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# Thermodynamics

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by

## Angel Perez

on 30 October 2016

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#### Transcript of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics
By:
Alya Zaidan
Katrina Jones
Eric Arriaga
Carlos Lozano
Angel Perez
Laws of Thermodynamics
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
1st Law of Thermodynamics
(Also known as the law of conservation of energy)
Q=

U+W
Heat Transfered
(Can be Positive or Negative)
Internal Energy
Work
Energy can not be created or destroyed
Can only be redistributed or changed from one form to another
The entropy (statistical measure of error) of any isolated system not in thermal equilibrium increases the vast majority of the time
3rd Law of Thermodynamics
Also referred as entropy production
Entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature gets close to zero
Only applies to the reversible process
Establishment:
Name comes from the words
"Heat"
&
"Transfer"
which mean
"Therme"
and
"Dynamics"
respectively in the Greek Language
Arised from efforts to develop heat engines approximately 200 years ago

So what exactly
are Thermodynamics?
Thermodynamics is a field that describes systems with many components not explained by ordinary dynamics
Process of Thermodynamics
Irreversible Process
Reversible Process
Change of state and thermodynamic coordinates
Intermediate steps are non equilibrium states
Process path cannot be retraced due to non equilibrium conditions that previously existed
Example:
An Explosion
Gas changes state very slowly and passes from one equilibrium right to the next one
Process path is known & can be retraced
All real thermodynamic processes are irreversible.
Reversible processes are used to discuss the thermodynamics of an ideal gas
Define rudimentary physical quantities such as temperature and energy that describe thermodynamic systems
The processes are...
Isothermal Process
A process where the temperature is constant
Iso stands for Equal
Thermal stands for Temperature
Isobaric Process
Process in which Pressure is constant
Iso stands for Equal
Bar stands for Pressure
Process where no heat is being lost or gained in the system, remains unchanged
Q=0
Isometric Process
Process where volume is constant
Short for isovolumetric
Q=
U
Thermal Efficiency:

Informs us how much useful work the engine does in comparison with the input heat it receives
Heat Input
=
=
Net Work Output
Net
W
Q
in
Thermal Pumps
Any device that transfers heat from a low temperature reservoir to a high temperature reservoir
Carnot Cycle
The most efficient heat engine cycle is the Carnot cycle, consisting of two isothermal processes and two adiabatic processes. The Carnot cycle can be thought of as the most efficient heat engine cycle allowed by physical laws. When the second law of thermodynamics states that not all the supplied heat in a heat engine can be used to do work, the Carnot efficiency sets the limiting value on the fraction of the heat which can be so used.

In order to approach the Carnot efficiency, the processes involved in the heat engine cycle must be reversible and involve no change in entropy. This means that the Carnot cycle is an idealization, since no real engine processes are reversible and all real physical processes involve some increase in entropy

Consists of 2 Isothermal & Adiabatic processes
Referred as the most efficient heat engine cycle allowed by physical laws
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