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Transcript of Punctuation
Period ( . )
Period or periodic may refer to: Time frame, a length or era of time. Full stop or period, a punctuation mark.
Comma ( , )
( , )
is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in various languages. It has the same shape as an apostrophe or single closing quotation mark in many typefaces, but it differs from them in being placed on the baseline of the text.
The word punctuation comes from the latin word "punctus" which means "point". Punctuations are standardized marks or sign in written material to clarify the meaning and seperate structural units. Punctuation marks can be grouped according to use,namely:
1.To End a sentence - Period , Question mark , and Exclamation point
2.To Separate elements within a sentence - comma, semi-colon, and colon
3.to Link related elements - Hyphen and Slash
4.To Quote material - quotation marks
5. To Set off digression from the main flow - parenthesis, dashes, and brackets
Uses of the period:
1.Ends a sentence, or a sentence fragment that can stand independently.
The basic role of a period is to end a sentence.
> Language is a means of communication.
> Very true.
Follows most abbreviations and some contractions.
Roxas Blvd. Assn. Jan.
Quezon Ave. Ltd. Mon.
Mabuhay St. Co. Fri.
3. Is used with initials of people's names.
Marcelo H. del Pillar John F. Kennedy
J.K. Rowling N.V.M. Gonzales
Is used with titles and honorifics.
Mr. Lim Hon. Jacinto Reinante
Dr. Cariño Mrs. Nebres
>Quotation Marks, Double ______________(
>Quotation Marks, Single _______________(
5. Follows numerals and letters in outlines and vertical list.
A. Narrative poetry
6. Represents a decimal point.
7. Is used with latin abbreviations.
e.g. ( exempli gratia ) - for example
i.e. ( id est ) - that is
viz. ( videlicet ) - namely
The period may or may not be ed with the following:
1. Academic degrees
B.S.E. or BSE M.D. or MD
M.A or MA B.S.C.E. or BSCE
Ph.D. or PhD LL.B. or LLB
2. Geographical names
R.P. or RP N.C.R. or NCR
U.S.A or USA A.R.M.M. or ARMM
M.M or MM C.A.R. or CAR
No periods are used with the following:
1. Metric measurements
15 cm 10 km
8 kg 20°C
2. Some acronyms
Uses of the comma:
1. Separates main clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction ( and,but, or, nor, so).
>The old couple stayed in the province, but their married children opted to live in the city.
>The discussion wag going nowhere, so they decided to end it.
Sets off adverbial clauses and phrases that begin or interrupt a sentence.
> Before the campers ate lunch, they had pitched their tents.
> The test of the pudding, as they say, is in the eating
Sets of transitional words and phrases ( indeed, however ) and words that introduced examples ( for example, namely, such as).
>Indeed, the presentation was marvelous.
> Some stains, such as those from blood, grass, egg, and other foods, are difficult to remove.
4.Separates words, phrases, or clauses in a series.
Hurricane, cyclone, and typhoon are synonyms of the same weather phenomenon.
>From time to time, we hear a ringing, buzzing, whistling rumbling, or hissing in our ears.
5. Separates two or more adjectives that modify a noun.
This book is useful, informative, thoughtful, and delightful.
6. Sets off a nonrestrictive word, phrase, or clauses that is in apposition to a preceeding or following noun.
Flu, more properly called influenza, is disease caused by three basic viruses known as A, B, and C.
>Carbon dioxide, which we exhale when we breathe, inhibits hiccups.
7. Separates a dialogue or quotation from phrase identifying its source or speaker.
I need a stain remover," Father said.
"Dew is produced," Aristotle said, "in serene weather and in calm places."
8. Sets off words in direct address and mild interjections.
Sophia, we are expecting guests this weekends.
> Oh, how can i forget!
9. Precedes a tag question.
Jim handled the situation very well, Didn't he?
> Yo can't say no to her, can you?
10. Indicates the omission of a word or phrase used in a parallel construction earlier in the sentence.
Gerry was elected club president; Bea, vice-president.
> I was born in 1997; my elder brother, in 1995.
11. Groups numerals into units of three to separates thousands, millions, and so on.
> 104,923 PhP 100,000,00
12. Separates a surname from the following titles or degree, and often from the abbreviation
> Angela Ricaforte, Chairman
> Marvin Jacobo, Jr.
13. Sets off elements of an address and full dates.
San Miguel, Bulacan
> March 20, 2014
14. Follows the salutation in informal correspondence, and the complimentary close in a letter.
> Dear Marian,
> My Dear Aunt Sally,
> Very Truly yours,
> Your cousin,
Question mark ( ? )
The question mark, also known as the
, interrogation mark, question point, query, and eroteme, is a punctuation mark that indicates an interrogative sentence, clause, or phrase in written English and many other languages.
