traditionally involved.
The view that activity holidays are ‘just for the young’ is held by just 6% of consumers, and even amongst the over-75s only 13% believe this. ‘Travel agelessness’ – and the view that you can possess a spirit of adventure at any age – is a widespread attitude, and will inevitably increase in an ageing society.
2.Canoe Racing
is a sport in which athletes race boats on calm water. Officially canoe sprint is a blanket term for both canoe racing and kayak racing.
Race categories vary by the number of athletes in the boat, the length of the course, and whether the boat is a canoe or kayak. Canoe sprint is sometimes referred to as flatwater racing. Canoe sprint takes place on a straight course divided in lanes, on calm water. The distances recognized by the ICF for international races are 200 m, 500 m, and 1000 m. Each boat has its own designated lane, except for races over more than 1000 m, where there also may be turning points. ICF recognised races over 1000m include the 5000m and 10000m events. For each race a number of heats, semi-finals and a final may be necessary, depending on the number of competitors.
3.Weekend kayak/canoe trips
These trips move away from the competitive nature of the other activities, and are more undertaken by leisure seekers as well as competitors who are looking for break whilst still enjoying the sport they love. These trips are either offered by companies based around the activity an alternative to ordinary camping, or are often undertaken as a personally organized trip by the users. The trip typically consists of a day on the water, followed by pulling up on the bank of the river to camp for the night, ready to wake up for the next day and continue exploring
UK Attitudes to Activity Holidays
A lot of people still prefer relaxing holidays how might our product provide a sense of relaxation after the user has finished rowing?
First timers prefer trying the activity closer to home before spending a lot of money. Would they want to buy an extra product for a trial? Repeat users more interested to improve there trips?
Adults aged between 35-54 trying to escape pressure of everyday life. How might our product help them escape these pressures?
1. White Water rafting (and its sub caegories)
River running
is the essential - and some would say most artful - form of kayaking. Its Other forms have evolved in response to the challenges posed by riverrunning, such as pushing the levels of difficulty and/or competing within its environments, riverrunning, of its own right, is more about combining one's paddling abilities and navigational skills with the movements and environments of rivers themselves. Important to a riverrunner is the experience and expression of the river in its continuity rather than, say, a penchant for its punctuated "vertical" features (e.g. standing waves, play-holes and waterfalls).

is perhaps best thought of as a subcategory of river running, involving very technical and difficult rapids, typically in the Grade/Class IV to VI range. While people will differ on the definition, creeking generally involves higher gradient (approaching or in excess of 100 ft per mi (19 m per km)), and is likely to include running ledges, slides, and waterfalls on relatively small and tight rivers, though some will allow for very large and big volume rivers in their definition

is a technical competitive form of kayaking, and the only whitewater event to appear in the Olympic Games. Racers attempt to make their way from the top to the bottom of a designated section of river as fast as possible, while correctly negotiating gates (a series of double-poles suspended vertically over the river). There are usually 18-25 gates in a race which must be navigated in sequential order. Green gates must be negotiated in a downstream direction, red gates in an upstream direction

, also known as Freestyle or Rodeo, is a more gymnastic and artistic kind of kayaking. While the other varieties of kayaking generally involve going from Point A to Point B, playboaters often stay in one spot in the river (usually in a hole, pourover or on a wave) where they work with and against the dynamic forces of the river to perform a variety of maneuvers. These can include surfing, spinning, and various vertical moves (cartwheels, loops, blunts, pistol and donkey flips, and many others), spinning the boat on all possible axes of rotation.

People who would prefer luxury or indulgence unlikely to choose activity holiday. However some would want to experience the adventure with added comfort. How might our product add comfort or make the adventure easier?
Market ripe for future expansion
After several years of strong growth, the activity holidays market experienced a decline in 2009 due mainly to the recession and an overall drop in overseas tourism. However, Mintel believes that this is a short-term blip with longer-term demographic and cultural trends pointing to a resumption of strong growth once economic stability has resumed. Although ABC1 pre-families are the group most likely to take an activity holiday, Mintel’s research points to two key future growth areas - older travellers and families.

