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AP Bio- Matter 4: Transport
Transcript of AP Bio- Matter 4: Transport
Movement of material from [High] to [Low]
No energy required
Chemistry must be Considered
A Free Ride
The passive transport of molecules across a semi-permeable membrane
The Diffusion of water (opposite direction to solute)
Movement of material from [Low] to [High]
Energy is required
All other things being equal:
* This is a consequence of the second law of thermodynamics, which says that the entropy of a system will increase unless energy is added to that system.
Locally energy is added in to living systems.
Globally, no energy is added to the net total energy of the Universe.
A "Messy Room" on 2 different scales
Tonicity is Important
Must Use A Protein! (Why?)
How does the cell control what is transported at the cell membrane?
Why is transport of materials between the cell and its environment necessary for life?
How does the environment influence living systems?
How do cells exist within the confines of the Laws of Thermodynamics?
Diffusion is inescapable (as long as you can fit through the membrane).
Diffusion is an emergent & inescapable property of large concentrations of constantly moving molecules
What can diffuse through the bi-layer?
What does all the other stuff do?
Aquaporins and ion channels
Channels and Carrier proteins control the diffusion of charged and polar molecules
How can you "control" diffusion?
What's Happening Here?
What's Happening Here?
The Sodium Potassium Pump:
Can't Have A Nervous System Without Them!
ATP Fills The Energy Requirement
Phosphorylation Triggers a Conformational Change!
Tonicity is a relative measure of solution concentration
The tonicity of a cell's environment has serious consequences for the cell
Tonicity as it affects plant and animal cells.
Explain all situations shown!
Circles indicate homeostatic condition
Which way does sucrose go?
What if it can't?
The contractile vacuole of a paramecium is an adaptation for living in an environment that is hypotonic compared to the cell.
Different osmoregulatory adaptations in salt-water and fresh-water fish
Moving Big Stuff
Intake of large molecules.
"Cell being picky"
Release of large cellular products into outflow
Make Sure You Can
Explain how the consequences of the second law of thermodynamics allow diffusion to occur in the universe without an input of energy.
Compare passive and active transport.
Compare facilitated and simple diffusion.
Compare diffusion of a solute with osmosis of water.
Determine the tonicity relationships when given the concentrations of solutes of multiple solutions.
Predict the movement of specific molecules when given information about their relative concentrations and the characteristics of a given semi-permeable membrane.
Explain why animals and plants have evolved adaptations to survive in solutions of different toncities.
Predict the effect of altering tonicity on a plant or animal cell.
Compare exocytosis and endocytosis.
Explain the purposes and processes of the different modes of endocytosis employed by the cell.
What you will learn in college
(not necessarily how you will learn it)
a "secretory vessicle"