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Practical English Grammar

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Ho Sy Hung

on 26 October 2014

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Transcript of Practical English Grammar

Practical English Grammar
Group 3
List of member
Full name
Student's code
Hồ Sỹ Hùng
Nguyễn Thị Thùy Dung
Phan Thị Yến Nhi
Đỗ Thị Phương Yên
Phạm Hồng Hưng
Nguyễn Hoàng Thảo Nguyên
13058431
13049791
13040001
13036921
13026581
13023911
1. The comparative and superlative forms.
a.Form
b.Use
- We use the comparative and superlative forms to compare the
same quality
of different things.
Ex: Gold is
softer
than copper.

- The traditional rule is that we use the comparative for two items, and we use the superlative for more than two. But in informal English we often use the superlative to refer to one of only two items.
Ex: Which of these two photos is better/
best
?

-We usually put
the
before a superlative adjective.
c. Long and short adjectives.
- In general, short adjectives take
–er/ -est
while long ones take more/most.
One-syllable adjectives

count as short and
three-syllable adjectives
count as long.
Most
two-syllable adjectives count as long but not all of them.


One- syllable
adjectives take

-er/-est
(softer, softest).
Exceptions are adjectives in
–ed
( pleased, bored)
and the adjectives
real, right and wrong.

Ex: The film made the story seem
more

real
.

Short Adjectives
Long Adjectives
Some one-syllable adjectives of abstract meaning take either
-er/-est
or

more/most
. ( clear, free, keen, safe, sure, true, wise).

Ex: I wish I felt
surer/ more sure

about what I’m doing.
• Two-syllable adjectives take

more/ most
.
Ending in –ful
: careful, helpful, ect.
Ending in –less
: helpless, useless, ect.
Ending in –ing
: boring, pleasing, ect.
Ending in –ed
: bored, plead, ect.
Others
: afraid, cautious, certain, correct, eager, exact, famous, foolish, formal, frequent, mature, modern, normal, recent.

Some take either

–er/-est
or

more/ most
: able, common, cruel, feeble, gentle, handsome, narrow, pleasant, polite, simple, sincere, stupid.

Two-syllable adjectives ending in y usually take

–er
/-est
: dirty, easy, hungry, lovely, lucky, pretty, silly, tidy.
Note:
unhappy-unhappier-unhappiest.

• Adjectives of three or more syllables always take
more/most
.( more difficult, most difficult).
d. Some special forms

Farther/ further

and
farthest/ furthest
.
These words express distance.

Ex: The
farthest/ furthest
moon is 13 million kilometers from Saturn.

Further
( but not farther) can express quantity.

Ex: Let’s hope there are no
further
problems.(= no more problems)


Older/elder

and

Oldest/ eldest
.

We use
elder/ eldest
mainly to talk about ages in a family. They go before the noun.
Ex:
-Have you got an older/
elder
brother?
-The
oldest/
eldest
daughter married a pop singer.


Latest

and

last
.
Latest means “ further ahead in time” or “ newest”.
Ex:
-What’s the
latest
time we can leave and still catch the train?
-This jacket is the
latest
fashion.

Last means “
before
” or “
final
”.
Ex: I had my hair cut
last
week.


Nearest

and

next
.
Nearest
means the shortest distance away,

Next

refers to one of a sequence of things coming one after the other.
Ex:
-Where is the
nearest
phone box?
(= closest, least far)
-We have to get out at the
next
stop.
( The stop after this).

More, most; less, least
fewer and fewest.
Plural
Uncountable
We can use these words to compare quantities.
More
(
a larger number
)
Ex: You’re got more books than me.

Most
(
The largest number
)
Ex: You’re got the most books of anyone I know.

Fewer
(
a smaller number
)
Ex: I buy fewer books these days.

Fewest
(
the smallest number
)
Ex: You’ ve got the fewest books of anyone I know

More
(
a large amount
)
Ex: They play more music at weekend.

Most
(
The largest amount
).
Ex: This station plays the most music.

Less
(
a smaller amount
)
There’s less music on the radio.

