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World Geography STARR List
Transcript of World Geography STARR List
Introduction to World Geography Unit 2
North America Unit 3
Latin America Unit 5
Russia and the Republics Unit 4
Europe Unit 6
Sowthwest Asia and North Africa Unit 7
sub-Saharan Africa History History History History History History Absolute Location- the exact place on earth where a geographic feature is found Relative Location- describes a place on earth in relation to other places around it Hemisphere- each half of the globe Equator- the imaginary line that encircles the globe, dividing the earth into northern and southern half Prime Meridian- the imaginary line at zero meridian used to measure longitude east and west, and dividing the earth's east and west halves; also called the Greenwich Meridian because it passes through Greenwich, England Latitude- a set of imaginary lines that run parallel to the equator, and that are used in locating places north and south. The equator is labeled the zero-degree line for latitude Longitude- a set of imaginary lines that go around the earth over the poles, dividing it east and west. The prime meridian is labeled the zero-degree line for longitude. Topographic Map- a general reference map; a representation of natural and man-made features on the earth Global Positioning System- a series of satellites that rely geographic information to earth. Used by hikers, sailors, drivers Geographic Information Systems- technology that uses digital map information to create a databank; different"data layers" can be combined to produce specialized maps. GIS allows geographers to analyze different aspects of a specific place to solve problems. Scale- scale shows the ratio between a unit of length on a map and a unit of distance on earth Physical Map- a map that shows the types of landforms and bodies of water found a specific area Political Map- a map that shows features on earth's surface that humans created Map Reading Types Of Regions Thematic Map- maps that focus on specific types of information. Some thematic maps show weather, natural resources or economic activities. Some types of thematic maps are: Qualitative Maps, Cartograms, and Flow-Line Maps. Formal Regions- a region defined by a limited number of related characteristics. Latin America, Southwest Asia, and East Asia are examples. Functional Regions- a region organized around a set of interactions and connections between places. For example, a city and its suburbs from a functional region Perceptual Regions- a region in which people perceive, or see, the characteristics of the region in the same way. Structure of the Earth Core- the solid metallic center of the earth and is made up of iron and nickel Mantle- a soft layer of molten rock about 1,800 miles thick Magma- molten rock created when the mantle melts the underside of the crust Crust- the thin layer of rock at the earth's surface Parts of the Earth Lithosphere- the solid rock portion of the earth's surface Hydrosphere- the waters comprising the earth's surface, including oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, and vapor in the atmosphere Atmosphere- the layers of gases immediately surrounding the earth Biosphere- all the parts of the earth where plants and animals live, including the atmosphere, the lithosphere, and the hydrosphere Water and Landforms Hydroelectric Cycle- the continuous circulation of water among the atmosphere, the oceans, and the earth Drainage Basin- an area drained by a major river and its tributaries Water Table- the level at which rock is saturated Landforms- a naturally formed feature on surface of earth Delta- a fan-lake landform made of deposited sediment, left by a river that slows as it enters the ocean Glacier- a large, long-lasting mass of ice that moves because of gravity Internal Forces Shaping the Earth Tectonic Plates/Forces- an enormous moving shelf that forms the earth's crust Divergent Boundary- plates that move apart or spread Convergent Boundary- plates collide with each other, causing one plate to either dive under or ride up over the other plate Transform Boundary- when tectonic plates slide past one another Fault- a fracture in the earth's crust where plates move past each other Earthquakes Seismograph- measures the size of the waves created by an earthquake Epicenter- the point directly above the focus (where the earthquake begins) on the earth's surface. Richter Scale- uses information collected by seismographs to determine the relative strength of an earthquake Tsunami- a giant wave in the ocean caused by an earthquake Ring Of Fire- a zone around the rim of the Pacific Ocean where the majority of active volcanoes are found External Forces Shaping the Earth Mechanical Weathering- a natural process that breaks rock into smaller pieces Chemical Weathering- a process that changes rock into a new substance trough interactions among elements in the air or water and the minerals in the rock Erosion- the result of weathering on matter, created by the action of wind, water, ice, or gravity Glaciations- the changing of landforms by slowly moving glaciers Soil and Vegetation Humus- organic material in soil Soil-Building- the process where organic material becomes fertile soil Ecosystem- an interdependent community of plants and animals Biomes- regional ecosystems, they are divides into forest, grassland, desert, and tundra. Seasons Solstice- either of two times of year when the sun's rays shine directly overhead at noon at the farthest points north and south, and that mark the beginning of the summer and winter; in Northeren Hemisphere, the summer solstice is the longest day and the winter solstice the shortest Equinox- each of the two days in a year on which day and night are equal in length; marks the beginning of spring and autumn Tropic Of Cancer- the farthest point north the sun's rays shine overhead at noon Tropic Of Capricorn- the farthest point south the sun's rays shine overhead at noon Weather and Climate Weather- the condition of the atmosphere at a location and time Climate- the typical weather conditions at a particular location as observed over time Wind Systems- help distribute the
