Transcript of Moral Development
Preconventional Morality "First level of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, in which control is external and rules are obeyed in order to gain rewards or avoid punishment or out of self-interest." How does the knowledge of moral development help us address, understand, and respond to the essential question? Adelaide Curry, Liberty Vincent, and Ben Kohen Moral Development Conventional Morality "Second level in Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning in which standards of authority figures are" incorporated. Postconventional Morality "Third level of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, in which people follow internally held moral principles and can decide among conflicting moral standards." Stage 1: "Obedience and Punishment Orientation" Most common in young children Rules are fixed or absolute Children see morality as something that authorities tell them is right or wrong Believe that by obeying the law, you avoid punishment. Stage 2: "Individualism and Exchange" Children develop individual viewpoints Different individuals hold different viewpoints Children judge actions based on individual needs "One is free to pursue one's own interests, although it is often useful to make deals and exchange favors with others." still speak as isolated individuals Children do what is right because they realize they will get something in exchange Stage 1 VS. Stage 2 Both discuss punishment Stage 1: punishment linked to wrongness and can be used to "prove" misbehavior as wrong. Stage 2: Punishment is a risk and should be avoided Both address viewpoints Stage 1: authorities viewpoints are only right Stage 2: individual viewpoints and many outside opinions in situations Doing right is obeying authority, therefore obeying the laws Stage 3: "Good Interpersonal Relationships" Usually occurs while entering teenage years. Believe that people need to live up to the expectations of the family and society and behave in "good" ways. Good behavior= having good motives and feelings of love, empathy, trust, and concern for others. Young people begin to think as a part of society with all of its values and expectations Stage 4: "Maintaining the Social Order" Becomes concerned with society as a whole "The emphasis is on obeying laws, respecting authority, and performing one's duties so that the social order is maintained" If everyone did what they felt was right, the result would be chaos. Take on a member of society perspective Have an understanding of the purpose or function of laws for society. Stage 3 VS. Stage 4 Young people begin to act as a part of society Stage 3: emphasizes being a good person Stage 4: emphasizes the need to obey the law in order to maintain society as a whole. Stage 3 reasoning works best in two-person relationships such as with family or friends. This helps one better understand the emotions and needs of the individual and to try to help Stage 4 becomes more concerned with not just one group, but the whole society. Stage 5: "Social Contract and Individual Rights" "'What makes for a good society?'" A good society is made through a "social contract into which people freely enter to work toward the benefit of all." Understand social groups have different beliefs but that all can agree on two levels: 1. They would all want certain rights to be protected 2. They would want some democratic procedures Changing unfair laws and improving society EX: Life and liberty Stage 6: "Universal Principles" "Defines the principles by which we achieve justice." The principles of justice requires that one respects the claims and dignity of all people as individuals. Principles of justice= universal Guide us towards decisions based on an equal respect for all. Stage 6 has been dropped form Kohlberg's scoring methods. Called the "theoretical stage" Kohlberg's interviews fail to draw out the broader understanding present in stage 6. Stage 5 VS Stage 6 People follow these principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules. Civil Disobedience is the difference between the two. Stage 5: believes that the only reason one should violate the law is if individual rights are at stake. Stage 6: a commitment to justice makes the explanation for civil disobedience stronger and broader. Martin Luther King "argued that laws are only valid insofar as they are grounded in justice, and that a commitment to justice carries with it an obligation to disobey unjust laws" He believed the higher principle of justice required civil disobedience. Basic rights valued because everyone gets a voice What is Moral Development? According to Wikipedia, "Moral development focuses on the emergence, change, and understanding of morality from infancy through adulthood." The process in which children learn to distinguish between right and wrong, and begin to make independent decisions on moral issues. Who is Kohlberg? How does he develop his theory? A psychologist "who modified and expanded upon Jean Piaget's work to form a theory that explained" moral development. Kohlberg divided moral development into 6 stages; Piaget divided his into 4. The Stages we will go into more detail... Kohlberg develops his theory using the example of the Heinz case when interviewing children, teens, and adults. The Heinz Case Kohlberg would conclude the story by saying, "Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife. 'Should the husband have done that?'" (Kohlberg, 1963, p. 19) Quoted from "Kohlberg's stages of Moral Development" by Crain, W.C. Kohlberg classified answers into 6 stages creating his 6 stages of moral development. Introduction We will present Kohlberg's idea of moral development. We will define moral development and present its application to the modern world. Our presentation will describe Kohlberg's six-stage theory in detail and will highlight how moral development is useful for personal theological advancement. Would say Heinz was wrong to steal the drug because "It's against the law." When asked why it was so bad, the child explained that stealing is bad "because you'll get punished." How would a stage 1 child respond to the Heinz dilemma? Paraphrased from "Kohlberg's stages of Moral Development" by Crain, W.C. How would a stage 2 child respond to the Heinz dilemma? They most likely respond with the idea that what is right for Heinz is what meets his own self-interests. subjects often say that Heinz was right to steal the drug because the druggist was unwilling to make a fair deal and the wife may return the favor someday. All quotes from "Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Deveolpment" by Crain, W.C. How would stage 3 people respond to the Heinz dilemma? Argue that Heinz was right to steal the drug because "He was a good man for wanting to save her," and "His intentions were good, that of saving the life of someone he loves." They also argue that the druggist was "selfish," "greedy," and "only interested in himself, not another life." How would a stage 4 person respond to the Heinz dilemma? "Many subjects say they understand that Heinz's motives were good, but they cannot condone the theft" "Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development" by Crain, W.C. Paraphrased from "Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development" by Crain, W.C. How would a stage 5 person respond to the Heinz dilemma? Would stress that they do not favor breaking the law, however, "the wife's right to live is a moral right that must be protected." Quote from "Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development" by Crain, W.C. How do stage 6 people respond to the Heinz dilemma? They would say you need to look through the eyes of the other individuals. Meaning "all parties--the druggist, Heinz, and his wife--take the roles of the others. To do this in an impartial manner, people can assume a "veil of ignorance" (Rawls, 1971), acting as if they do not know which role they will eventually occupy. If the druggist did this, even he would recognize that life must take priority over property. They would all agree that the wife must be saved--this would be the fair solution. Full transcript
Requires not only impartiality, but the principle that everyone is given full and equal respect." From "Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development" by Crain, W.C. Address: By having a general idea of the stages people proceed through when developing morally, we can see how those relate to other individuals. Understand: We can compare the stages of each individual to see how that individual interprets his/her own moral development Respond: By understanding moral development, and comparing different individuals, we are able to see how moral development is relative to each person's code of ethics. Bibliography Cherry, Kendra. "Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development." About.com Psychology. About.com, n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2012. Crain, W. C. "Kohlberg's Moral Stages." Kohlberg's Moral Stages. Prentice Hall, 1985. Web. 19 Dec. 2012. "Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development." YouTube. YouTube, 28 Mar. 2008. Web. 19 Dec. 2012. "Laurence Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development." Wikipedia.com. Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 30 Dec. 2012. Papalia, Diane E., Sally W. Olds, and Ruth D. Feldman. "Glossary." Human Development. Online Learning Center, 2009. Web. 30 Dec. 2012. Pennock, Michael. Your Life In Christ. Notre Dame: Ave Maria, 2008. Print. Conclusion Kohlberg’s stages of moral development are not consciously thought about as we go through life but by recognizing them, we can learn how different cultures and education levels affect not only the individual but an entire society’s moral development. It is useful for personal theological growth because by trying to reach stage 6 of moral development, we can begin to live in the way God meant us to. That being less judgmental and more thoughtful about how our actions affect other people’s lives.