Least
(
the smallest amount
)
Ex: This station plays the least music.

e, We can use
an adverb
of degree in pattern in expressing a comparison.
3. Patterns expressing a comparison.
a, More, as and less
We can say that something is
great than, equal to or less than
something else.
Ex:
-Most hotel are
more
comfortable than motels.
-Some motels are
as
comfortable as hotel.
-Some motels are
less
comfortable than a modern hotel.

b, Less and least.
Less

and

least

are the opposite of more and most.
Ex:
-Motels are usually
less
expensive than hotels.
-The subway is the
least
expensive way.

Note:

We use
less
with both long and short adjectives.

c, As and so.
We use a positive statement with

as

to say that things are equal.
Ex:
-Many motels are
as
comfortable as hotels.

In a negative statement we can use either

as

or

so
.
Ex:
-Some motels are not as/ not so comfortable as a good hotel.
Not as/ not so comfortable

means “ less comfortable”

d, Than.
After a comparative we can use
than
with a phrase or clause
.
Ex:
-Gold is softer
than copper.
-The motels was less expensive
than I had expected.

A pronoun after

as

or
than

has the object form.
Ex: I’m not as tall as
him/ he
is.

Note:
(1) "
I’m not as tall as
he
" is formal and old-fashioned.

(2)
We can leave out as/than + phrase or clause if the meaning is clear without it.
Ex:
-I liked the last hotel we stayed in, This one is n’t so comfortable.
- Gold is n’t very suitable for making tools. Copper is much harder.

Ex:
-Gold is much softer than copper.

-This is by far the best method.

f, Pattern with the superlative.
After a superlative we often use a phrase of time or place, an of-phrase or relative clause.
Ex:
-It’s going to be the most exciting festival
ever
.
-Which is the tallest building
in the world
?

g, Patterns with the comparative.
We use the pattern with
and
to express a continuing increase.
Ex:
-The plant grew
taller and taller
.
-The roads are getting
more and more crowded.

We use the pattern with
the
to say that a change in one thing goes with a change in another.
Ex:
-The longer the journey( is), the more expensive the ticket ( is).
-The older you get, the more difficult is becomes to find a job.

Unit5: Artticles.
FORM
These are two articles in modern English:
+
A/An
is the indefinite article.
+
The
is the definite article.

-Before a consonant sound the article are
n
and
the
.
Ex:
a
sheft,
a
visitor....

-Before a vowel sound they are

an

and

the
Ex: an umbrella, an elephant, an hour....

Note:
1.It is the pronunciation of the next words which matters, not spelling, especially words beginning with

o
,

u
,

or

h

or abbreviation
Ex:
a
one day event,
a
FIFA official,
a
NATO general....

2. * In slow or emphatic speech we can use

a
,

an

and

the
.
Ex: And now, Ladies and gentlemen,
a
special item in our show.

*When
the

is stressed, it can mean “the only”, “the most important”
Ex: Aintree is
the
place to be on Grand National Day.

USE
1. Basic use
-The first mention a thing

a

-Mention the same thing again

the
Ex:
We bought
a
car this morning.
The
car is a Mercedes
Something unique in context- When there is only one
the
Ex: -
The
sun
( the is the one sun in the sky )

-We were at home in
the
garden
( There is one garden in the house)

-A phrase / clause after the noun to make clear which one is meant

the

Ex: Ours is
the house on the corner.
-The phrase/ clause does not give enough information to show which one

a/an
Ex: He lives in
a house overlooking the park
.
-We normally use
the
in noun phrase with superlative adjectives and with
only, next, last, same, right,
and
wrong

Ex: -Sears Tower is
the
tallest in the world.
-You are
the
only friend I have got
-I think You went
the
wrong way at the lights

NOTES:
An only child is a child without brothers and sisters

-some institution
-means of transport
-communication
-some jobs
the
Ex:
-This decade has seen a revival
in the cinema.
-I go to work on
the train
.
-Kate has to go to
the dentist
tomorrow.
Note
Television
and
radio
as institution
a
/
an
or
the
Ex: Donna has got a job in
television
/ in
radio
But compare
watch television/see it on television
and
listen to the radio/hear it on the radio.
We use
the
before ordinal numbers: the first, the second...

NOTES: We use
a
before an ordinal number in the sense of “another”,”one more”

Ex: The First time we met was in April, then came
a second
meeting and
a third
one, and we met every other day.

a/an
can mean either specific one or any one.

Ex:
-I am looking for
a
pen. It is a blue one (a specific pen)
-I am looking for
a
pen. Have you got one?( any pen)

2.OTHER USES
We use

a/an

or a plural noun on its own to describe something, even though it is clear which one is meant.

