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Component 4, Theme 2: The 1960s and 1970s
Transcript of Component 4, Theme 2: The 1960s and 1970s
How great was the change in the treatment and status of ethnic minorities in the 1960s and 1970s?
Component 4, Theme 2: The 1960s and 1970s
Why did the USA experience a deteriorating economic situation in the 1960s and 1970s?
Why was this period a time of short-lived presidencies?
January 16, 2018:
The Growth of the Counterculture
January 18, 2018:
The Rise of Feminism
January 22, 2018:
The Rise of the Gay Rights Movement
January 24, 2018:
The Emergence of the Silent Majority and the 1968 Election
The Student Protest Movements
• By the 1960s, college campuses had grown dramatically in size and diversity
• The new campuses were much more in touch with the Civil rights and anti-war movements
• Many campuses experienced outbursts of student demonstrations and protests
• Major Issues:
– College administration attempts to limit student protests in order to maintain public image and keep alumni, trustees, and corporate donors happy
• Students were banned from protesting major issues such as civil rights and the Vietnam War
– The connection between the Military Industrial Complex and universities
• 1962: Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) formed; led by Tom Haden of University of Michigan
– Met in Michigan; completed “Port Huron Statement”
– Expressed concern for human rights
– Became a presence on many college campuses in the U.S. in the 1960s
– Tried to connect with Civil Rights groups such as SNCC and, later, the Black Panthers
• 1964: “Free-Speech Movement”; students at University of California-Berkeley protest on campus
– Berkeley’s administration banned political demonstrations
– Students demanded the right to free-speech; led by Mario Savio
– Had an effect; Berkeley created new guidelines for student political activities
• 1968: SDS students at Columbia University stage large protest against:
– University connections with a military research firm (Institute for Defense Analyses)
– The building of a gymnasium in Harlem which would evict many poor, minority residents
• Hundreds occupied university buildings, including the president’s office
• Many students were suspended, but Columbia separated from IDA and gave up plans for the gym
• By the late-1960s, SDS had become more radical and identified with militant groups like the Black Panthers
• May 4, 1970
– Ohio National Guard opens fire upon student protesters at Kent State University, killing four
– The event had a massive public reaction as hundreds of public education facilities closed as over four million students led a strike
By the 1960s, some members of the counterculture movement turned away from Christian theology
- Adopted aspects of Eastern religions, such as Buddhism or Confucianism
- Legacies of this include the popularity of Yoga
The counterculture movement of the 1960s and 1970s embraced a wide variety of topics. Common themes emerged such as increased social freedoms and rights, groups which had been traditionally out of power in US history, anti-war movements, and an embrace of non-traditional values such as Eastern philosophies. A major influence on the New Left, the counterculture became a defining theme in modern social liberalism in the late-20th century USA.
Reflection: Identify one work from this period that is reflective of one of the themes in this key question. It could be a book, song, film, etc. Then research the work and compose a 250-300 word review which provides a general summary and analysis of the impact. Due on Google Classroom by the end of the day.
Evolutions in Popular Culture
- Rock music was tightly aligned with the counterculture movement.
- Many artists underwent stylistic evolutions such as the Beatles, the Beach Boys, and the Rolling Stones, while new artists such as Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, the Doors, and Jimi Hendrix all brought more experimental and socially-minded art to the field
- Film and literature also represented countercultural elements
- Stranger in a Strange Land
- The Graduate
- Hunter S. Thompson's Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas
- Common themes of the counterculture in art included references to illicit drug use, especially psychedelic drugs such as LSD, and critiques of upper and middle-class values
- 1960: The FDA approved the birth control pill
- Became popular with younger women by the late 1960s
- Allowed women to control reproductive choices privately
- Higher rates of women pursued higher education and stayed in the workforce after 25
- Women as a part of the labor force
- 1950: 29%
- 1970: 38%
Strong voices in support of women’s rights emerged in the 1960s
- 1963: Published the Feminine Mystique
-Wildly popular; considered to be the most influential book of modern, second-wave feminism
- 1966: Co-Founded National Organization for Women (NOW)
- Journalist who published her experience with sexism as an undercover Playboy Bunny
- Founded Ms. Magazine in 1972; called for legalization of abortio
The federal government made some efforts to feminist efforts
- President Kennedy established the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women
- Led by Eleanor Roosevelt
- 1963: Kennedy signs the Equal Pay Act into law
- Banned specifically linking pay to sex/gender
-The 1964 Civil Rights Act banned discrimination of race and sex in the public realm
- In 1973 the US Supreme Court heard arguments regarding a Texas law which restricted abortion on women unless the life of the mother was in jeopardy
- The Court ruled 7-2 that women had a right to privacy regarding medical decisions but that states also had an interest in preserving life; it established the “balancing act” which allowed states to regulate pregnancies after the third trimester
- The decision has continued to be one of the most fierce battle lines between the New Right and New Left
By the 1970s, the role of women had drastically changed in the U.S. The average age of marriage was significantly higher, as were rates of divorce. Women were also waiting later to have children as they focused increasingly on higher education and careers. Still, discrimination and sexism persisted in many aspects of society and a significant, if shrinking, gender pay gap persisted.
The Conservative Response
- The turbulence of the 1960’s, including the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert Kennedy in 1968, led to a serious divide in American society
- Many viewed the USA at a social tipping point in which the direction of the country for the long-term future was about to be decided
- Some saw the country in a state of radicalism in which crime and deviance were at intolerable levels
- This sentiment led to support for more socially conservative candidates than before such as George Wallace and Richard Nixon
A concerted gay-rights effort emerged in the late-1960s in response to widespread social disenfranchisement. Protest movements and concentrated organizational efforts led to a series of social and legal progresses which are still unfolding today.
The gay rights movement prior to 1969
- Prior to the 1960s homosexuals were subject to negative treatment
- A 1950 US Senate report noted that the presence of homosexuals in US government positions were a national security risk
- Executive Order 10450: Signed by Eisenhower; led to the termination and banning of gay/lesbian from federal employment
- Part of the "Lavender Scare" which ran alongside the Red Scare and McCarthyism of the 1950s
- Government records were also kept on suspected or known homosexuals by the FBI
- In 1952, the APA (American Psychiatric Association) classified homosexuality as a mental disorder
- There existed laws in many states banning certain acts of sexual intercourse between homosexual couples but permitting the same acts for heterosexual couples
- This also led to a clustering of openly-gay individuals into communities in large cities such as New York (Greenwich Village) and San Francisco (The Castro District)
- The presence of open and vocal gay communities in large cities in the 1950s and 1960s also led to backlash by city governments who sought to minimize or evict the gay communities
- There was also a rise in gay-right civil rights groups such as the Society for Human Rights, the Mattachine Society, and the Daughters of Bilitis
- June 28, 1969, a police raid at the Stonewall Inn, a popular gay bar in Greenwich Village, was conducted and resulted in the arrest of bartenders for illegally serving alcohol and drag queens.