sun's heat from one part of the world to
another Ocean Currents- impact the temperature of area and the amount of precipitation a region receives Weather Extreams Hurricane- a storm that forms over warm, tropical ocean waters Typhoon- a tropical storm, like a hurricane, that occurs in the western Pacific Tornado- a powerful funnel shaped column of spiraling air Blizzard- a heavy snowstorm with winds of more than 35 miles per hour and reduced visibility of less than one-quarter mile Drought- a long period without rain or very minimal rainfall Climate Climate Region- a region that experiences particular weather conditions over many years. Temperature and precipitation are two of the most significant factors. Topography, elevation, and location on a continent also impact a region's climate Tropical- refers to regions with little variation in temperature. Typically tropical regions receive large amounts of rain Tundra- the flat treeless lands forming a ring around the Arctic Ocean; the climate region of the Arctic Ocean Permafrost- permanently frozen around Culture and Population Culture- total of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors shared by and passed on by members of a group Ethnic Minority- an individual who identifies with the minority population of a region. Members of ethnic minorities are often underrepresented in political power, and in some other cases, persecuted for their ethnicity Religious Minority- an individual who belongs to a minority population of a region, India is largely a Hindu nation yet it also has a sizealbe Muslim and Sikh populations. Multicultural Society- a population that contains several culture groups. The groups tend to preserve at least some of their culture characteristics such as religion, language and food preference Cultural Change and Exchange Innovation- taking existing elements of society and creating something new to meet and need. Some innovations have changed the course of history such as the domestication of horses or the invention of the printing press. Other innovations, such as electric cars, address the demands of the marketplace. Diffusion- the spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior to different societies Cultural Hearth- the heartland or place of a major culture; a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to their cultures Acculturation- the cultural change that occurs when an individuals in a society accept or adopt an innovation Cultural Beliefs and Expression Custom- practice routinely followed by a group of people Nationalism- A belief that people or ethnic groups should have their own government or homeland Patriotism- devotion to one's country. The idea that you should be loyal to and support your country's laws and have pride in your country Cultural Landscape- the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape by the activities of various groups Religion Monotheistic- a belief in existence of only one god Christianity- Christianity is a monotheistic religion which is also the world's largest religion which is also the world's largest religion by membership. Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus. The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian denomination but others exsist such as the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestant faiths Islam- Islam is the world's second largest religion. Members of the Islamic religion are called Muslims who follow the teachings of the prophet Muhammad. Islam is often divided into two groups- Shi'ites and Sunnis- through other groups exist Judaism- a religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur), who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one God, and God agrees to protect his chosen people. Sikhism- a religion based in Northern India. Sikhism combines the Hindu concept of reincarnation with Islamic belief in monotheism. Worldwide there are 30 million Sikhs Polytheistic- a belief in the existence in many gods Buddhism- a religion founded in the sixth century and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge, especially self-knowledge; elimination of greed, craving, and desire; complete honesty; and never hurting another person or animal. Buddhism splintered from Hinduism as a reaction to the strict caste system Hinduism- one of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating block 4000 year, and originating in the Indus River Valley. Hinduism is unique among the world's regions in that it does not have a single founder, a single theology or agreement on its origins Animistic- the belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other elements of the natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human