Ex: -It is
a long way
to Newcastle.
-Those are
rats
, not mice.

We use

a/an

or an uncountable noun on its own to classify to say what something is.
Ex:
-The Sears Tower is a
building
in Chicago.



This includes a person’s job, nationality or belief.
Ex: a doctor, an American. A catholic
-For generalization we can use a plural or an uncountable noun on its own or a singular noun with
a/an
or
the
Ex: -
Camels
can close their nose.
-
A camel
can close its nose.
-
The camel
can close its nose.

These statements are about all camels, camels in general
Plural / uncountable noun on its own.
Ex:
-Blackbirds have a lovely song
-Milk is good for you.
Milk
a/an

+ singular noun:
Ex:
-
A blackbird
has a lovely song
( Any blackbird, any example of a blackbird)
-
An oar
is a thing you row about with.( When explaining the meaning of a word).

The
+ singular noun.
Ex:
The blackbird
has a lovely song.

- We also use
the
with some groups of people described in economic terms:
the customer.
inventions:
the wheel.

musical instrument:
the piano.
NOTES: play tennis, play chess, play the piano
( but for American usage: play piano)


The + Adjective.
Ex: - The French
- The poor
- The rich
I am rich
7.Articles with school, prison, etc.
a.
School
starts at night o’clock. (= school activities)

The school
is in the center of the village. (= the school building, a specific building)
b. I’m usually in
bed
by eleven. (=sleeping/resting)

The bed
felt very uncomfortable. (= a specific bed)
c.
We use an article if there is a word or phrase modifying the noun.
The guilty men were sent to
a high security prison.
Mark is doing a course at
the new college.

a. Years
The party was formed
in
1981
.

b. Seasons
We always go on holiday
in
e summer
.

c. Months
The event will be in
May
.


d. Special times of the year.
I like
Christmas
.



8.Articles in phrases of time.
a
marvelous
summer

the winter
of 1947
in
the year
1981
That was
the May
we got married.
It was
a Christmas
I’ll never forget.
e. Days of the week

Thursday
is my busy
day.

f. Parts of the day and night
They reached camp
at
sunset
.

g. Meals

Breakfast
is at eight
o’clock.

h. Phrases with last and next
-These flats were built

last year
.
-We are having a party

next Saturday
.


8.Articles in phrases of time.
I did it on the
Thursday
of that week.
It was a marvelous
sunset
.

The breakfast
we have was
very nice.
The flats had been built
the previous year
.
They were having a party
the following Saturday
.
Note

Se
en from the present:
tom
orrow - next week - nex
t year


Se
en from the past:
the
next day - the next/follo
wing

we
ek, the next/following ye
ar

9. Names of people
a, Names of people
a/an

or

the
Ex: -Johnson
-Peter
b, Sometimes we can use a name with an article.
-There is
a

Laura
who works in our office.
(= a person called Laura)
-
A Mrs Wilson
called to see you.
(=someone called Mrs Wilson)
-
The Laura
I know has dark hair.
(= the person called Laura)
-The gallery has
some Picasso
.
(= some pictures by Picasso)

Understand
????
Note

(1)

Stressed

the

before the name of a person can mean ‘the famous person’.
Ex: I know a Joan Collins, but she isn’t
the
Joan Collins.


(2)

We can sometimes use other determiners.
Ex: -I didn’t mean
that
Peter, I meant the other one.
-
Our
Laura (= the Laura in our family)

10. Place names and "the"
Most place names
the
Some names
Ex: Texas, Ho Chi Minh City...
the
(especially compound names)
But some do not:
the

Black Sea
but
Lake Superior
.
Lakes and seas
the
Of-phrase
:
the
Isle
of
Wight.
Adjective
:
the Royal
Opera House,
the International
school.
Plural
:
the
West
Indies
.

We do not use
the
before a possessive:
Cleopatra’s
Needle.
-There’s a
Plymouth
in the USA. (= a place called Plymouth).

-
The Plymouth
of to day is very different from the Plymouth I once knew.