- The crowd began throwing bottles at the police and a riot broke out which spread throughout the neighborhood
- The riot sparked a national conversation about gay rights and led to the formation of the Gay Liberation Front
- Following the Civil Rights Acts of the early-1960s, George Wallace became one of the nation’s leading spokesmen for segregation.
- One of his more notable moments included blocking the doors to the University of Alabama as African American students attempted to enter in 1963
- In the end Nixon won by a very narrow margin, winning 43.4 percent of the popular vote to Humphrey’s 42.7. 301 electoral votes to Humphrey’s 191.
- Even though Nixon did not win by a large margin, the election was seen as a sign that a majority of American voters was more interested in restoring stability than in promoting social change.
- In 1968, Wallace ran for president as a third-party candidate
- His campaign denounced the forced busing of students, the increase of government regulations and social programs, and the permissiveness of authorities toward race riots and antiwar demonstrations.
- He carried five states in the South in the 1968 election as the nominee of the American Independent Party and received 13.5% of the total vote
Mobilizing the “Silent Majority”
- Although George Wallace produced a fairly large following, the Republican Party had a much more effective effort in mobilizing what Nixon would later refer to as the “Silent Majority.” Campaigning in favor of order and stability, Richard Nixon reemerged as the prominent spokesman for what he called “Middle America.”
- Nixon believed there was a large portion of Americans who were tired of hearing about their obligation to the poor, the sacrifices necessary to achieve racial justice, and judicial reforms that to them seemed to serve criminals, what Yale historian C.Vann Woodward called the "Second Reconstruction".
The term "Silent Majority" was used by Richard Nixon to reference the coalition of voters which elected him into office in 1968. While a rhetorical generalization, the 1968 election has been seen by historians as a landmark moment in American politics. Nixon's supporters viewed it as a repudiation of the counterculture. In many ways it marked an end to a long period of domestic progressive control and policy which began with the New Deal in 1932 and also served to realign the political parties of the USA toward a new regionalization.
- In the 1950’s the African American Civil Rights Movement made huge strides
- Brown vs. Board of Education 1954
- Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955-1956
- Little Rock, 1957
- This provided momentum to the Civil Rights movement of the 1960’s and 1970’s.
- The March on Washington on August 28, 1963 brought together all the major Civil Rights Groups (NAACP, SCLC, CORE, etc.)
- Over 250,000 supporters demanded Civil Rights Legislation.
- Martin Luther King delivers his “I have a Dream” speech
- Created public support which led to Congressional and Presidential support for Civil Rights legislation
- In the next year, Congress and the Presidents passed multiple legislation which reflected the demands of the protesters.
- Backed by the progressive Warren-led Supreme Court, the US Congress and Presidents Kennedy and Johnson passed a series of major Civil Rights acts, the first since the late-1860s
- The Civil Rights Act 1964
- Civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
- Twenty-Fourth Amendment 1964
- Abolished the poll tax for all federal elections
- The Voting Rights act 1965
- Eliminated various devices, such as literacy tests, that had traditionally been used to restrict voting by African Americans
Non-violent Approaches to Civil Rights
- The Civil Rights movement of the 60’s was not just Martin Luther King and the SCLC.
“The amazing thing about our movement is that it is a protest of the people. It is not a one-man show it is not a preachers’ show. It’s the people.”
–Jo Ann Robinson
- 1960: Lunch counter sit ins challenging racial segregation at lunch counters in the South
- In 1961, the Student Non-violent Co-coordinating Committee (SNCC) was founded by Ella Baker.
- 1961: SNCC and CORE joined together to begin the Freedom Rides.
- They rode buses from the North to the South to challenge segregation laws. This included many white activists as well.
- 1964: Freedom Summer
- All four major groups pushed for a massive voter registration in Mississippi 1964.
- Swann vs. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education 1971
- SCOTUS upheld ruling (9-0) that busing was necessary of black and white students across urban areas in order to integrate schools racially
- In the late-1960s, and increasing number of black feminists became critical of mainstream feminism for adovcating for goals conducive to white, middle class lifestyles
- Audre Lorde and bell hooks both noted the feminist movement of the early-1960s sought to liberate housewives, a life not typically experienced by women of color
- In doing so they criticized mainstream feminists for embracing a self-serving approach which did not liberate women, but rather white women of privilege
- "The master's tools will never dismantle the master's house." - Audre Lorde
- The 1972 Education Amendments Act passes a series of federal regulations on institutions accepting federal aid of any amount
- Title IX of the act stated:
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
- This led to a significant redistribution of funding and effort into girls sports at the K-12 and post-secondary levels.
February 7, 2018:
African American Civil Rights Movement
Quick Answer: In the early-to-mid 1960s the African American Civil Rights movement became highly organized and successfully campaigned for legislative and legal victories. The federal response was widespread and supported by the Warren Court, giving American racial minorities their first serious period of progress since the early years of Reconstruction.
Individual: In your notes, read the two attachments from Howard Zinn regarding the rise of black militancy in the 1960s. For each, identify two interesting quotes from the text and then provide a brief piece of analysis in which you connect the quote to an issue in class, ask a followup question, or summarize the main idea.