efforts on Earth Demographic Indicators Birthrate- the number of live births per total population, often expressed per thousand population Fertility Rate- the average number of children a woman of childbearing years would have in her lifetime, if she has children at the current rate for her country Mortality Rate- the number of deaths per thousand Infant Mortality- the number of deaths among infants under age one as measured per thousand live births Population Pyramids- graphic devices that show gender and age distribution of a population Life Expectancy- an amount in years indicating how long, on average, a resident of a particular place is expected to live Literacy Rate- an amount, usually a percentage, of a given population who possess the ability to read and write Population Density- the average number of people who live in a measurable area Movement Push and Pull Factors- push factors push people from their homeland, while pull factors attract people to a new location Migration- the movement of peoples within a country or region Connectivity- the degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network Governments Democracy- a type of government in which citizens hold political power either directly or through elected representatives Dictatorship- a type of government in which an individual or group holds complete political power Monarchy- a type of government in which a ruling family headed by a king or queen holds political power and may or may not share the power with citizen bodies Republic- a government in which citizens elect representatives to rule on their behalf Theocracy- a state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed to be divinely guided. Vacation City and the country of Iran are theocracies Totalitarian- a political system where the state controls all political and economic power. Media is censored by the state and few individual rights exist. The Soviet Union under Josef Stalin and Nazi Germany are examples or totalitarian governments Settlement Patterns Metropolitan Area- a functional area including a city and its surrounding suburbs and exurbs, linked economically Suburbs- a political unit or community touching the borders of the central city or touching other suburbs that touch the city Urbanization- the dramatic rise in the number of cities and the changes in lifestyle that result Sustainable Development- economic and or population growth that does not impact the environment in a lasting negative manner Infrastructure- the basic support systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems Economic Systems Free Enterprise- an economic system in which private individuals own most of the resources, technology, and businesses, and can operate them for profit with little control from the government Socialist Economic System- an economic system where social, or public ownership of resources exists. Economic programs are intended to do the most good for the greatest amount of people Communist Economics Systems- a system in which the government holds nearly all political power and the means of production Traditional Economies- a system where goods and services are traded without exchanging money, This exchange of goods is often called bartering Levels of Development Primary- economic activities that involve gathering raw materials such as timber for immediate use or to use in making of a final product Secondary- economic activities that involve adding value to materials by changing their form Manufacturing automobiles is an example Tertiary- economic activities that involve providing business or professional services. Salespeople, teachers, or doctors are examples Quaternary- economic activities that provide information, management, and research services by highly-trained persons Economic Indicators Gross Domestic per Capita- the average amount of money earned by each person in the political unit Standard of Living- a measure of quality of life in a location. Wealth, happiness, health education, are all factors that are used to compare levels of development which establishes a standard of living Less Developed- a country, or region, that has not attained a specified level of development. Less developed countries have low literacy and inadequate educational programs. The per capita GDP is low and health services are poor. Much of the population in a less developed country lives in poverty Newly Developed- a country, a region, that has recently attained a specified level of development. Newly developed countries have experienced rapid economic growth in the last 40 years. Often, the discovery and distribution of natural goods provides the spark that initiates the successful economy. South Korea, Singapore and Brazil are considered newly developed countries More Developed- a country that has attained the highest level of development due to wealth, income, economic and social opportunities. More developed countries are usually leaders in technology and scientific innovation. The United States, Canada, Japan and many western European countries are grouped as more developed Economic Production Subsistence Agriculture- an activity where a family produces only enough food to be self-sufficient. If an abundant harvest occurs, the extra crops might be traded for goods and services they cannot produce themselves Commercial Agriculture- an activity where crops are grown food the purpose of sale. Typically, commercial farms are larger