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Copy of COGNITIVE THEORY - JEAN PIAGET

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Pippa Totraku

on 19 October 2015

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Transcript of Copy of COGNITIVE THEORY - JEAN PIAGET

Piaget's Cognitive Theory
Three Basic Components to Piaget's Cognitive Theory
1. Schemas

2. Processes that enable the transition from one stage to another
(equilibrium, assimilation, accommodation and disequilibrium)

3. Stages of Development:
Sensorimotor
Pre-Operational
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational


Stages of Adaptation
Assimilation, accommodation and equilibrium
Piaget's
Stages of Development
By: Pippa Totraku
Jean Piaget

Parent
Child
This is what a "dog" looks like
Dog
( Initial Schema) A child begins to develop an understanding of what a dog is from a picture book
The child experiences "
Disequilibrium
"
*Ears
*Four Legs
* Tail
Dog
Dog
The child is actively constructing a "
Schema
" about dogs
The child "
Assimilates
" the information and returns to a state of "
Equilibrium
"
The "
Assimilation
" process continues as the child expands her understanding of what a dog is by observing one in the park.
* Ears
* Four Legs
* Tail
Dog
Dog
The child experiences "
disequilibrium
." Her "
schema
"

about dogs does not include:
barking, furry, or licking
"Bark"
"Bark"
Dog:
* Ears
* Four Legs
*Tail
Disequilibrium:
*Bark?
*Furry?
*Licks?
Dog?
While the child is in a state of "
disequilibrium
". she is
actively constructing meaning
and is building a "
schema
" or adding information to existing schema "
accommodation
".
The child seeks reinforcement from her parent
Dog
The parent affirms and reinforces the new information. "
Assimilation
" is occurring. "
Disequilibrium
" resolved. "
Schema
" is organized to incorporate new information
*Fours Legs
*Ears
*Tail
*Barks
*Furry
*Licks
Dog
Dog
Child return to a state of "
equilibrium
"
Piaget theorized that cognitive development is about a child constructing a mental model of the world.
Now a child sees a cat in a park. A new schema must be formed to acknowledge this is a different animal, even though it has some of the same traits as a dog.

Dogs?
*Four legs
*Ears
*Tail
*Barks
*Furry
*Licks
Disequilibrium - Meow?
Dog?
*Four Legs
*Ear
*Tail
*Barks xxxx
*Furry
*Licks
DOG?
The child is in disequilibrium and is actively constructing meaning. She asks the parent to assist resolving this disequilibrium.
Reinforcement
No. It is a cat.
Child is in state of disequilibrium. The parent provides feedback and reinforces that the new animal is a cat.
What are schemas?
After the parent confirms, the child creates a schema for "Cat".
Dog
*Four Legs
*Ear
*Tail
*Barks
*Furry
*Licks
Cat
*Four Legs
*Ear
*Tail
*Meow
*Climbs
*Furry
*Licks
Sensorimotor
0-2 years
Concrete Operational
7-11 years
Formal Operational
11+ years
COGNITIVE THEORY
LET"S TAKE A LOOK AT AN EXAMPLE TO SHOW US HOW THIS REALLY WORKS
A schema can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world. The assumption is that we store them in the our brains and pull them out as needed.

Think of them as a bunch of file folders in your brain that you just open when you are ready to respond to that subject.

Piaget referred to schemas as the basic building block for intelligent behavior.
Universal Model of Cognitive Development
EVERY CHILD
Assimilation = Taking in New Information
Equilibrium = Balance
Disequilibrium = Unbalanced
Schema - "My Brain File Folders"
Accommodation = Modifying Schema to Adapt to New Information
Assimilation
Equilibrium
Schema
Disequilibrium
Accommodation
She is retrieving her "schema" on dogs since this animal seems to have the same characteristics of a dog.
Retrieving the "Schema"
Meow? The child experiences disequilibrium as she experiences a new sound not found in her schema for "Dogs".
SEEKING MEANING
FINDING EQUILIBRIUM
DISEQUILIBRIUM
Assimilation
Accommodation
Schema
Equilibrium
Disequilibrium
Sources
McLeod, S. A. (2009). Jean Piaget | Cognitive Theory - Simply Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
STGBree (2011). Piaget - Stage 1 - Sensorimotor Stage: Object Permanence. Retrieved from http://http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NCdLNuP7OA8
Fi3021 (2008). Piaget - Stage 2 -Pre-Operational - Lack of Conversation. Retrieved from http://http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GLj0IZFLKvg
Fi3021 (2008). Piaget - Stage 3 - Concrete - Reversibility. Retrieved from http://http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gA04ew6Oi9M
Fi3021 (2008). Piaget - Stage 3 - Formal - Deductive Reasoning. Retrieved from http://http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zjJdcXA1KH8
Knowledge of Construction, Chapter 7, 231-247.
JUST A FEW PROS & CONS...
PROS
Changed how people view a "child's world" and the methods for studying children.
Increase in our understanding of cognitive development; therefore, our communication with children has become better.
CONS
Fails to consider the effects of social settings and culture.
Small sample size.
Incompatible with theories of Bruner and Vygotsky.
Object permanence
Piaget said not fully formulated until substage 5 (12-18 months)
Baillargeon, DeVos and Graber (1989) found object permanence in babies aged 5 and a half months

?
What reflexes have you observed in a very young baby?
Rooting- seeking nipple/ finger
Grasping-stroke palm: baby will grasp finger
Moro- arching back & extending limbs in response to surprise [sound/ action]
Walking- stepping motions when supported underarm

The
sensorimotor
period
birth to about 24 months

Pre-operational thought
24 months to 7 years

Concrete operational
period
7 to 12 years

Formal operational
period
12 years onwards

Sensorimotor stage
Children begin to make use of imitations, memory and thought. They develop ‘object permanence’. Moves from reflect actions towards goal-directed activity.
Pre-operational
Slowly develops use of language and ability to think symbolically. Able to think operations through logically in one direction only and finds abstract ideas difficult. Is egocentric and find it difficult to see another persons point of view. Believes that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of actions (ah)!
Concrete Operational
Marks the beginning of logical or operational thought. Now mature enough to use logical thought or operations (i.e. rules) but can only apply logic to physical objects (hence concrete operational). Less egocentric and better at conservation tasks. This means that the child understands that although the appearance of something changes, the thing itself does not. For example, if you take two pieces of string that are the same length and scrunch one up, a child will reply that the scrunched one is shorter, if conservation hasn't yet been reached.
pre-operational thought
Decentralising:
unable to consider alternative outcomes

Formal operational
As adolescents enter this stage, they gain the ability to think in an abstract manner, the ability to combine and classify items in a more sophisticated way, and the capacity for higher-order reasoning.
from 5:53
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