February 9th, 2018:
Rise and Fall of Black Power
Militant Approaches to Civil Rights
By the mid-1960s, some Civil Rights activists began advancing more militant ideas
- Believed non-violent groups were compromising and taking unnecessary abuse
- Emphasized “black power” and a more aggressive stance
- Willing to fight back if attacked “by any means necessary”
Promoted “Pan-Africanism”; some excluded non-black members
- More popular with young, urban blacks in the North and West Coast
- April 4th, 1968 MLK is in Memphis, TN joining sanitation workers on strike
- Assassinated by James Earl Ray
Mass riots erupted, 20,000 arrests were made
Some saw non-violence as a failure
- Days after King’s death Congress passes Civil Rights Act of 1968
- Outlawed discrimination in the sale and renting of housing
- Born Malcolm Little (1925-1965); raised in poverty while living throughout Northern cities
- Father and other family was victim of white violence
- Imprisoned at age 20; converted to Nation of Islam; admired its rejection of white culture
- Nation of Islam: a combination of African pride and the Islamic faith originated in the 1930s in Detroit
- Took a more aggressive stance toward Civil Rights; Nation of Islam desired black separatism and to create their own nation
- Left the Nation of Islam in 1964 after a dispute with its leader, but remained Muslim
- Assassinated in 1965 by three members of the Nation
How far do you agree the term "violent" is an fair label for the Black Panther Party for Self Defense.
Reflection: Take 10 minutes to read the primary source located on Google Classroom and make notes. You must come to a conclusion of
agree or disagree
and have at least
three specific pieces of evidence from the text to support
your perspective. You must also have at least
one specific piece of evidence from the text to counter your argument
Relocate to the side of the room that represents your perspective. You may stay in the middle as undecided, but you will be asked to discuss your dilemma citing support from both sides.
The Black Panther Party for Self Defense
- A militant group of civil activists created by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, CA in 1966.
- Supported violent resistance to white suppression. Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. High point came from Mexico Olympics in 1968
- Portrayed a militant image as a sign of strength
- Embraced Marxist views
- Opposed Vietnam War, arguing it was white men sending Africans to kill Asians.
Migrated to the US in 1951 from Trinidad. Active in SNCC and named chairman in 1966
SNCC dropped “non-violent” and excluded whites
Became active in the Black Panthers in 1967
- Migrated to the US in 1951 from Trinidad. - Active in SNCC and named chairman in 1966
- SNCC dropped “non-violent” and excluded whites
- Became active in the Black Panthers in 1967
- He left the USA in 1969 to live in Guinea and attempted to promote Pan-Africanism for the rest of his life
The Long, Hot Summer of 1967
- By 1967, racial tensions were again rising; many blacks were angry with
- High unemployment
- Residential inequalities were still stark
- Many felt that the Civil Rights acts of 1964-1965 were not making a difference
- 1967: The “Long Hot Summer”
- Over 150 riots break out in U.S. cities;
- Massive expenses in damages and arrests
- Kerner Commission to figure out why the riots were happening
- Reported riots caused by frustration due to segregation and clustering of poverty
- Called for emphasis on breaking down residential segregation between ethnic groups and increased federal funding in the inner-cities
- Johnson Administration creates “Great Society” program
- War on poverty, created government-sponsored programs that employed poor citizens and provided financial assistance
- Expanded food stamps, public housing
- 1967: Johnson nominates Thurgood Marshall to be first black Supreme Court Justice
- By 1968, even Martin Luther King, Jr. began to call for more radical approaches
- Vietnam was widely criticized by most in the black community, including MLK and Black Panthers
- 1968 MLK had been very critical of Vietnam War and Johnson administration
- Focused on labor issues, union strikes
- Took more radical tone wanted large scale government reform
- Began Poor Peoples Campaign
Quick Answer: By the mid-to-late 1960s, restlessness began to boil over in many urban parts of the country. Embraced especially by young African Americans in the inner cities, a Black Power movement emerged which was openly critical of non-violent movements and sought to establish a Pan-African movement within the USA. More controversial within the mainstream USA, it was met with criticism from some parts of the nation.
The Chicano Movement
- The Chicano Movement of the 1960s merged cultural and political efforts to empower Mexican Americans
- Much of the efforts were expanded to Latino immigrants regardless of national origin
- Prior to the 1960s, persons of Mexican descent faced discrimination, particularly in the American Southwest were they were a more visible population
- A growing population, many Latinos could not find employment in fields other than farm labor, where average hourly pay was less than $1.50 and there were no benefits; many were also pay-for-work, so no challenges to labor laws were available
- Key Court Cases
Mendez v. Westminster (1947)
- SCOTUS rules the segregation of students into "Mexican Schools" in California was unconstitutional
Hernandez v. Texas (1954)
- SCOTUS ruled that Mexican Americans were entitled to 14th Amendment rights just like any other citizen
Cesar Chavez 1960’s and 1970’s led Hispanic farm workers in a series of strikes in order to improve their working conditions.
- Union leader and labor organizer
- Wanted improved treatment, pay and working conditions for farm workers
- Founded the first farm worker union and merged with other Latino unions to form the United Farm Worker (UFW) in 1962
- 1968, Cesar Chavez led a boycott that resulted in a collective bargaining agreement guaranteeing field workers the right to unionize
Employed nonviolent means to bring attention to the plight of farm workers and work to improve conditions
- Led marches, called for boycotts and went on several hunger strikes
- Many of these led to pay increases and worker benefits
- National awareness to the dangers of pesticides to workers' health
- Major supporters: Robert Kennedy and Jesse Jackson
''You do not take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him up to the starting line of a race and then say, 'You are free to compete with all the others,' and still justly believe that you have been completely fair. Thus it is not enough just to open the gates of opportunity. All our citizens must have the ability to walk through those gates.''
- President Lyndon Johnson
February 13th, 2018:
The U.S. government and Native Americans
- By 1880s, most Indians had been pushed West and placed on reservations
- 1887: Dawes Act required individual ownership of tribal lands; led to serious mismanagement and exploitation
After 1900, the Federal government offered little support to Indians
1924: Indian Citizenship Act granted citizenship to all Indians
1934: Indian Reorganization Act
- Passed during the New Deal; reversed much of the Dawes Act of 1887
- Allowed reservations to be self-governed
1968: Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968
Applied individual protections to Indians in tribes
During the late-1960s, several groups promoting Indian unity began to appear
- Similar to black militancy; promoted cultural unity and pride
- Willing to use “counter-violence”
- Indians of All Tribes
- 1969: Occupied Alcatraz Island until 1971; broken by U.S. troops American Indian Movement
- 1973: Occupied site of Wounded Knee which led to an armed standoff with law enforcement
“Affirmative Action” refers to any policy implemented in order to provide increased opportunities for groups within a population which face, or have faced, opposition or discrimination.