and use more modern labor saving devices that subsistence farming Cottage Industries- an economic activity performed at home. Labor is usually limited to one craftsmen and another family member. Often the cottage industry is the lane provider of a service in a village Commercial Industries- an economic activity preformed in a factory where division of labor exists. Commercial activities usually employ many people who are expected to complete a variety of tasks toward the production of a single item. For example, a pencil factory might employ good workers, painters, quality control managers and office personnel Manufacturing- an economic activity that utilizes skilled labor and machines to produce goods for sale. Usually manufacturing refers to the industrial production of goods from raw materials Service Industries- an economic activity where a service is provided rather than a good. Service workers often perform tasks that most people cannot easily do themselves. Auto mechanics, plumbers, doctors, and firemen are considered part of the service industry Trade Globalization- the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The process of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales Outscoring- when production is moved from one location to another usually to address the rising cost of labor. Outscoring is often used to describe the loss of American jobs to foreign countries such as China; however outscoring can refer to the movement of factories from the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt Free Trade Zones- areas where imported goods are not subject to the same regulations and import taxes (custom duties and tariffs) that might exist elsewhere. Free trade zones are intended to make the transportation of goods across national boundaries easier less expensive Export- a product or good that is sold from one country to another. Exports are favorable to the selling, or exporting, country and a drain on the economy of the receiving country. For example, the United States imports petroleum because the demand for all exceeds the supply. Import- a product that is purchased from one country by another. A country imports foreign goods because they cannot produce the item at the price or quality the market demands. For example, the United States imports petroleum because the demand for oil exceeds the supply NAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement entered into Canada, Mexico, and the United States to eliminate the barriers to trade in, and facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services between the countries New World- the popular name given to the Americans by European explorers and colinists Colombian Exchange- the exchange of plants, animals, and disease between the New and Old Worlds following the arrival of the Europeans. Previous to the Colombian Exchange certain plants and animals were found in either the New World or Old World. For example, horses were unknown in the Americas while vanilla, potatoes and tobacco were found only in the Americas Colony- an outpost in a foreign land. Some colonies are established for economic purposes to further trade while others are settlements for emigrants. Louisiana Purchase- The territory under U.S. control nearly doubled under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase. Decades of western migration soon followed as the lure of open land drew settlers from around the world. Frontier- the open lands beyond the last populated settlements. In American History, the frontier is associated with the West. Dust Bowl- A climatic disaster in the Great Plains region caused by poor farming techniques and continued drought. Many people were "pushed" away from Oklahoma and "pulled" toward California. Geography Arable Land- Arable land is land fit for agricultural production. The amount of arable land within the borders of a country can increase with expanded irrigation projects or decreases with desertification. Continental Divide- the line of the highest points in North America that marks the separation between rivers flowing eastward and westward. Prairie- the temperate grasslands of North America; "prairie" is the French word for meadow Tornado Alley- A region in the Midwest United States where most of the countries tornadoes occur Rust Belt- The economically depressed region surrounding the Great Lakes. The Rust Belt once contained the industrial heartland of the United States, but foreign competition and rising labor costs closed many of the region's factories Sun Belt- The economically expanding region of the Southern United States. Low labor costs and mild winters have led many businesses to relocate there Population Native Americans/Peoples- The inhabitants of the Americas at the time when the Europeans first arrived to the New World Baby Boomers- Babies born after the Second World War but before the mid-1960's. This generation is called baby boomers because the high birthrates occurring at this time. Inuit- Native peoples of Alaska and Northern Canada. Often Inuits are called Eskimos Metis- A person born from a mixed union. Typically, the term is used to describe Canadians whose parentage is European (usually French) and Amerindian. Bilingualism- where two or more languages are spoken Aztec People- Ancient peoples of Central Mexico. The Aztec Empire ended with the arrival of the Spanish Mestizo- A person born from a mixed union. Typically, the term refers to describe