Lifestage targeting is key
Families have been hardest hit by the recession but show the strongest potential for market expansion. One quarter of families have not been on an activity holiday but would like to go in the future.

Third agers are becoming increasingly adventurous and, although the ageing of the population is unlikely to usher in a new generation of ‘wakeboarding wrinklies’, we are likely to see the age threshold for holidays such as walking/trekking and cycling being pushed gradually back as older affluents seek to prolong their vitality. The years ahead could be the golden age of 50+ adventure travel.

A rite of passage
Travel has long acted as a rite of passage at certain stages of life – the gap year and the honeymoon are classic examples. Perhaps it is time for the industry to focus more attention on the passage from family into third age, and to reflect on how holidays can facilitate this transition.
A new breed of adventure travellers
The Mintel Brand Research Map below illustrates a three-dimensional brandscape based on:
Differentiation: an indication of vitality and profitability. Taken from consumer perceptions of a brand’s standout from others in its competitive sphere.
Trust: an indication of brand integrity and stature. Derived from agreement with the statement ‘a brand that I trust’.
Experience: consumers who have ever used/visited/bought the brand, an indication of presence in the category.
This map gives a snapshot of the current strength and quality of selected brands, where they are in their growth and how healthy they are.
This section examines the brand attributes of some of the major sports clothing, footwear and equipment brands that are available through high street specialists in the UK.
Personal effects


14.214 Included in this item are personal outlays on jewellery, watches and clocks purchased from retail outlets; and other personal effects including articles for babies, travel goods and miscellaneous personal articles.
1. Where do you travel to on these trips?
we have our weekly trips where well just go to the local river for a day on the water. Then we have our larger trips which happen a few times a year. with those we often go to different spots in the UK. it varies really, we try to go to new places each times.

2. How long do you go for?
The trips typically range from a couple of hours on the water to full on weekend trips where we camp at the end of each night. The larger trips only happen a few times a year as they take alot more planning and costs etc.

3. How many people go on these trips?
For the long trips we can usually see up to 15-20 people, sometimes we see less. The local weekly events are really just refreshers so they vary a lot more.

4. What age group attend these trips?
The ages also range quite a bit from late teens/ twenties to 60+. On average it is normally early twenties to late thirties. We have seen an increase in the number of older paddlers in the last year.

5. Why do you go on these trips?
Its really just for the enjoyment of it. its great fun getting out on the water and its also good exercise.I suppose the weekend trips are for people who are more up for an adventure, we go to different locations all around the uk so its a great way to explore.

6. What items do you carry?
The smaller trips we really don't need much, especially when its summer. In the winter obviously you need more kit to keep warm, so clothing and a few snacks. The weekend events you need to bring alot more gear, like clothing, camping equipment, food, water and toiletries. Its really up to the individual and what they feel they need.

7. What types of food do you eat?
In terms of food the most important thing is to keep your energy levels up. so usually loads of snacks like chocolate dried fruit and sweets because its easier than cooking a meal. Canoeing uses up a lot of calories and you'll get tired if you don't eat throughout the day, its also easy to eat them while youre out on the water. There Is not much room on the boats so most people packs essential foods they feel they'll need. when we set up camp we will eat a proper hot meal, something easy to make like pasta or rice. Nothing very exciting but it can be hard to cook with the lack of implements or ingredients we are able to carry.

8. How do you cook this food?
Most people bring a small fuel stove and pans etc to cook with. theres loads of different types out there and you can get them cheap and they're relatively light. some people like to set up campfires but its usually difficult with our damp weather.