- In this context, the term “affirmative” implies active or intentional; as opposed to passive or neutral
- First put into effect by the Kennedy Administration in 1961 with Executive Order #10925
o Regarding federal contract jobs:
The contractor will not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, creed, color, or national origin. The contractor will take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin.
o Committee to draft order was chaired by VP Lyndon Johnson
o It required federal contractors take action to eliminate racial discrimination in hiring
The intent was to actively erase institutional disadvantage which stemmed from centuries of social, political, legal, and economic operations which had specifically targeted certain minority groups
Lyndon Johnson issued Executive Order #11375 in 1967, which expanded affirmative action policies to include discrimination on the basis of sex
- Typically groups identified by affirmative policies include minorities, women, and persons in poverty
- Affirmative policies can be implemented in any field, but tend to be focused in education and employment
Affirmative Action was also implemented by progressive university admission programs, most notably at many of the Ivy League institutions as well as other perceived “top tier” universities throughout the 1960s and 1970s
- The implementation of affirmative polices led to opposition as well
- The subject of most opposition is that such policies violate the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment to non-recipients
University of California v. Bakke (1978)
– SCOTUS ruled that universities may use race a factor in deciding admissions, but that they may not use it strictly such as in a quota system (UC-Davis had been setting aside a mandatory 16% quota system) as that would violate the 14th Amendment
February 15, 2018:
Hispanic and American Indians Civil Rights Movements
Recent Legal History
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)
– SCOTUS reaffirms public universities may use race as a determining factor for admissions but that they may not use a strict quota system; may be used in conjunction with other factors
Schuette v. Coalition to Defend Affirmative Action (2014)
- SCOTUS ruled that a Michigan law banning Affirmative Action in the state services federal funding was absent was legal
Fisher v. University of Texas I and II (2013 and 2016)
–Abigail Fisher challenged the UT admissions system and argued it violated the
ruling from 2003; SCOTUS upheld the admissions program of the University of Texas which used a holistic admissions model including components such as talents, leadership qualities, family circumstances, and race.
Quick Answer: Affirmative Action stems from a series of federal orders in the early-1960s which aimed to create a system-wide balance for historically-persecuted groups within the United States. Although there is no federal law or policy which requires a specific set of guidelines, it has resulted in litigation, especially in the field of higher education.
Quick Answer: In the 1960s both Mexican Americans and Native Americans launched their own Civil Rights movements. Inspired by the success of the African American movements, but with their own distinct roots, both movements had some successes but were not nearly as widely known as the African American movements. This may be due, in part, to their regional concentrations (i.e. - the US Southwest or Reservations)
March 11, 2018:
The Kennedy Presidency
Used his image as an attractive and articulate man to his advantage
Made his personality an integral part of his presidency and central focus of national attention.
First Roman Catholic and youngest person to be elected US President
In 1961 increased military budget by 15% and introduced a policy of flexible response
This caused the Soviet Union to build up its own arsenal, so rather than establish American superiority, Kennedy started an arms race
Inability to decrease tensions with Soviet Russian and the building of Berlin wall
Increased spending on defense and space program to $25 billion, which encouraged internal prosperity. Major factor in the sustained economic growth during the 1960’s
The 1962 Trade Expansion Act cut tariffs to encourage trade
The Revenue Act gave $1 billion in tax credits for new equipment and investment
Used power of his office to encourage further growth through federal spending. States were encouraged to apply for and spend federal grants for housing, school building, highways etc.
March 1, 2018:
The Economic Impact of the Cold War
Spiking Energy Prices
- Throughout the 1970s the USA also faced shortages in energy production, particularly petroleum
- This, in turn, led to periodic rises in the price of fuel leading to public frustration and, at times, panic
- The price of oil and gas would at times double, and rationing at gas stations was often implemented
- The causes for these energy crises varied, but included:
o Instability in the Middle East due to conflicts (early-1970s Arab-Israeli conflicts, 1979 Iranian Revolution) which reduced production
o OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) was formed as a union of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Indonesia, Nigeria and Ecuador
- OPEC collectively organized the production and value of oil, which led to increased profit for member states but also increased prices for consuming states
The cost of the space race
- After the Soviet success of Sputnik in October, 1957, the USA invested heavy amounts of funding into aerospace research and development; established NASA in 1958
- August 1957, the Soviets also launched their first inter-continental ballistic missile (ICBM), a nuclear weapon capable of hitting Western Europe. The Soviets were financing the arms and space programs from economic growth of 7%, twice that of the USA.
- Eisenhower reluctantly engaged in military development, but was wary of over reliance on the military-industrial complex.
- Under the Kennedy Administration the arms and space race would escalate
- From 1961 to 1964, NASA’s budget was increased almost 500% and the lunar landing program eventually involved some 34,000 NASA employees and 375,000 employees of industrial and university contractors.
- Total cost of space race
- NASA spent about $23 billion dollars on manned programs from 1961 through first lunar landing in July 1969, compared to the Soviet manned programs which ranges from $4.8 billion to $10.1 billion
The Revival of Western Europe and Japan
- US efforts to revive Western Europe and Japan in the 1940s and 1950s began to show progress by the 1960s as their economies and industrial outputs became healthy
- This also meant that US now had increased competition in core manufacturing industries like steel and auto, from Japan and Europe.
- For three decades the American economy was the envy of the world, producing as much as a third of the world’s industrial goods and dominating international trade. As well as the American dollar being the strongest currency in the world. These rested on several artificial conditions that were rapidly disappearing by the late 1960’s
- U.S. manufacturing not only had major competition in world trade but also at home. Automobiles, steel, and many other manufactured goods from Japan and Europe established footholds in US markets
- The energy crises of the 1970s also led to US consumers seeking automobiles which consumed less fuel, leading to an increase in purchasing of foreign cars
- The 1970’s marked the beginning of a long process of de-industrialization during which thousands of factories across the country closed and millions of workers lost their jobs.