-Amsterdam is
the Venice
of the North. (= the place like Venice)

Note
A

B. Some details
Use “the” before:
Oceans, seas, rivers, canals
The Missouri, the Panama Canal, the Black Sea, the Pacific
Mountain ranges and hill ranges
Across the Alps,
in the Cotswolds
Regions
The South, the Mid-West, the Baltic
Exceptions: Central America, to North Wales ( the name of
a country or continent is modified by another word)

Theatres, cinemas, hotels, galleries and centers
The Apollo, the Odeon, the Empire, the Tate, the Arndale Centre
Exception: Her Majesty’s Theatre

Continents,countries, states and counties,
islands.
A trip to Europe, on Bermuda, a holiday in France, through Texas, in Hampshire.
Exceptions:
the Dominican Republic, the UK
The Bahamas, the USA (Plural
names)

Mountains, hills
Up (Mount) Everest, Mount Fuji
Lakes
Beside Lake Ontario, Hoan Kiem Lake
Parks,Roads, streets.
Station Road, Baker Street, Regent’s Park
Exceptions: the High Street (some road names with adjectives), the Birmingham road, the M6, the Mall, the Strand

Not use “the” before
Not use “the” before
Cities, towns, suburbs and villages
In Sydney
Transport facilities, religious, educational and official buildings, palaces and houses.
Paddington, St Paul’s, King Edward’s, Leeds Town Hall, Buckingham Palace, Hanover House.
Exceptions: the Chapel of Our Lady, the Open University, the Science Museum (names with an of-phrase, an adjective or a noun modifier)

Shops, restaurants
Bridges
Westminster Bridge
Exceptions: the Humber Bridge

At Harrod’s, at Matilda’s
Exceptions: the Kitchen Shop, the Bombay Restaurant, the Red Lion (pub name)

Unit 5: Ariticles
Unit 6: Adjectives
Presentation
Subject: Grammar 1
Teacher: Nguyễn Văn Nam
Group: 3
Form
Use
Unit 6: Adjectives
I. Introduction
II. Positions
III. The order of attributive adjectives
IV. Adjectives in -ing & -ed
V. The + Adjective
VI. Comparison
INTRODUCTION

_ An adjective always has the same form
a
young
men a
young
woman
young
people


_ But some adjectives take comparative and superlative endings.
Ex: + Minh is
taller
than Hung.
+ Yesterday was the
hottest
day of the year.

_
There are some endings used to form adjectives from other words
care
ful
driver sill
y
question The norm
al
place artist
ic
merit

a. Form
b. Use
_ Adjectives modify nouns:
The
beautiful
girl.
_Adjectives express:
+ Physical and other qualities: large, quiet, friendly...
+ The writer's opinion or attitude: excellent, beautiful,...
+ Other meanings such as origin (an American writer), place ( an inland waterway), frequency ( a weekly newspaper), degree ( a complete failure), necessity ( an essential safeguard), degrees of certainty ( the probable result).
_ Adjectives also tell us what type of thing it is.

POSITIONS
1. Attributive and predicative positions.
_ We can put a phrase of measurement before some adjectives:
Ex: The man is about
forty years old
and
six feet tall.
_ An adjective can go before a noun
( attributive position) or as complement after a linking verb ( predicative position).
+ Attributive: It is a
small
doll.
+ Predicative: The doll is
small
.


b. Attributive only

These adjectives are attributive but not predicative:
chief eventual sole
(= only)
former
(= earlier)
inner

indoor elder
(= older)
eldest
(= oldest)
main

outdoor mere
(= only)
sheer
(= complete)
upper

outer principal
(=main)
utter
(= complete)
only

Example: That was the main reason.

a. An adverb of degree can come before an adjective
Note
(1)
"
Little
" is mostly attributive.

Ex: A little village. The village is small.

(2)
"
Same
" cannot be predicative except with "
the
".

Ex: Yes, I had the same experience
=> Yes, my experience was the same.

(3)
A noun as modifier can only be attributive.

Ex: A
tennis
club. A
water
pipe.

But nouns saying what something is made of can go in either position.
Ex: It's a
metal
pipe/ The pipe is
metal
.

Ex: You are
alive
.
_These adjectives are predicative but not attributive.

_
Some words expressing feelings:
pleased, glad, content, upset.

_
Some words with the prefix "
a
-"
: asleep, alive, awake, afraid, ashamed, alone, alike.