people whose parentage is European (usually Spanish) and Amerindian Mayan People- Ancient peoples of the Yucatan Peninsula, northern Central America. The Mayan Empire is considered a cultural hearth Taino- A group of peoples who inhabited the Caribbean Islands at the time of the European conquest. The introduction of Old World diseases-especially smallpox-devastated the Taino populations Inca People- Ancient peoples of western South America. The Inca Empire is considered a cultural hearth. Geography Cerrado- a savanna that has flat terrain and moderate rainfall that is suitable for farming. The cerrado savannas are located in the interior of Brazil Pampas- a savanna that has flat terrain and moderate rainfall that is suitable for farming. The pampas are located in northern Argentina and Uruguay Rain Forest- dense forests found in tropical regions. Rain forests receive large amounts of rain and are typically hot all year. The largest rain forest in the world is the Amazon rain forest Isthmus- a narrow strip of land connecting to larger landmasses usually with water on either side. The Panama Canal was constructed on the isthmus of Panama El Nino- A weather pattern created by the warming of the waters off the coast of South America, which pushes warm water and heavy rains toward the Amercias and produces drought conditions in Australia and Asia Economy Slash-and-burn- a way of clearing fields for planting by cutting trees, brush, and grasses and burning them Terraced Farming- an ancient technique for growing crops on hillsides or mountain slopes, using step-like horizontal fields cut into the slopes Remittances- Money migrants send back to family and friends in their home countries, often in cash, forming an important part of the economy in many poorer countries Migratory Labor- workers who move with the availability or opportunity of employment Informal Economy- economic activities that take place outside official channels, without benefits or protection for workers Renaissance- a period of European history where there was a renewed interest in learning and the arts. The new ideas of the Renaissance began in the Italian city-state of Florence and spread north into the rest of Europe Bubonic Plague- The Bubonic Plague, or Black Death was a pandemic outbreak occurring in the 15th century. The plague is estimated to have killed 30-60 percent of Europe's population The plague is often used as an example of the consequences of globalization as the plague may have traveled west from Asia carried by traders along the Silk Road Pandemics- a disease affecting a large population over a wide geographic area Genocide- the deliberate extermination of a population based on some common characteristic Industrial Revolution- The shift, beginning in England during the 18th century, from making them by machine Geography Peninsula- a landmass nearly surrounded by water but connected to the mainland Fjords- a long, narrow deep inlet of the sea between steep slopes North Atlantic Drift- a current of warm water from the tropics that flows near Europe's west coast; the current impacts western Europe's weather Arctic Circle- tundra climate region where the land is often in a state of permafrost Terpen- high earthen platforms that, along with dikes, are part of a seaworks project Polder- land that is reclaimed from the sea or other body of water by diking and drainage Economy European Union- The European Union, or EU, is a political and economic alliance among 27 countries of Europe Euro- the common currency used by the members of the eurozone Eurozone- a monetary union among 17 of the European Union's 27 members. Germany, France, and Italy are members of the EU and the eurozone. The United Kingdom is a member of the European Union but not the eurozone Tariff- taxes placed on imported goods Czar- the emperor of Russia prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917and the rise of the Soviet Union in 1922 USSR- The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or Soviet Union, formed in 1922 by the Communists and officially dissolved in 1991 Cold War- the conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II, called "cold" because it never escalated into open warfare North Atlantic Treaty Organization-The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO, is a military alliance formed after to Second World War to address the growing threat of the Soviet expansion Geography Eurasia- the combined of Europe and Asia Transcaucasia- a region that consists of the republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia; located between the Caucasus Mountains and the boarders of Turkey and Iran Siberia- a region of central and eastern Russia stretching from the Ural mountains to the Pacific Oceans, known for Steppe- the term used for the temperate grassland region in the Northern Hemisphere Economy Command Economy- a type of economic system in which production of goods and services is determined by a central government, which usually owns the means of production Privatization- the selling of government-owned business to private citizens Mosque- an Islamic place of worship where Muslims pray facing toward the holy city of Mecca Zionism- a movement that begin in the 19th century to create and support a Jewish homeland in Palestine Palestine Liberation Organization/P.L.O.