Uses of the Question mark:
1. Ends a direct question.
> Are the charts complete?
> To whom do you wish to speak?
2. Indicates uncertainty about a fact.
> Homer (9Th-8Th? century B.C.) wrote"The Iliad and The Odyssey."
3. Ends a statement that is meant to be a question.
> They're joining us?
> James refused the big offer?
Exclamation point ( ! )
The exclamation mark or exclamation point is a punctuation mark usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feelings or high volume (shouting), and often marks the end of a sentence
1. Ends an interjection, an emphatic phrase, or a sentence
> You can't go!
2. Is placed within quotation marks when it punctuates only the enclosed material.
> "Stay here!" he shouted.
> "Don't you dare!" she said.
The semicolon or semi-colon is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements. A semicolon can be used between two closely related independent clauses, provided they are not already joined by a coordinating conjunction. Semicolons can also be used in place of commas to separate items in a list, particularly when the elements of that list contain commas.
1. Separates related independent clauses joined without a coordinating conjunctions.
> Saute the garlic and onion; add the meat and vegetables.
The concert singer bows; the audience cheers.
2. Joins two clauses when the second includes a subordinating conjunction (however, therefore,hence), or a phrase that acts like one(as a consequence).
> There was a power failure; as a consequence, the program was delayed.
> Earth's gravity pulls everything toward the planet's center; therefore, Earth cannot be anything but a globe.
3. Is often used before introductory expressions such as
for example, that
> Tomatoes come in different forms; namely, vegetable, ketchup, chili sauce, and paste.
> Out science fair was a huge success; that is, the projects exhibited drew praises from the guests.
4. Separates phrases or items in a series when they contain commas.
> The largest delegation came from: Cebu, 18; Iloilo, 15; Bacolod, 14; and Leyte, 12.
The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line. A colon is used to explain or start an enumeration. A colon is also used with ratios, titles and subtitles of books, city and publisher in bibliographies, business letter salutation, hours and minutes, and formal letters.
1. Introduces a list or series.
> Four contestants made it to the finals: Mat, Eric, Jamie, and Kay.
2. Follows a salutation in formal letters.
> Dear Sir: > Dear Mayor:
> Madam: > Gentlemen:
3. Is used before a quotation enclosed by quotation marks in running text.
>The sign reads : "Now Hiring."
>Her text message says: "Hang In There ."
4. Separates element in bibliographic publication data and page reference, in Biblical citations, and in formulas used to express time and ratios.
>New York : Crown Publishers,2010
5.Seperates titles from subtitles.
> Filipino Folk Tales: Animal Stories
> Poetry: 100 Favorite Poems of all time
Uses of the apostrophe:
1. Indicates the possesive of nouns and indefinite pronouns.
> Heidi's diary >One's motives
>Anybody's guess > People's choice
2. Marks the omission of letters in contrations.
>aren't I'm he's
>can't you're doesn't
3. Marks the omission of digits in numerals.
>Batch '12 in the '80s
4. Often forms plural of letters, figures, symbols, abbreviations, and letters reffered to as words.
> f's and v's three 9's or three 9s
> lots of M.A.'s or lots of MAs
Quotation Marks, Double (" ")
In English writing, quotation marks or inverted commas, also known informally as quotes or speech marks or as quote marks, quotemarks or speechmarks, are punctuation marks placed either side of a word or phrase in order to identify it as a quotation, direct speech or a literal title or name.
uses of the quotation marks:
1. Set of dialogue or direct quotation.
"The poet Emily Dickson always say something extraordinary," the teacher said.
> "Aside from that,"the teacher continued,"she is easy to read."
2. Set off citations
>According to Hippocrates, the physician's art consist of three things"the disease, the patient, and the physician."
>Didn't Shakespeare say "the world is a stage"?
3. set off titles of poems, short stories, essays, and articles in periodicals, chapter of books, and episodes of radio and television programs.
My brother's essay, "A final Victory," was published in the school newspaper.
>Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess"is a monologue.
4. Set off words that are meant in a special way.
The comedian describes short people as "Vertically challenged".
> She jokingly calls her husband "my bitter half".
Quotation Marks, Single ( ' ')
Uses of the quotation marks, single
Set off a quotation within a quotation.
''I heard Mother say 'let's move to a bigger place' to father last night," Myrna said.
> "Well, shall I hear your 'overtime work' explanation again?" the wife confronted her husband.