- This contributed to an already-deteriorating urban setting in the former Steel Belt, an area which would soon be referred to as the Rust Belt
Economic growth persisted throughout Kennedy’s presidency from 1961-1963
- Under JFK, the USA increased spending on defense and space by 20% which led to a $25 billion investment in internal production
- He also increased federal grants for states to use on housing, schools, and highways
- He also cut taxes on businesses in order to encourage them to expand
This economic growth continued under Johnson from 1964 to 1968
- As federal spending continued to increase due to the growing American presence in Vietnam, tax cuts also helped stimulate employment
- The increase in spending and the cuts in taxes also began a long history of rising federal debt
- Since 1960, the USA has only had an annual budget that has been balanced or in surplus five times (1969, 1998-2001)
Under the Nixon Administration (1969-1973), the economy entered a decline
- Inflation (i.e. – an increase in prices which leads to a decrease in the value of money) and unemployment were both rising, an economic phase known as “stagflation”
- Inflation Rates
o 1967 – 3%
o 1973 – 9%
- Unemployment Rates
o 1969 – 3.3%
o 1972 – 5.6%
- The massive increase in federal spending (Vietnam, Johnson’s Great Society/War on Poverty, etc.) led to a large deficit and a rebounding Europe and Japan increased competition for US exports
- Increases in energy prices also led to a series of price hikes
Quick Answer: Federal spending associated with the Space and Arms Races and tax cuts provided the US with a stable economy in the early-1960s, but by the late-1960s stagflation had set in an fostered a negative economic environment. This was exacerbated by a rise in foreign competition due to a resurgent Western Europe and Japan as well as a spike in energy prices throughout 1970s.
Reflection: Listen to the songs "My Hometown" and "Youngstown" by Bruce Springsteen. Follow the lyrics and make a connection between the economic climate of the 1970s and the impact it had on American industrial towns in the Steel Belt.
For the connections, complete the matrix to the right.
March 7, 2018:
The end of the gold-dollar standard, 1971
The Nixon Shock
- By 1970, Nixon was confronting two economic problems
- a rising unemployment rate due to a recession
- a creeping inflation rate due to excess dollars in the economy from years of federal spending
-In 1971, President Nixon decided to withdraw from Bretton Woods and take the USA off the Gold Standard
-He felt too many foreign nations were returning dollars for gold, thus depleting US reserves
- He also disliked a strict monetary policy and instead encouraged infusion of dollars into the US economy through federal spending
-Nixon also issued Executive Order 11615, imposing a 90-day freeze on wages and prices in order to counter inflation
-This was the first time the U.S. government enacted wage and price controls since World War II.
-An import tariff of 10% was set
- By removing the US from the gold standard completely, the US Federal Reserve was now unchecked in its printing of money
- The American public viewed it as a proactive move by Nixon to protect American economic interests
-Short term success; growth in employment and production increased
-However, inflation and unemployment soon soared excess money caused a devaluation in the dollar
-Helped lead to Stagflation in the 1970s and caused the dollar to drop by a third
March 7, 2018:
The Crises of 1973 and 1979 and Stagflation
The Bretton Woods System
-1944: Established the rules for commercial and financial relations among developed nations in the world economy
-Set an agreement that all participating nations (44 at the time) would adhere to a gold standard in order to standardize currency and exchange rates; every nation would back its currency with gold
- In 1973 war (The Yom Kippur War) broke out between Israel and a union of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria
- In response to the US military support of Israel, OPEC put trade sanctions on the US which included an embargo of oil
- This created an oil shortage in the US and led to spikes in energy prices
-The embargo combined with weak national policies on energy issues, high consumption levels, and panic-stricken investors. Oil prices skyrocketed
-Imports of oil to the U.S. dropped from 6 million in September 1973 to 5 million in subsequent months
-By December 1973, the price per barrel rose 130%
Quick Answer: President Richard Nixon removed the USA from the Bretton Woods system in 1971 as a part of the Nixon Shock, a series of economic moves designed to address rising inflation, unemployment, and foreign purging of US gold reserves. This effectively ended any tie between the US dollar and gold reserves, ushering in a new era in which the US Federal Reserve dictated the amount of money in the market. The results were mixed, and have been a source of historical debate ever since.
-As the unemployment rate rose in the early-1970s, while a combination of price increases and wage stagnation led to a period of economic inactivity known as "stagflation". -----
- President Nixon tried to alleviate these problems by deregulating the dollar and declaring wage and price freezes.
-Unemployment rose by 33% between 1968 and 1970, while the consumer price index went up by 11%. At the same time, real wages began to stagnate. Simultaneous inflation and stagnation, nicknamed stagflation, puzzled economic analysts
-Usually, when wages fell, prices fell, and when wages increased, prices increased. But not in the 1970s.
- As a result, Americans had less purchasing power, and increasingly expensive American exports were at a disadvantage in the international market. - - In 1971, the United States experienced its first unfavorable international trade balance (value of imports > value of exports) since 1893.
Quick Answer: The complex forces which led to the downturn of the 1970s included the outsourcing of manufacturing jobs, increased dependence on uncontrollable foreign energy sources, and shifts in monetary policies which did not recognize market needs. This resulted in stagflation, which was basically a stagnation in economic growth and a rise in unemployment. Coupled with rising prices, the 1970s represented a distinct departure from the 1950s Age of Affluence.
Background to the Oil Crisis
-US oil consumption was very high in the early 1970’s compared to production which declined. In 1973, 36% of energy consumed was in foreign oil.
-Arab-Israeli conflicts led to growing tensions between US and Arab countries as the USA often supported Israel as an important foreign ally
-The massive cost of the war in Vietnam and the expansion of social programs at home without commensurate tax increases helped to drive inflation.
-US manufacturing had become less competitive over time compared to efficient overseas rivals, particularly in Germany and Japan.
-More and more American jobs were in the service sector, which had lower wages and fewer benefits than manufacturing jobs.
-Individuals born on the tail end of the baby boom found themselves competing in a very crowded labor market, especially as the workforce became more inclusive.
Domestic Policy changes
-Nov. 27, 1973 Nixon signed the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act, embracing government regulation
-The Federal Energy Office was created in December of 1973, as part of the Executive Office of the President, gaining responsibility over fuel allocation, rationing, prices, and 'Project Independence'
-'Project Independence' was created in hopes of freeing the U.S. completely from foreign oil dependence by 1980
-The embargo itself lasted six months, ending on March 18, 1974
- After the resignation of Nixon during the Watergate Scandal, Gerald Ford assumed the presidency in 1974
-The Federal Energy Administration was created in June of 1974
March 13, 2018:
LBJ and the Great Society
-On November 22, 1963 Kennedy traveled to Texas with his wife and Vice President Lyndon Johnson. While the presidential motorcade rode slowly through the streets of Dallas shots rang out, two bullets struck the president.
-Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the crime later that day and then was mysteriously murdered by Jack Ruby as he was being moved from one jail to another. This prematurely ended the Kennedy administration and the Johnson presidency began.