Past Nike Collaborations
Common values
Nike collaborated with a wide and vaired range of brands. Despite this, they always maintain their identity....
This is done through associating themselves to the youthful, energetic, and adventures side to all the brands they collaborate with.
Consumers consider Warrior and Under Armour to stand out more than the level of trust they earn would suggest.
Both brands are still new to the market, meaning consumers are less likely to have been exposed to them and so are less likely to trust them as a result. However, this lack of real heritage helps them to stand out more against a landscape of more established, familiar brands.
Other brands in the market tend to follow a pattern between perceived differentiation, trust and usage.
Nike and adidas manage to generate a higher perception of differentiation and a greater level of trust than all other brands in the market, which helps to explain their higher usage. Their strong positions indicate that other brands are unlikely to truly challenge their dominance.
Men aged 25-34 tend to be most likely to consider these brands as standing out, perhaps suggesting that this group is most likely to take an active interest in the market.
Trust is different, however, with Reebok, Slazenger and Lonsdale all earning more from over-35s compared to under-35s.
Nike and adidas are located around statements that indicate quality and desirability, which together create a willingness among consumers to pay more for them. Endorsements by high-profile athletes are likely to have helped drive this association with quality.
Sportswear brand personality – macro image, April 2014
Base: internet users aged 16+ who have heard of the brand and expressed a view
Attitudes, by sportswear brand, April 2014
Base: internet users aged 16+ who have heard of the brand and expressed a view
Attitudes towards and usage of brands in the sportswear sector, April 2014
Base: internet users aged 16+ who have heard of the brand and expressed a view
Nike and adidas are positioned on the more upbeat side of the market, driven by innovation, exposure and high-profile sports endorsements, as well as the advertising budgets needed to cement these associations in consumers’ minds. The image of these brands as vibrant and fun is particularly strong among under-35s.
Sportswear brand personality – micro image, April 2014
While Nike and adidas are traditional sportswear brands, they are both more likely to be seen as having fashionable connotations too.
The stylish and trendy elements of their brands, felt most keenly by 35-44s and C2DEs, are likely to make them more appealing to consumers looking for more than just practical products or who seek both style and substance. Product design is an important influence on these perceptions but so are endorsement deals with high-profile athletes whose presence and influence is increasingly being felt far beyond their fields of play.

What do you carry when out on the water?
Tents if camping kept inside the kayak. Sleeping bags Existing product trangen
How long do you generally stay out on the water for?
5-6 hours depends generally on river
How often do you stop for breaks?
Depends on environment length of trip Will just float on water (stop paddling)
What do you use this time for? Snacks, drinks?
Mars bars, maoms, water
Where do you stay at night?
Usually campsite
Is food provided ?

What food do you normally have?
Boil in bag short trips, longer bacon, curry need cooler for food
How do you prepare this food?
Just put onto trangen straight out of packe
Any types of foods that would appeal to you whilst on these trips?
Would prefer more hot food rather than eating lots of snacks
What do you do about washing and waste?
Keep waste in bag in boat and bin rubbish if they find a bin. Wash cooker using water from campsite.
Anything that irritates you about preparing food?
Trying to cook food in the kayak, balancing on knees very frustrating.
Flames very dangerous to have in boat.
Don’t want to spend large amounts of time and effort after a day of rowing.
Just want to get in bed.

Interesting points made:
Small in size
No flame
Reduce preparation and cooking time
Not that interested in meal during the day prefer snacks and then meal after rowing.
Interview with Leicester canoe club
types of kayak
Recreational Kayaks

These are best for easy days on calm waters. They offer initial stability that's reassuring for novices, photographers, anglers or casual paddlers on placid rivers, ponds or lakes. They are not so good for open water or use in heavy wind or currents.

Recreational kayaks usually have a smaller bulkhead (storage area) for short day trips, though some have a larger storage area for day touring. Most are 10 to 12 feet long, have a large cockpit for easy access and a wider beam for more stability. Most have no skeg or rudder and are made of polyethylene.

Pros: Affordable, easy to use and great initial stability.

Cons: They don't track (hold a straight course) as well as a touring kayak. If flipped, they can be a challenge to bail out.
Day Touring and Sea Kayaks
Touring kayak

These are made to travel long distances in open water and provide stability in rough conditions. Most are quite suitable for cruising around a pond, lake or lazy river, too. Touring kayaks are usually 12 to 16 feet long, and their hulls are shaped to increase lift in waves and rough water. Most have bulkheads with sealed hatch covers for dry storage and enhanced safety (these compartments trap air which allows the kayak to float even if the cockpit fills with water).