_ Some words to do with health:
well, fine, ill, unwell.

c. Predicative only

(1)

many of these adjectives can be attributive if they are modified by an adverb.
Ex: The
wide awake
children.


(2)

Pleased
,

glad

and

upset

can be attributive when not referring directly to people.
Ex: A
pleased expression
.
The
glad news
.
An
upset stomach
.


(3)

The adjectives

well
,

fine
,
ill

and
unwell

preferring to health usually come in predicative position.
Ex: Our secretary is ill.

But they can be attributive, especially in America
: an
ill
man.

Note
d. different meanings in different positions.
Attributive only
Either position
A
real
hero
( degree)
real
wood/ the wood is
real
.
(= not false)
A
perfect
idiot
( degree)
A
perfect
day/ The day was
perfect
. (= excellent)
You
poor
thing!
(sympathy)
A
poor
result/ The result was
poor
. (=not good)
Poor
people/ The people are
poor
(= having little money)
Note:
An adjective can also be an object complement.

Ex: A noisy party kept us
awake
.

2. Adjectives after nouns and pronouns.
a. After nouns
_ Sometimes adjectives can go after nouns.
Ex: -He has a face
thin
and
worn
, but
eager
and
resolute
.

_ Adjective + prepositional phrase cannot go before the noun. It goes directly after the noun.
Ex: -He is the man
greedy for money
.
-People
anxious for news
kept ringing the emergency number.

a. After nouns
_
In rather formal or literary English an adjective can go before or after a noun phrase, separated from it by a comma.
Ex: -
Uncertain
, the woman hesitated and looked round.
-The weather,
bright and sunny
, drove us out of doors.

_ Sometimes the position of the adjective depends on the meaning.
Ex: -The amount of money
involved
is quite small. (= relevant)
-It is rather
involved
story.
(= complicated)

Note
(1)
Available can come before or after a noun.
The only
available tickets
/ The only
tickets available
were very expensive.


(2)
Possible can come after the noun when there is a superlative adjective.
We took the shortest
possible
route/ the shortest route
possible.


(3)
The adjective follows the noun in a few titles and idiomatic phrases.
the
Director General

a
Princess Royal

the
sum total

b. After pronouns

_ Adjectives come after a compound with

every
,

some
,

any

and

no
.

Ex: You mustn't do
anything silly
.

THE ORDER OF ATTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVES:
1. When two/ more adj + noun
The order depends mainly on the meaning
Groups of adjectives and other modifier.
Opinion
nice, excellent, lovely, awful, ect.
Size
large, small, long, short, tall, ect
Quality
clear, famous, important, quiet, ect.
Age
old , new, ect.
Shape
round, square, fat, thin, wide, narrow
Colour
red, white, blue, green, ect.
Participle form
broken , running , ect.
Origin
British , Italian , American , ect.
Material
brick , wooden , ect.
Type
human, chemical, money ( problem), ect.
Purpose
alarm (clock) , walking ( boots) , etc.
Order:

opinion
+

size
+

quality

+
age

+

shape

+

colour
+

participle forms

+
origin

+

material

+

type

+

purpose
.

Ex:
Two
excellent public tennis
courts ( opinion + type + purpose ) .

Note
(1)
Sometime The order can be different :

Short Adj. + long Adj. + noun.
Ex: A
big horrible
building.
(2)

Old

&

young

+ noun
( When they referring to people).
Ex: -A dignified
old
lady
-A pale
young
man
(3)

Words for material mostly nouns
( brick ) ,
but some are adjectives
( wooden ).

Words for type can be adjectives
( chemical )
or nouns
( money problem ).

Words for purpose are nouns
( alarm clock )
or gerunds
( walking boots ).


2. In general, the adjective closest to the noun has a closest meaning with the noun and expresses what is most permanent about it.


Ex: Two
excellent
public
tennis
courts


We use adjectives in
–ed
to describe people, or express how people feel about something.
Ex: -The story interested John.
->
John
was
interested
in the story.

We use adjectives in

–ing

to describe things, events , ect; or to express what
something is like , and to express the effect it has
on us.
Ex: -
The story
was
interesting
.

We can also use adjectives in
–ing
to describe people.
Ex:Is n’t John interesting!

ADJECTIVES IN –ING AND –ED
THE + ADJECIVE
1. Social groups
a. The + adjective
some groups of people in society
Ex: The poor
The poor
is more impersonal than
poor people.