- a group formed in the 1960's to regain the Arab land in Israel for Palestine Arabs Taliban- a strict Muslim group in Afghanistan that has imposed rigid rules on society, including prescribed clothing styles for both men and women, restrictions on the appearance of women, restrictions on the appearance of women in public places, and regulations on television, music, and videos. stateless nation Geography Aquifer- an underground layer or rock that stores water Oasis- a place where water from an aquifer has reached the surface Desertification- an expansion of dry conditions to moist areas that are next to deserts Mesopotamia- a region in Southwest Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, which was the location of some of the earliest civilizations in the world; part of the cultural hearth known as the Fertile Crescent Economy Irrigation- an agricultural method that provides water to the farmland through man-made improvements Desalinization- the removal of salt from ocean water Crude Oil- petroleum that has not been processed Refinery- a place where crude oil is converted into useful products OPEC- The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC, is an economic alliance that regulates the production and price of much of the world's supply of petroleum, The country of Saudi Arabia is a member of OPEC Guest Workers- a largely unskilled labor, often an immigrant from South and East Asia, brought in to the oil-booming countries to fill job openings that the region's native peoples find culturally or economically unacceptable a Olduvai Gorge- a site of fossil beds in northern Tanzania, containing the most continuous known record of humanity over the past 2 million years, including fossils from 65 hominids Bantu Migrations- the movement of the Bantu peoples southward throughout Africa, Spreading their language and culture, from around the world 500B.C. to around A.D. 1000 Postcolonial- postcolonial refers to the time after colonial rule. It can described the arts, as in postcolonial literature, or political affairs, as in postcolonial government Apartheid- a policy of complete separation of the races, instituted by the white minority government of South Africa Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or AIDS- a disease caused by the human immunodeficiency Geography Savanna- the term for the flat, grassy, mostly treeless plains in the tropical grassland region Plateau- a wide, generally level, area of elevated land Basins- a depression in the earth's surface Rift Valleys- a long, thin valley created by the moving apart of the continental plates, present in East Africa, stretching over 4,000 miles from Jordan in Southwest Asia to Mozambique in Southern Asia Economy Commodity- an agricultural or mining product that can be sold Cash Crop- a crop grown for direct sale, and not for use in a region , such as coffee, tea, and sugar in Africa Famine- a severe shortage of food over time leading to starvation Diversity- (in agriculture) to increase the variety of products in a country's economy; to promote manufacturing and other industries in order to achieve growth and stability Unit 8
South Asia History Indus Valley Civilization- the largest of the world's first civilizations in what is now Pakistan; this was a highly developed urban civilization, lasting from 2500B.C. to about 1500B.C. Aryan Invasion- An Indo-European people who, about 1500 B.C.E., began to migrate into the indian subcontinent Mughal Empire- The Muslim empire established by the early 1500's over much of India, which brought with it new customs that sometimes conflicted with those of native Hindus British Raj- The period of British rule in India, which lasted for nearly 200 years, from 1857 to 1947 Partition of British India- Following independence, the division of the population of post-colonial India. The Muslims of West and East Pakistan chose to separate from India where most of the people belong to the Hindu religion. Geography Economy Culture Subcontinent- a landmass that is like a continent, only smaller, such as South Asia, which is called the Indian subcontinent Alluvial Plain- land that is rich farmland, composed of clay, silt, sand, or gravel deposited by running water Archipelago- a set of closely grouped islands Monsoon- a seasonal wind, especially in South Asia Cyclone- a violent storm with fierce winds and heavy rain; the most extreme weather pattern of South Asia Kashmir- A region of northern India and Pakistan over which several destructive wars have been fought Land Reform- The process of breaking up large landholdings to attain a more balanced land distribution among farmers Green Revolution- An agricultural program launched by scientists in the 1960's to develop higher-yielding grain varieties and improve food production by incorporating new farming techniques Textile Industry- An Economic activity that is primarily concerned with the production of cloth and cloth products. Nonviolent Resistance- A movement that uses all means of protest except violence Bollywood- Bollywood is a popular term for the motion picture industry based in Mumbai, India. Bollywood movies are mostly filmed with actors using the Hindi language which makes them very popular with India's 250 million Hindi speakers. Caste System- The Aryan system of social classes in India and one of the cornerstones of Hinduism in which each person is born into a caste and can only move into a different caste through reincarnation Ramadan- An Islamic practice of month-long fasting from sunup to sundown Sherpas- A person of Tibetan ancestry in Nepal who serves as the traditional mountain guide of the Mount Everest region Unit 9
