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Hurricanes

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Maxine Ryan

on 13 September 2012

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Transcript of Hurricanes

By Maxine Jeanne Ryan Hurricanes photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Christopher Columbus was the first european in modern times to write about hurricanes. What is a hurricane? Hurricanes are large tropical storms with heavy winds.To be classified a hurricane , their winds have to exceed the speed of 119 kilometers per hour . They also bring large amounts rainfall. In addition, they have the potential to spawn dangerous tornadoes. The strong winds and excessive rainfall also produce abnormal rises in sea levels and flooding. Where do hurricanes typically happen ? Hurricanes and typhoons only can form over large basins of warm water such as an ocean or sea. This is due to the fact that they need a large amount of energy which is supplied by the heat from the warm ocean waters evaporating into the atmosphere. Hurricanes also occur at least several degrees away from the equator. This is because the Coriolis force is too weak at the equator to generate spin for the hurricane. North Atlantic Ocean Hurricane season: June 1 - November 30 Eastern North Pacific Ocean Hurricane season: May 15 - November 30 Northwest Pacific Ocean Typhoon season: All year Bay of Bengal / Arabian Sea Severe Cyclonic storm season: April 1 - December 30 Southwest Pacific Ocean Severe Tropical Cyclone Season: October 15 - May 1 Southeast Indian Ocean Severe Tropical Cyclone Season: October 15 - May Southwest Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Season: October 15 - May 15 skip intro How do hurricanes move or build up energy? Hurricanes only form from warm ocean water. The water’s temperature must be at least 26°C. Warm air rises from the warming ocean.1 The air carries water vapor, the gas form of water. The water vapor cools as it rises. It turns back into a liquid. This condensation forms clouds, releasing heat energy into the air at the same time.2 As evaporation and condensation continue, the air pressure at the surface of the ocean goes down. That lets more water vapor into the air.3 That vapor rises higher, where it condenses and releases still more energy. The cloud columns grow higher and larger.4 In this way, a hurricane is a storm that feeds itself.5 The more it grows, the more energy it releases. The more energy it releases, the more it grows. As the moisture evaporates it rises until enormous amounts of heated moist air are twisted high in the atmosphere. The winds begin to circle counterclockwise north of the equator or clockwise south of the equator. How much energy? In a day, a hurricane can release an amount of energy equal to all of the electricity the entire world can generate in 200 days! And the thing is, many hurricanes don’t just last a day. They keep building as long as they keep getting energy from warm water. But if a hurricane moves over land or colder water (with temperatures below 26°C) it loses its energy source. It starts to fizzle out. What kind of damage can a hurricane cause? Hurricanes cause damage in many ways. The most commonly known damage is by wind. The wind can damage buildings, and blow trees onto power lines. After wind comes rain/flooding. Hurricanes loose their strength over land, and can dump a lot of rain on a local area in a very short period of time. Flash flooding can occur. Next, there is storm surge. This is where the winds push ocean water against the shore as the hurricane approaches. The sea level appears to rise, and larger than normal waves on top of that can sweep miles inland. This would be on top of rain that has fallen in the same area. Hurricanes can spawn tornados also. Tornadoes can pack winds that are even stronger than hurricane winds. They can leave a path of destruction over a mile wide for many miles, and can occur on the fringes of the hurricane where residents may think they were missed by the storm. There are secondary disasters from hurricanes. The damaged electrical lines cause water distributions systems to break down, leaving residents without drinkable water. There can be a large explosion of insects after flooding also. Can hurricanes be predicted? To some degree, yes. Factors such as ocean surface temperatures and wind shear are measured to determine the likelihood that a hurricane will develop, and to make predictions about its intensity if one does develop. Analysis of wind currents can be used to make predictions about the path of a hurricane. However, there is still a significant margin for error and many storms still act unexpectedly. What would your family's plan of action be before , during , and after a hurricane? Plan : BEFOR A HURRICANE : Our family , if in a hurricane prone area , would assemble a 72 hour kit , including proper water and food storage. If a hurricane is about to arrive , we'd close all our windows and doors and would be prepared to put plywood over them. We'd listen to a weather radio to be updated on storn reports. We'd also have our petrol tank filled up when we first hear news of a potential storm heading in our direction . During a hurricane : We would have all windows and doors shut and boarded up. Keep listening to the radio or tv for information. Turn the temperature on our refrigerator to the coolest setting , incase the power goes out. We'd fill the bath tub with water for sanitary puposes. Evacuate if instructed to do so. After a hurricane : After a hurricane , we would have to inspect our home for damage & turn of the utilities if we smell gas or see sparks , definitely if both situations occur. We would listen to radio or local T.V. to determine if the water supply has been contaminated. We would also have to be careful searching through any debris , incase of poisonous snakes or other animals. If necessary , we'd have to call our insurance company. Where is the safest place to to be if you're involved in a hurricane? Close all interior doors. Secure and brace external doors. Keep curtains and blinds closed. Do not be fooled if there is a lull; it could be the eye of the storm, and winds may pick up again. Stay away from windows and glass doors. Take refuge in a small interior room, closet or hallway on the lowest level. Lie on the floor under a table or another sturdy object. In high-rise buildings, head to lower floors, as winds are stronger at higher elevations. Central idea ! Group How do natural disasters impact on the inviroment? How can people survive natural disasters? Can we prevent natural disasters? What strategies do communities have to cope with natural disasters? How do naturral disasters impact on humans? How can we prepare for disasters? (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr At the individual level, the impact can often be felt physically, mentally and emotionally. Natural disasters cause destruction of property, loss of financial resources, and personal injury