Brackets ( [ ] )
Uses of brackets:
1 Sets off comments or classifications inserted into quoted material.
One reader comments that the English proficiency of teachers are [sic] declining.
Note: The Latin word sic makes it clear that the error is not your slip, nor is it a typographical error.
2. Set off insertions that supply missing letters or that alter the form of the original word.
> I didn't believe her when she said, "I have read all the work [s] of Shakespeare."
> He observed that more and more young people "are [were] getting addicted to video games."
3. Function as parentheses.
> His one-act plays (like "Golden Brown") reflect his philosophical views on life.
Parentheses ( )
a parenthesis (plural: parentheses; which comes in turn from words meaning "alongside of" and "to place") or parenthetical phrase is an explanatory or qualifying word, clause, or sentence inserted into a passage. The parenthesis could be left out and still form grammatically correct text. Parentheses are usually marked off by round or square brackets, dashes, or commas.
Uses of Parentheses:
1. Sets off phrases and clauses that provide examples, explanations, or supplementary information.
>Their products ( cakes, pastries, tarts, and candies) are in big demand during holiday season.
2. Set off numerals that confirm a spelled-out number.
> The cost of the merchandise is ninety-five thousand pesos ( Php 95,000,00) including shipping.
3. Set off numbers or letters that indicating individual items in a series within a sentence.
> The three kinds of verbals are (1) gerunds, (2) infinitives, and (3) participles.
4. Set off abbreviations that follow their spelled-out forms, or vice versa.
The University of Santo Thomas (UST) is the oldest university in the country
Indicate alternative terms.
> Please print your name in the bio data sheet(s)
> Which form(s) do we need?
Uses of slash:
1. separates alternatives, usually representing the words
>Jose Cruz/Anne Cruz
> Jose Cruz and/or Anne Cruz
2. Replace the word
or and in some compound terms and ranges.
> The March/April issue or march or March-April issue audio/video controls
3. Separates the numerals making up to date.
> 04/08/96 10/23/12
4. Indicates a period spanning two calendar years.
> School year 2012/2013 or school year 2012-13
> Records from 2011/12
5. Replace the word per.
> PhP 120/kg
> 70 km/hour
> PhP .75/ meter
> 60 words/minute
Hyphen ( - )
Ellipsis (plural ellipses; élleipsis, "omission" or "falling short") is a series of dots that usually indicates an intentional omission of a word, sentence, or whole section from a text without altering its original meaning.
Uses of ellipsis:
Indicates hesitations or trailing off spoken words.
>"Well. . . I don't know. . . I mean I'm not sure about it."
A dash is a punctuation mark that is similar to a hyphen or minus sign, but differs from both of these symbols primarily in length and function. The most common versions of the dash are the en dash (–) and the em dash (—), named for the length of a typeface's lower-case n and upper-case M respectively.
Uses of theDash:
1. Marks an abrupt change or break in structure or turn in content.
> My dear Miss Sta. Maria - or may I call you Glo?
2. Marks off descriptive elemt or digression.
Some of the neighbors - the Jocsons, Aysons, and Aliños - Innitiated the clean and green campaign in the subdivision.
3. Introduces defining phrases and lists.
> He has varied skills - plumming, welding, painting, and landscaping.
> Even Shiela - a very kind person - refused to lend him money
4. Sets off the source of the quotation.
> Sometimes it takes a painful experience to make uschange our ways
- Proverbs 20-30
5. Sets off an interrupting clauses or phases.
> The whole family - especially me - looks forward to a summer trip to Boracay Island
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word. The use of hyphens is called hyphenation. The hyphen should not be confused with dashes (‒, –, —, ―), which are longer and have different uses, or with the minus sign (−), which is also longer.
Uses of hyphen:
1. Links words that form a compound noun or adjective.
> Made-to-order half-mast
> Runner-up fund-raising
2. Separates a prefix or a suffix from an existing word.
> pre-valentine wall-like
> pro-life company-wide
3. Is used in most compound modifiers when placed before the noun.
> Well-planned affair full-blown controversy
> badly-damaged crops half-baked graduates
4. Is used with written-out numbers, both cardinal and ordinal, between 21 and 99.
> twenty-one sixty-fifth anniversary
>thirty-two eighty-second birthday
5. Is used in a written friction used as a modifier.
> one-tenth of the whole
> two-thirds of the vote
6. Is used between numbers, letters, and dates to mean"(up)" to and including
> pages 14-25 A-BAC
> 1521-1898 2005-present
7. Is used as the equivalent of to, and versus to indicate linkage or opposition.
> Manila - Los Angeles flight
> UP - UST game
8. Indicates word breaks at the end of a line
A computer teacher will teach participants general knowledge of the internet.