1964 Presidential Election
-Landslide victory for Johnson, Democrats got 61% of the vote, the Senate and House of Representatives had large Democrat majorities.
-Some of the reasons for the huge victory was all that Johnson had achieved in 1963 and the mood of the American people was still supportive of reform. Also, Vietnam had not become as divisive as it would over the following years and the Republican candidate, Barry Goldwater, was thought of to be too right wing.
Reflection: In your teams, develop an assessment method to rank the following US presidents from 1960 to 1980:
- John Kennedy
- Lyndon Johnson
- Richard Nixon
- Gerald Ford
- Jimmy Carter
You should begin by developing a set of assessment categories which cover a variety of domestic and foreign topics (At least four egories).
Then, score each President and provide an explanation for your scoring methodology. For each score, you should cite at least one example of their effort (i.e. a policy, military order, executive order, etc.) and specific evidence of its impact (i.e. - data). Finally, you should create a ranking of the Presidents for this time period from 1-5 and give a final analysis of the rationale for their ranking.
Today, the assessment framework is due to Google Classroom by the end of the period.
Quick Answer: The Kennedy Administration, although cut short by his assassination in 1963, was characterized by a series of progressive government reforms. His New Frontier, expansion of Civil Rights legislation, and increased military focus in Vietnam all signaled a period of expansive federal government actions. This was met with some successes (eventually won the Space Race, Civil Rights Act, etc.) albeit posthumously. It also saw some failures as Vietnam was eventually viewed as a failed military involvement and the arms race set up a dangerous reignition of the Cold War, among others.
John F. Kennedy
Son of the wealthy, powerful, and controversial Joseph P. Kennedy, former ambassador to Britain.
Election of 1960
John F. Kennedy Democratic
Senator from Massachusetts
Domestic reforms more ambitious than any sine the New Deal “New Frontier”
Richard Nixon Republican
Vice president under Eisenhower
Kennedy won by a narrow margin with 49.9 % of the popular vote to Nixon’s 49.6%. Kennedy did win 303 electoral votes to Nixon’s 219
Kennedy’s votes came from the industrial northeast and the largest industrial states in the Midwest, as well as a portion of his party’s traditional strength in the South and Southwest
Kennedy’s close popular win and a Congress dominated by Republicans and conservative Democrats frustrated his ambitious reform plan
Kennedy and the New Frontier 1961-1963
-Came into office with no strategy on civil rights, most of his presidency displayed a reluctance to get involved in civil rights.
-Kennedy was hampered by the fact he had won the narrowest of victories over Nixon and he did not have majority control in Congress, who blocked much of his legislative program.
Was forced to act because of actions by African Americans, 1960 lunch counter protests, 1961 Freedom Rides, as well as James Meredith’s attempt to enroll at the University of Mississippi
-Introduced Civil Rights Bill of 1963, which ended legal segregation
The Area Redevelopment Act of 1961
-Gave grants and loans for training, development, community facilities as well as help for depressed areas
-The Manpower Development and Training Act 1962
Provided $435 million for school and job-based training, focused on those who had lost their jobs due to automation
Equal Pay Act of 1963
-Did not cover all women and had no powers of enforcement, however 171,000 women did benefit from the act
Higher Education Facilities Act in 1963
-Gave $145 million grants for graduate schools in science, language and engineering
More interested in foreign policy and domestic issues simply did not get as much attention. Conservative coalition in Congress blocked many of Kennedy’s measures and resented his northern liberalism, his ambition and his charm. Although JFK was not a radical president the US experienced the longest period of continuous economic growth in history, as well as inspiring a generation to bring social issues to the forefront, policy moving, and leaving a strong economy so that Johnson’s Great Society could be paid for
Established Peace Corps
By doubling NASA’s budget, Kennedy was able to fulfill his promise of putting a man on the moon. Neil Armstrong July 1969
First president to start to tackle environmental issues seriously with an advisory committee on pesticides and a Clean Air Act of 1963
advocated on mental health issues
worked with Congress on affordable housing and equal pay for women
-Kennedy wanted to “ensure liberty” by building up America’s nuclear deterrent, which led to an arms race with Soviet Union
-Bay of Pigs
In 1961 Americans backed an invasion of Cuba by CIA-trained Cuban exiles to overthrow Fidel Castro. It failed and fearing another invasion Castro invited the Russians to build missile bases on the island. Which led to the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962
-Increased US involvement in the Vietnam War
War of Poverty
-Even with all the economic growth from the previous decade, there was still an estimated 40 million Americans living in poverty.
-Poverty was worst in the cities as the
worsened, with the advancements in technology there were less blue color jobs available and those who could afford to move to the suburbs did.
The Great Migration
led to a clustering of poverty in the inner cities across the North, Midwest, and West Coast.
- In 1965, 43% of black families lived in poverty and less than 40% of African Americans finished high school.
-Poverty was highest among African Americans, female single-parent families, the old, the sick, and the poorly educated.
- It also existed in white areas such as
and, later, the
where the decline of traditional industries was a major cause of poverty.
- It was expanded after the report by the
(in response to the
Long Hot Summer of 1967
) urged the federal government to assist African Americans through economic programs
-Under Johnson the economy continued to thrive. The GNP increased 7% in 1964, 8% in 1965, and 9% in 1966. The federal deficit fell by $1 billion and unemployment dropped below 5%.
-LBJ pushed through Kennedy’s tax reduction bill, cutting taxes by $10 billion and the economy was also helped due to the general world economic growth. The military spending on Vietnam also helped to boost employment.
- The 89th Congress (1965-1967) passed more than 60 pieces of legislation, including 11 conservation bills, four education bills, 10 health measures, an increase in the minimum wage and an increase in social security to two million more people.
- Generally, progressives liked the use of the federal government to help the poorest Americans while conservatives viewed it as an overreach of the government and excessive spending.
- Also included in the Great Society is the Civil Rights legislation of the time along with the appointment of Thurgood Marshall to the SCOTUS in 1967
- 1964 Civil Rights Act
- 1965 Voting Rights Act
- 1968 Civil Rights Act
-As Johnson was launching progressive reforms in America, he was also being drawn more and more into Vietnam.
- The war in Vietnam was very costly and much of the money that Johnson wanted to spend on social programs went to funding the war effort.