Most have a skeg or a rudder. The combination of a skeg and a longer waterline improves straight-line tracking and makes it easy to control the kayak in currents or side winds. A rudder allows you to turn with greater ease. Cockpits are likely to be built for paddling efficiency and may feel confining to some. They can be made of polyethylene, thermoformed ABS or composites.

There are 2 types of touring kayaks:

Day touring: These have enough storage space for day or overnight outings. They are shorter and more maneuverable than multiday boats.
Sea kayaks: These offer ample storage space for longer trips. They are longer so you give up some maneuverability.
Pros: Better performing and more versatile than recreational kayaks; more storage space (especially multiday boats); bulkheads with sealed hatches enhance safety.

Cons: More expensive than recreational kayaks; smaller cockpits are not for the claustrophobic.
Sit-on-Top kayak

Sit-on-tops are great fun for kids, beginners or swimmers. They have a sealed hull and molded depressions on top for sitting. It's easy to get on and off of one whether you are on a dock, shore or in the water.

The seats are above water-level so these boats are typically wider (and slower) than traditional kayaks. It's hard to capsize a sit-on-top, but if it does flip over, it's easy to flip it back and get on it. This makes sit-on-tops a good fishing, swimming or diving base. For this reason, sit-on-tops are especially popular in warm climates. Self-bailing drain holes add to the convenience.
Size-wise, they hold single, double or more passengers. Some even have bulkheads and storage wells. Typically they are from 10 to 15 feet in length. Most are made of polyethylene.

Pros: You sit up high and don't have climb into it like a traditional kayak; great for warm climates.

Cons: Slower than traditional kayaks; your body is exposed to the elements in wet and cold conditions.

Inflatable kayak

You might think of a blow-up kayak as a toy, but these are surprisingly sturdy and versatile. They are inflated compartmentally by foot, hand or electric pumps, so they are more buoyant than traditional kayaks. Once deflated, most can be transported in a duffel-sized carrying bag.

Inflatables range from 10 to 15 feet long. They are light, easy to use and can turn on a small radius. However, they take more effort to paddle and are slower than a traditional kayak. Some have rigid frames to aid performance, while others have optional stiffening bars the entire length of the floor panel. This reduces wave undulation and improves tracking. They are usually made of PVC-coated polyester.

Pros: Highly portable so they're easy to store and transport; multiple compartments enhance safety.

Cons: It takes time to inflate it before you get in the water; slow moving in the water; less rugged than hard shells.
Folding kayak
Like inflatables, foldable kayaks are easy to transport and store. Disassembled, most fit into a backpack-sized carry bag.
Their advantages over inflatables are their ridged framework and greater storage space. The stiff frame allows performance similar to a hard-shell kayak. A tough outer skin is fitted over a stiff aluminum frame; most have inflatable chambers to aid in buoyancy and stability.
Once you’re experienced assembling your kayak, it takes only 15–20 minutes to go from car to water.

Pros: Highly portable for easy storage and transport; better performance than inflatables.

Cons: Assembly time; less rugged than hard shells.
BioLite Basecamp Stove
Touring kayaks have storage areas at one or both ends that are enclosed with a lid on the deck. When capsized, these bulkheads give buoyancy as long as the hatch lids are secured.

Various types of hatch lids have their pluses and minuses:

A plastic lid that has a gasket attached to the lid and/or deck and closes with cargo straps. It works well in most situations.
A neoprene cover stretches over the hatch. It can be used in combination with a hard outer cover and secured with straps. This seals well, but stretching it can be difficult. It works only if it is properly in place.
A rubber hatch cover snaps to the hatch ring or molded deck lip like Tupperware. Use a hatch strap to keep the cover from getting lost.
Toggled hatches feature a gasket and toggles to seal a plastic lid.
Hatch tips:

Use a number of smaller drybags rather than one big one.
Replace old gaskets when worn.
Float bags can be put in the hatches to add extra buoyancy in case of capsizing.
Canoe Multiday Touring Checklist
Planning a paddle-camping vacation by canoe? Our comprehensive checklist includes required and optional gear, clothing, accessories and more.