East Asia History Dynasty- A series of rulers from the same family The Travels of Marco Polo- The Travels of Marco Polo is the popular name for a work of literature that describes the adventures of Marco Polo's journey to the court of Kubia khan in the 13 the century People's Republic of China- The communist government formed in China following the defeat of the Japanese in World War II and the American-supported Nationalist Army. The People's Republic of China was commonly known in as "Communist China" or "Red China" during the Cold War; today it's known as China Pearl Harbor- An air-sea battle between the Imperial Japanese Navy and the combined American Forces stationed on the island of Oahu, Hawai. Pearl Harbor is the name of both the Amercian navy base and the geographic location where the Pacific Fleet was anchored Hiroshima- The name of the Japanese city that was targeted for first American atomic bomb attack Korean War- A three-year period of open warfare between the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea following the defeat of Japan to end the Second World War United Nations- An international peacekeeping organization founded in 1945 to provide security to the nations of the world Geography Typhoon- A tropical storm, like a hurricane, that occurs in the Western Pacific Pacific Rim- An economic and social region including the countries surrounding the Pacific Ocean, extending clockwise from New Zealand in the western Pacific to Chile in the eastern Pacific and including the west coast of the United States Landlocked- having no outlet to the sea Economy Hydroelectric Power- electricity generated by hydropower through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy Economic Tiger- A country with rapid economic growth due to cheap labor, high techology, and aggressive exports Nuclear Power- energy produced by nuclear reactors Export Economy- An economy that is highly dependent on exports Multinational- A corporation that engages in business world wide Culture Shintoism- Shintoism is a religion of 4 million observers who live primarily in Japan. Shintoism is similar to Buddhism focusing particularly on nature and ancestor worship. Taoism- Taoism, or Daoism, is a philosophy based on the ideas of the Chinese thinker Laozi, who taught that people should be guided by a universal force called the Dao. Taoism was suppressed in the first decades of the People's Republic of China, but continued to be practiced in Taiwan and other Chinese communities in Southeast Asia. One-child Policy- A policy limiting families to one child in a effort to reduce the overall population Han People- The Han people are the largest ethnic group in the world comprising over 20% of the world's total population. The Han People are the majority ethnic group in the People's Republic of China, the country of Taiwan and the city-state of Singapore. Mandarin- Mandarin is the official language of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. More than 1 billion people speak Mandarin or one of its regional dialects. Samurai- A professional soldier in Japan who served the interests of landowners and clan chiefs; samurai influence began to fade with introduction of modern warfare techniques in the 19th century Unit 10
Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica History Bikini Atoll- The isolated reef, located in the Marshall Islands of the central Pacific, that was the site of U.S. nuclear bomb tests, consequently contaminating the atoll with high levels of radiation and driving it inhabitants away Khmer Empire- A powerful empire that lasted roughly from the 9th to the 15th centuries in what is now Cambodia Indochina- A French colony comprised of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam; it won independence from France in 1954 Vietnam War- The military conflict resulting from American involvement in South Vietnam to prevent it takeover by Communist North Vietnam Geography High Islands- Pacific islands created by volcanoes Low Islands- Pacific islands made up of coral reefs Great Barrier Reef- A 1,250 mile chain of more than 2,500 reefs and islands along Australia's northeast coast, containing some 400 species of coral Outback- The dry, unpopulated inland region of Australia Polar Desert- A cold-weather region where the average temperature does not exceed 10 degrees Fahrenheit during the warmest month and that receives less than 10 inches precipitation annually Krakatoa- A massive volcanic explosion that occurred off the coasts of the islands of Java and Sumatra in 1883 Economics ASEAN- Association of Southwest Asian Nations, or ASEAN, an alliance that promotes economic growth and peace in the region Subsistence Activities- An activity in which a family produces only the food, clothing, and shelter they themselves need Poverty Rate- The poverty rate, or poverty line, is a measure of the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a given region Culture Aboriginal People- People who migrated to Australia from Asia at least 40,000 years ago; the original settlers of the land Maori- The first settlers of New Zealand who had migrated from Polynesia more than 1,000 years ago Stolen Generation- In Australia, what Aboriginal people today call the 100,000 mixed-raced children who were taken by the government and given to white families to promote assimilation