- As the war became more unpopular at home, with the growing costs of the war, support for reforms eroded
-The Defense Department reported that the overall cost of the Vietnam War was $173 billion, with another $250 billion in Veteran’s benefits and interest.
- Eroding Support and the 1968 Election
- By 1968 public support for the war in Vietnam was fading rapidly; American deaths were rising and there was no end in sight
- Walter Cronkite’s aired a special for the CBS Evening News covering the war in 1968
- Coverage focused on the Vietcong surprise attack on the “
- Questioned the progress of the war and led to increased anti-war sentiment
- Weeks later, Johnson announced he would not seek a second term
March 15, 2018:
Nixon and Watergate
Quick Answer: The Johnson Administration was marked by serious progressive reforms on the domestic front and a continued escalation of US involvement in Vietnam on the foreign front. His domestic reforms were passed with a significant amount of conservative support, and his accomplishments are notable for their impact. That said, his handling of the US presence in Vietnam is often viewed critically by historians and his effort to win a "War on Poverty" has seen mixed results.
- Nixon wins by appealing to the “Silent Majority”
- Many of Nixon’s policies were a response to what he believed to be the demands of the “silent majority”
- Dismantling of the Great Society
- Tried unsuccessfully to prohibit the use forced busing to achieve school desegregation
- Forbade the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to cut off federal funds from school districts that failed to comply with court orders to integrate
- Reduced or cut many of the social programs of the Great Society and New Frontier, like the Office of Economic Opportunity, which was a key piece of the War on Poverty during the Johnson presidency
- However not all of Nixon’s domestic policies were conservative
- Tried to overhaul the nation’s welfare system, wanted to replace it with the Family Assistance Plan, which would have guaranteed annual income for all Americans. $1,600 in federal grants, which could be supplemented by outside earnings up to $4,000.
- Shot down by welfare recipients, members of the welfare bureaucracy, and conservatives.
- Passed a number of environmental acts
1969 National Environmental Protection Act
, which established the EPA, in 1970 The Clean Air Act, and in 1972 the Clean Water Act.
- By creating the EPA, Nixon established a federal regulatory agency which is designed to write and enforce laws to protect environmental and human health
Nixon's Judicial Appointments
- Nixon wanted to use his judicial appointments to give the court a more conservative cast.
- When Warren resigned Nixon seized this opportunity to replace him with a judge with more conservative background,
- Rather than retreating from the court’s commitment to social reform, the court in many areas actually moved forward.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg (1971)
ruled in favor of forced busing to achieve racial balance in schools
Furman v. Georgia (1972)
Court overturned existing capital punishment statures
Roe v. Wade (1973)
struck down laws forbidding abortion
Bakke v. Board (1978)
upheld principle of affirmative action
Election of 1972
-Nixon ran his reelection on restraint in social reform, de-federalization of political power, defense of traditional values, and new balance in international relations.
- The Democratic Nominee George S. McGovern was a big advocate of advanced liberal positions on most social and economic issues.
-Nixon won reelection by one of the largest margins in history. 60. 7% of the popular vote to McGovern’s 37.5% as well as winning the Electoral College 520 to 17.
-As mentioned earlier, the economic problems of the 1970s were complicated by a federal budget deficit (increased expenses and decreased tax revenue), inflation, increased unemployment, and an energy crisis.
- Nixon's handling of this, including the
, is generally viewed by economists to have been unsuccessful in the long term and to have contributed to stagflation throughout the 1970s.
- The Watergate break-in
-On June 17th, 1972 police arrested five men who had broken into the offices of the Democratic National Committee in the Watergate office buildings.
-Among them were former employees of the Committee for the Re-Election of the President.
-Public interest grew slowly as few Americans questioned Nixon’s connection in what he called “this very bizarre incident.”
- Then in 1973 the Watergate burglars went on trial. Two different sets of scandals emerged from the trial.
-Pattern of abuses of power involving the White House and the Nixon campaign committee
-The way the administration tried to manage, or cover up, the investigations of the Watergate break-in and other abuses.
“Saturday Night Massacre”
-Nixon’s executive privilege, in refusing to release tapes that included every conversation in the White House during Nixon’s Presidency, was taken to court in 1973 by Archibald Cox, a Harvard law professor.
- Nixon then fired Cox in desperation and watched as both Attorney General Elliot Richardson and his deputy reigned in protest.
- After this incident the House of Representatives would investigate the possibility of impeachment which seemed inevitable
- Finally, on August 8th, 1974 Nixon announced his resignation. He was later pardoned by President Ford.
-Nixon and Sec. of State Henry Kissinger wanted to forge a new relationship with the Chinese communists to help counterbalance the Soviet Union
-The Chinese were eager to forestall the possibility of a Soviet-American alliance against China and to enter China into the international arena.
-In 1971, Nixon sent Kissinger on a secret mission to Beijing. Then when Kissinger returned Nixon announced to the nation that he would visit China himself. China was accepted into the United Nations and replaced Taiwan.
- After Nixon visited China in 1972 this began a low-level diplomatic relationship between the two countries.
-In 1972, US and Soviet Union produced the first
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I)
which froze production of nuclear missiles of both sides.
- Nixon's general foreign policy aim was to remove US presence in foreign nations and to only act as a nuclear ally if needed; his goal was to enable and encourage foreign states to conduct their own defense and stability (this aligend with
-Did not want to retreat from Vietnam for fear it would destroy American honor and credibility.
-New policy of "
" where the US would train and equip the South Vietnamese military.
- In 1969, Nixon announced that he was going to reduce American ground troops by 60,000; these reductions continued for years.
- The number of troops went from the highest in 1969, 540,000, to about 60,000 in 1972.
-War did expand geographically as we invaded Cambodia to destroy enemy sanctuaries
Quick Answer: The Nixon Administration represented a stark departure from the progressive Kennedy/Johnson years. Nixon promised to rollback a culture of federal regulation and he delivered in many respects. Still, his legacy is nuanced in that his passage of environmental regulatory laws and his embrace of China represented a stark departure from traditional conservative orthodoxy. His legacy is most notable, however, for the Watergate scandal and his eventual resignation.
-Only person to not be elected to either the position of President or Vice President.
-Ford’s personality was a contrast to Nixon’s. He was humorous, open, and straightforward. His family also became popular with the American public.