Canoe Basics

Paddle (1 per paddler)
Extra paddle
Personal flotation device (1 per paddler)
Extra PFD
Knee pads
Yoke (with pads)
Dry bags (for gear organization)
Spray covers
Weather/VHF radio
Signaling devices (whistle, mirror, flares)
Float bags
Emergency floating throw line (with throw bag)
Bailer or bilge pump
Core Gear

Maps and charts in waterproof case
Matches/lighter/fire starter in waterproof container
Knife or multi-tool
Two-way radios
Cell phone in protective bag
Multifunction watch
Headlamp or flashlight (with extra batteries)
First-aid supplies (see our First-Aid Checklist)
Lip balm
Water bottles (filled)
Water treatment method
Backup water treatment (e.g., halogens)
Energy food (bars, gels, trail mix)
Beverages or powdered drinks
Camping Basics

Tent, tarp or bivy sack
Sleeping bag
Sleeping pad
Meals and snacks
Cooler (with ice)
Stove and fuel
Cookset and utensils
Dishes, bowls and cups
Insect repellent (plus headnet, if needed)
Toilet paper and sanitation trowel
Hand sanitizer
Packable lantern
Credit card; small amount of cash
Trip itinerary left with friend + under car seat

Dry suit or top
Paddling gloves or pogies
Neoprene footwear
Sun-shielding hat
Hat or cap retainer
Bandana or buff
Wool/synthetic cap or balaclava
Moisture-wicking T-shirt
Moisture-wicking underwear
Shorts or convertible pants
Sun-shielding shirt (long sleeves) and pants
Spray jacket or rainwear (jacket and pants)
Synthetic vest or jacket (for insulation)
Synthetic gloves or mittens
Repair-Kit Options

Sealant (such as Aquaseal)
Bailing wire (copper, small roll)
Nylon cord (or bungee cords)
Replacement nuts/bolts
Repair/duct tape
Itinerary for Canoeing trip company
From the itinerary, we have found that the company did not provide food and the users were encourage to find pubs or carry sandwiches .
Screenshots of individual trips
These screenshots show the journey of individual trips...
Users limited to plain foods due to lack of cooking skills or range of prepared meals available.
Interview with AU Canoe Club
How might we make easier for the user to prepare more exciting meals whilst on these trips?
Gained physical feel for
proportions of real life
How might we decrease the time taken to prepare more exciting meals?
How might we make existing prepared meals more exciting?
How might we allow users to prepare more exciting meals and store them whilst on the trip?
Users often compromise with snacks during the day due to the difficulty of getting out of kayak and setting up stove.
How might we allow the user to cook or warm food whilst in the kayak?
How might we shorted the time taken to set up cooking process?
How might we provide the user with snacks providing better nutritional value?
How might we allow user to store food that is cooked on site and then consume whilst in kayak?

Big meals should be eaten early as cooking during racing inst advisable
typically he would take in a large amount of calories before his time on the water
this would get him through the race an eliminate the time to cook on the water

Needed to find out more about sea sailing before we pursued it further
Figure 3 graph shows consumer spending in terms of volume. Miscellaneous goods such personal affects (travel good for example) made largest contribution to positive growth.

This shows that consumers are purchasing products they desire.
Top graph shows euro to pound sterling exchange rate from 2005. Remained level with a slight increase after a large drop.

Bottom shows US dollar to pound sterling exchange rate from 2005. Can see a decrease developed at the start of 2014.

These are important as many people travel to places using these currency to participate in these trips. A poor exhange rate may put people off from traveling to these countries.
Why we changed to Nike
Shows number of adult participants. Also shows percentage change from 2011 to 2012. Canoeing has the highest number of participants showing large group of possible users.
Shows male female percentage difference. More males participate in canoeing than women. Maybe our product is aimed more at males.
Shows participation in terms of age. For canoeing the largest age group is 16-34.
Shows participation for the different socio-economic groups. Most participation for canoeing in AB group (upper-middle class)
Mintel Social
Brand Research
Shows who owed the boat when participants last participated. If friends or family share the boat would they share this product?
Shows number of participants that are a member of a club or association. Surprising number of only 14.6% of participants are members a club.
Shows number of participants from coastal and inland areas. Canoeing shows largest group is inland.
Shows number of participants from coatal
Kayak Research