or illness. The loss of resources, security and access to shelter can lead to massive population migrations in lesser-developed countries. Natural disasters can effect people in many ways such as through the destruction of peoples living environment or means of earning a living.A natural disaster such as hurricane or flood can literally destroy a persons home particularly if they are poor in a 3rd world country where their home may just be a shack .Also they may loose their job because people have moved away and therefore cant buy what they may be selling or crops thay are growing may be destroyed.It may also effect people psychologically through depression or anxiety . Some of the things you can do to prepare for the unexpected, such as assembling a supply kit and developing a family emergency plan, are the same for all types of hazards. However each emergency is unique and knowing the actions to take for each threat will impact the specific decisions and preparations you make. By learning about these specific threats, you are preparing yourself to react in an emergency. How can communities benefit from natural disasters? 1. Natural Disasters Provide People with a Greater Respect & Appreciation for Nature In Levi Novey's pint of view. I currently live in Peru, and nowhere else has it been more obvious that natural disasters have influenced how people view and think about nature’s power. There are few people I have met in my travels in Peru who believe that they can control nature. 2. They give communities the chance to rejuvenate 3. Research Has Shown That Natural Disasters Might Have Some Positive Ecological Effects Did you know that hurricanes and tropical storms help distribute the Earth’s heat? Without the transfer of this heat from the Tropics to the Earth’s poles, climates might get totally out of whack. Large storms and the tremendous amounts of rainfall they bring with them are also beneficial to ecosystems and human agricultural needs. Researchers from Duke University’s School of Environment and Earth Sciences also say that without hurricanes, barrier islands on coast lines and their ecosystems would not survive. Of course while these are some positive benefits, it should be noted that hurricanes and the flooding they can cause might affect ecosystems negatively and, of course, harm the lives of a significant amount of people.
Fires are another natural disaster that can benefit ecosystems. They can eliminate unwanted invasive plants from certain ecosystems (but can also help spread them), enrich soils with fresh nutrients, and encourage greater plant diversity. Animals are also sometimes attracted to the new growth in fresh burn areas. Some plants are even dependent upon fire for their seeds to sprout in the long-term, and use fire to their advantage.
Communities can issue out emergency plans. They can also create refuge centres for people who have had to evacuate their homes. They can manipulate the environment e.g. plant trees in landslide prone to keep the land in place. Unless you're God..you can't....you can only prepare and lessen the damage. Natural disasters will occur on occasion, so I'm here to help you protect your home. True, sometimes you can't predict or stop nature's deadly course, but there are measures you can take to protect your home and yourself. Or, if the worst should happen, you can at least make sure that you will have the money to replace your valuables. mother nature at work In order to protect yourself from these destructive forces of nature, you must first understand what they do and how they can harm you. prevention tips Pay attention to warnings Not every natural disaster can be predicted, but it's important to listen to the news so that you can stay informed about pending hurricanes, fires, storms, and tornadoes. Knowing when to batten down the hatches and when to get out are half the battle. Fortify your home You won't be able to do this on the eve of disaster, but building or remodeling your home above and beyond code will increase your chances of being the last man standing in the event of an all out emergency. This means bolting your home to its foundation, securing your roof, and generally making sure that your home is overbuilt rather than just built to the minimum legal requirements. Adapt your landscape This may sound simple and unimportant, but a well-kept landscape around your house can mean the difference between a bad storm and a disaster. Trees close to the house can act as missiles in a rough storm, and those that are overgrown will be more likely to fall because their roots are weak and they're top heavy. Remove trees that are too close to your house and keep the others well trimmed. If you live in a fire area, landscaping is even more important, as dead brush is the fuel of all wild fires. Build a cement perimeter around your house. It's always nice to have a fence for privacy, but a brick or cement fence will act as a firebreak. Landscape with non-flammable materials. Secure your personal property Earthquakes can leave homes intact structurally but be devastating on the inside. While you can bolt everything down, a good rule of thumb is to bolt or strap down anything that's bigger and taller than you. That goes for items like your refrigerator and your water heater. Ask for a kit that can help you at your local hardware store. what you need & where to get it Emergency kit Water Canned goods Batteries Tool kit First Aid kit Flashlight Radio Blankets Have a plan Know who to call Have an exit strategy Have a place to go Keep your records at the ready prepare for disaster What causes natural disasters? Natural disasters fall into three broad groups: 1. Those caused by movements of the Earth. These occur with the minimum amount of warning and include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and tsunamis. They are difficult to predict and impossible to stop. All that can be done is to take appropriate action to limit damage and loss of life after they occur. 2. Weather related disasters. These will include hurricanes, tornadoes, extreme heat and extreme cold weather. There will usually be some degree of advanced warning, but since weather is unpredictable, nothing can be done to stop these disasters from developing once the weather system develops. Again, in areas prone to this sort of disaster, some provision can be made to limit damage and loss of life. 3. Floods, mudslides, landslides and famine. These are usually the consequence of extreme weather events, or are supplementary to other natural disasters. Often they are the result of extreme and unforeseen conditions And with that , I am done ! Sources: Google.com Google Images Youtube.com Youtube channels : TheMetOffice au.askmen Yahoo Answers www.ehow.com www.fema.gov www.ready.gov planetsave.com www.aolnews.com www.emergency-preparation-hq.com wiki.answers.com askville.amazon.com www.cotf.edu www.globio.org Thanks For Watching ! (Again) By Maxine Jeanne Ryan During: Florida
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