The
+ adjectives take a plural verb.


b. Adjectives use in this way.


Social/ Economic
: the rich, the poor, the unemployed, the homeless.
Physical/ health
: the blind, the deaf, the sick.
Age
: the young, the old.

The adjective can be modified by an adverb:
the
very
rich.
Some adjectives have comparison:
the
more
/
less
fortunate

Note
(1)

In the few contests , [the + adjectives] can mean a specific gr
oup
rather than people in general.

Ex:The injured were taken to hospital.

(2)

A few adjectives can come after
a/ an
to mean a specific person.

(3)

There are a few adjectives that can be used as nouns.

(4)

For a whole people , we can use
the + adjectives
of nationality.

Ex:

The
English
are /
English people
are reserved.

a.
we can use
the + adjectives
to refer to things in general which have an abstract quality:
the old , the new , the unexplained.
Ex: the human race has a great thirst for the
unknown
.
The noun phrase takes a singular verb.

b.

A few adjectives can have a more specific meaning.
Ex:
the unexpected
happened.( = something that was unexpected ).

c.

We use

the + adjective + thing

to talk about a particular quality or aspect of a situation. This usage is rather informal.
Ex: it was an amusing sight ,but the
annoying thing
about it was that I did n’t have my camera with me.

2. Abstract qualities
Regular forms:

Short adjectives:

Soft Softer Softest

Long adjectives:

Exclusive more exclusive most exclusive
Irregular forms:
Good Well Best
Bad Worse Worst
Note
(1) There are some spelling rules for
-er/-est
Fin
e
Fin
er
Fin
est
Ho
t
Ho
tt
er Ho
tt
est
Thi
ck
Thi
ck
er Thi
ck
est
Heav
y
Heav
i
er Heav
i
est
Gre
y
Gra
y
er Gra
y
est
But

But
(2) In formal English:
most
can means
very
Ex: It's a most exclusive store
(3) When we compare two qualities, we use
more
, not
-er
Ex: I was more sad than angry.
Note
The adjectives Well ( = in good health) and ill take these irregular forms.

Ex: I feel alot
better
now.
She looks
worse
today.
3. A/an or one?


a.

A/an
or
one
both refer to one thing, but
one
puts more emphasis on the number.
The stereo has
a
tape deck. ( you can record on it).
The stereo has
one
tape deck. ( you can't use two tapes).


b.

We use
one
for one of a large number. It often contrasts with
other
.

One
shop was open, but the others were closed.


c.
We use one in adverb phrases with morning, day, time, ect.

One morning
something very strange happened.

One day
my genius will be recognized.


We use
a
some expressions of quantity
: a few, a little, a lot of, a number of
or before
hundred, thousand, million, e.g. a hundred/one hundred. (a
is in formal
, one
is usual in longer numbers
).

4. A/an, some and a noun on its own

Singular:
There's
a rat
under the floorboards.

Plural:
There's
some rats
under the floor.

Uncountable:
There's
some milk
in the fridge.

But we can sometimes use a plural or uncountable noun on its own.
There' re rats under the floorboards.
There' re milk in the fridge.

Leaving out
some
makes little difference to the meaning, but
rats
expresses a type of animal rather than a number of rats.

Rat
5. With uncountable nouns

a.
We use
the

when meaning is more specific.
Ex: -Pass
the sugar
, please. (=the sugar on the table where we are sitting).
-
The life
of a Victorian factory worker wasn't easy.


b.

Compare these two patterns.
Ex: -I'm not an expert on
Chinese history.
-I'm not an expert on
the history of China.
( the meaning is the same ).


c.

A phrase with of usually takes the, but with other phrase and clauses we can use a noun without an article.
Ex:
-Life in those days
wasn't easy. ( a general idea )

-Silk from Japan
was used to make the wedding dress. ( a type of material)

6. A singular noun on its own.

a.
Before some nouns for institutions
: at
college


b.

In some fixed expressions:

night
after
night
, from
start
to
finish
.


c.
In a phrase with
by
expression means of transport:
by
plane
.


d.

As compliment or after as, when the noun expresses a unique role.
Elizabeth was crowded
Queen
.


e.

With a noun in apposition, especially in newspapers style:

housewife
July Adams


f.
In the idioms:
in fact, for example

Comparison
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