The Nixon Pardon
-On September 8th, 1974, Ford gave a full pardon to Nixon for any crimes committed during his presidency. Nixon would have faced likely imprisonment for his role in the Watergate Scandal.
-Ford argued that he wanted to end the crisis of the Watergate scandal, so the American people could move on.
March 26, 2018:
The Ford and Carter Presidencies
-With the fall of South Vietnam, severe economic recession, and Watergate, Democrats saw the 1976 elections as a great opportunity to take back the White House
-After the 1974 mid-term election Democrats controlled much of the Senate and House.
-President Ford would lose a very close election to Jimmy Carter with Ford winning 47.9% of the popular vote to Carter’s 49.9%. Carter would win 297 of the electoral votes to Ford’s 240.
-The Watergate Scandal severely damaged the political system, especially the office of the President.
- As Democrats regained power, Ford had to rely increasingly on his veto power, which he used 66 times.
- His short administration was also marked by the continuation of rising inflation and unemployment which began under Nixon
- There was also a rise in extreme left-wing dictatorships in formerly-colonized regions (Latin America, Sub-tropical Africa, SE Asia) which were publicly antagonistic toward the West
- In 1975 American troops were evacuated from South Vietnam and Saigon fell to the North
Outsider from a southern state, physicist in the Navy before taking over the family peanut business in Georgia
- After winning the 1976 election Carter envisioned moving the Democratic Party away from its major social reform days towards more of a political middle ground.
- He embraced some deregulation to align with conservatives
- However many of his appointees continued with progressive ideals of how government should operate.
- Greatly increased numbers of ethnic minorities in government.
- Created the department of Energy and in 1979 divided the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare into separate departments
-In Carter’s first year in office unemployment dropped from 8% to 7%. However inflation kept rising to 10% in 1978, by 1980 up to 13% with 20% interest rates.
-Cut federal spending and also supported the Federal Reserve Board when it raised interest rates.
-Severe economic recession in 1974-75 caused by the world economic slowdown, which was due in large part to the 400% increase in oil prices by OPEC in 1973
-Unemployment had risen to 8% and some areas like Detroit were even worse off because their economy rested largely on the US car industry.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
-Leading up to Iranian hostage crisis was the Iranian Revolution of 1979. Which was the result of Iranians resenting the repressive, authoritarian tactics of the Shah, as well as the Islamic clergy opposing the Shahs efforts to modernize and westernize Iran.
-The Shah fled Iran and eventually arrived in New York to be treated for cancer. Shortly after this an armed mob invaded the American embassy and seized the diplomats and military personnel inside. Demanding the return of the Shah to Iran.
-53 Americans were held hostage for over a year. With years of international humiliations and defeats, the hostage crisis released a lot of anger and emotion from the American people.
Invasion of Afghanistan
-Shortly after the Iranian hostage crisis, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan on December 27, 1979. The Soviets had been a power in Afghanistan for years and had established a Marxist government there April 1978.
-Some saw the Soviet invasion as an attempt to keep the status quo, however Carter believed that it was a step in the Soviets controlling much of the world’s oil supplies, calling it the “gravest threat to world peace since World War 2.
-Carter imposed a series of economic sanctions and canceled American involvement in the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow. He also withdrew SALT 2 from Senate consideration.
The America people felt anxiety, frustration, and anger with the domestic economic troubles and international crises. These greatly damaged President Carter’s standing with the public making his reelection in 1980 far from obtainable.
-Cornerstone to his success was the peace accord he helped obtain between Prime Minister Menachem Begin of Israel and President Anwar Sadat of Egypt at Camp David in 1979
-As well as the Panama Canal treaty in 1978
-The taking of American hostages in Iran in 1979 and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
-Carter became the first one-term president since World War II. He lost the 1980 election for a variety of reasons:
- the Iranian hostage situation
- USSR occupation of Afghanistan
- Domestically the economy was in a recession with high inflation, high interest rates and unemployment.
-Lost to conservative Republican Ronald Reagan in the popular vote 50.8% 41% and 489 to 49 in the Electoral College.
Quick Answer: The Ford and Carter presidencies were both marked by a continuation of the problems which emerged during the Nixon years. Economic troubles and increasing problems in foreign affairs dogged both Presidents and contributed to the short-lived nature of their administrations.
Team Product: What if...?
- In many ways Stonewall was a watershed moment; the homosexual community has seen drastic social and legal progress
- Lawrence vs. Texas (2003) SCOTUS bans remaining state laws against homosexual intercourse
- Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) SCOTUS ruled that the right to marry was extended to same-sex couples
- Beginning in the late-1970s an increasing amount of key figures in popular culture publicized their homosexuality, although most addressed it indirectly or discretely
- In 1978 Harvey Milk became the first openly gay politician elected to major office (San Francisco Board of Supervisors)
- It wasn’t until the late-1980s that mainstream figures at their peak began voluntarily coming “out” (Rep. Barney Frank, 1987; Ellen DeGeneres, 1997)
From 1895-1968, Native Americans did not experience as much progress toward Civil Rights as African Americans
- Population was significantly smaller than African Americans, reduced by decades of conflict with U.S. government and settlers
- American Indian population in U.S. in 1900 ≈ 250,000; small growth in 20th century
- Not a unified group like African Americans
- Tribes saw themselves as unique and individual; had no common voice
- The impact of the “Reservation”
- Many Americans believed Indians were happy on reservations; that they practiced traditional way of life
- Reservations were usually in lands unwanted by white settlers
- Massive poverty was rarely shown in media
- Separated Indians from mainstream U.S.
- Vastly different culture than blacks and whites
- Whites and blacks shared a common culture; music, sports, religion, language
- Native American culture was unique; thus, fewer whites rallied to their cause
Prompt: How effective has affirmative action been in meeting its intended aims?
Reflection: Take 20 minutes to read the documents attached to the schedule. It would probably be a good idea to divide and conquer. Then, as a group, everyone should compile a T-Chart identifying three arguments that it has been successful and three arguments that it has not been successful citing evidence.
Compile your T-Chart and be prepared to share with the class.
-The national unity fostered by the Kennedy assassination was short-lived and did not provide Johnson unanimous approval to continue the administration's policies
-Like Kennedy, Johnson believed that the federal government could be used to make life better for the American people.
- Johnson named his agenda the "
" program and aimed to address poverty, racial inequality, and education to improve the lives of the poor and middle class
- A major element of his program was the "
War on Poverty