Shows number of participants according to postcode. Largest group for canoeing is N Ireland/ IoM.
Company itinerary
Shows number of UK households that own their own boat. Canoes and kayaks are the most popular type of boat.
Shows percentage and number of participants for the core 12 activities.
In Summary
Our Product will likely:
Be powered by chemical pouch through an
exothermic reaction
give the user the option to cook on the water or land
cook food packages encased in a
soluble film

that will dissolve in water to decrease waste on the trip
be attachable to the canoe by means of
3M adhesive
also possibility to cook using a fire which enhances the adventure, survival element to the trip.
Our Product is Aimed at the individual adventurers who want a product that can meet their task and experience goals....

Top shows the popularity between different boat types for US Participants.
Bottom shows number of kayak participants in us from 2006 to 2013. Steady increase in numbers shows increase in popularity in the sport.
statement taken from a Mintel report. States that consumers will care less about the items they have or buy and more on what they can do or achieve. This ties in with our idea of users enjoyng the survival type experience
Experience Goals
-Authentic adventure experience
-Secluded but connected

Task Goals
More efficent cooking method
Higher calorie intake
Lightweight for more efficient paddling
|Two potential users:
1. Companies organizing the trip
2. individual Adventurers
Companies have a gap in the market as they are telling people to bring their own food
Individuals value the authentic outdoor cooking experience but are in need of a modern product to make the task easier
Environment based constraints:
dictates sevral specified pouints before desihning has begun
1. product must be buoyant
2. product must be insulated
3. product must be waterproof
What are the litter laws?
It is a criminal offence for a person to drop, throw down, or otherwise deposit and then leave litter.
The offence of littering is covered in Sections 87 and 88 of the Environmental Protection Act (EPA)
1990. This act has been updated and amended by the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment
Act (CNEA) 2005 to make it clearer that it the term ‘litter’ now includes smoking related litter and
other discarded items such as chewing gum. The CNEA has also amended the existing legislation
so that the offence of littering now applies to all places that are open to the air, including both
private and public land and water.
The bed and banks of all rivers and canals are privately owned. There is a right of access on all rivers and canals maintained as navigations subject to a payment for a license where required. Where navigations have been abandoned it can be unclear if there is still a public right of access.

A right of access is known to exist on some other non-tidal rivers based on Common Law and historic use. Known examples are the River Wye below Hay-on-Wye, River Lugg from Leominster and the River Severn between Pool Quay near Welshpool and Stourport. It is not known how such rights might apply to other unregulated rivers.

In nearly all cases there is a public right of access on tidal waters. The right may be subject to a payment of harbour dues and restrictions due to security/exclusion zones or use by the Ministry of Defence. The tidal limits on waterways are shown on Ordnance Survey maps.
Going to a private place without actual or implied permission could constitute an act of trespass.
When heat is applied to a portion of a material, that heat will move through the material. This movement of heat through a material is called the thermal current. Depending on the composition of the atoms of that material, the heat may move very slowly, or it may move very quickly. This dependance is quantified by the coefficient of thermal conductivity. Each material has a unique coefficient of thermal conductivity. A high coefficient means heat moves very quickly; a low coefficient means heat moves very slowly.
values in the chart.
Access Legal Position
Camping Laws
Liquipel is a nano coating that surrounds all the tiny electrical parts in and around your device. It’s completely invisible to the human eye so it won’t change the look or feel of your device. While we can’t say your device is waterproof, we can proudly stand behind our hydrophobic technology and say it’s great for accidental occurrences.
Liquipel is a specialized process that applies a liquid repellent substance to electronic devices. We place the device into our proprietary machine which pumps down to create a vacuum. Once the vacuum process is complete, we inject our Liquipel formulation which turns from a liquid to a gas as it enters the chamber. In the final step, we introduce plasma that decomposes the liquid repellent molecules polymerizing them to themselves. Once the chamber comes back to atmospheric pressure we then remove your device with no cure time and the process is complete. Liquipel becomes the new surface of your device and its components.
One off trip trying out new experiences
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