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Transcript of Elizabethan Belief's
Myths and Magic, Dr. John Dee
Here is an example of a diagram:
The 4 Humours/Fluids:
Many doctors believe that a person's health and personality is identified by the 4 humours.
The Sanguine: which is from your blood, it represents happiness, fat, confidence and forgetting. (AIR)
The Phlegmatic: It is from phlegm, these people are known as relaxed, quiet, lazy, sluggish, shy, consistent, relaxed, calm, rational, curious, observant and can also be passive aggresive. (WATER)
Chain of being
By: Diljot, Jasleen, Mariam and Emaan
After the Renaissance Italian Neoplatonists, people believed in spirits and demons
They thought that spirits and demons could only be controlled by magicians who did alchemy, astrology, numerology, and magic.
People also believed in ghosts, and King Hamlet in Shakespeare's play was also based off of this belief
Shakespeare's play The Tempest is said to be one of his most magical plays, and it is also believed to be the last one that he wrote alone
Witches were ranked lower than magicians, who were on the side of devils, hobgoblins, and fairies.
Shakespeare's play, Macbeth, also includes witches that guide Macbeth's faith
Rationalists and Puritans didn't think the witches were that commendable, they associated them with paganism and Catholicism
Born on July 13, 1527
When he was born, it was believed that baptizing a baby would expel the devil, save the baby's soul, and rescue it from limbo (abode of unbaptized infants)
John was baptized with baptismal water, salt, and oil. The process also involved prayers, a cross being put on his head, and holy oil being put on him
Shakespeare's first record was his baptism
Fifty years later, John used holy oil while trying to get out a demon from one of his servants, which he failed in
John Dee was a magician, astrologer, philosopher, and mathematician in his time
He was an advisor to Queen Elizabeth, on the basis of being a philosopher, and also got to determine the date for her coronation, through astrology
The queen also protected him from people that accused him of witchcraft
His image of a long white beard, a long gown, hanging sleeves, and a tall figure has influenced the way people distinguish magicians
Shakepeare's character, Prospero, in The Tempest, is based off of John Dee
Choleric: The yellow bile, another fluid found near the stomach. These people possess many leader ship qualities. They often go to sudden depression or mood swings. (FIRE)
Melancholic: comes from the black bile. These people are thoughtful, concerned about tardiness, and highly creative in poetry and art. They have a background which is preoccupied by some type of tragedy and cruelty of life. Often like to be self-reliant and independent. (EARTH)
The two main religions in Elizabethan England were the protestant and catholic religions
In the early 1500s, most people in England practiced the Catholic religion
Catholicism practices were questioned, creating a new religion called Protestantism
Many Catholic's raged in the changing of religions, causing many to leave England to continue practicing their religion freely
The favoured religion in the 1500s was Protestantism, and those who incorrectly practiced it were fined
What happens when you have too much melancholy?
When you have too much Melancholy the person has unreasonable behavior.
People believe that diet was the cause, however certain emotions can lead to Melancholy.
Some Elizabethan Cures:
What is the Chain of Being?
A strict and religious hierarchial structure of all matter and life
In other words, people believed that everyone and everything was arranged in a specific order
They believed that this order was made by God
This order was unchangeable
People were supposed to follow this order
The higher, something is on the chain the more important it is
There are 6 sections in the chain
Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) greatly believed in the Protestant religion
The main religion/favoured religion was officially Protestantism (Art of Supremency law)
The queen's belief was questioned and many wanted to plot against her
Queen Mary I (Queen Elizabeth's sister) was a supporter of the Catholic religion
Plots against Elizabeth were to replace her with Mary since she'd make the main religion Catholiscm
Attacking plots eventually led to the execution of Queen Mary, Queen of Scots
Queen Mary was burned alive, hence her nickname Bloody Mary
How would an Elizabethan doctor treat an imbalance of humours?
Both religions are Catholic, but the Protestant religion does not believe in a pope.
Protestant's think that a pope is just a person replacing Jesus and is not required.
Catholic's believe that a pope is a "Vicor of Christ", and takes the place of Jesus.
Protestants believe that the Bible is God's special revelation to mankind, and it teaches all that is necessary for our salvation from sin.
Protestants view the Bible as the standard by which all Christian behavior must be measured.
Puritanism- Depending on how hard you work, you shall recieve according to that.
Queen Elizabeth I
QUEEN ELIZABETH i
QUEEN Mary i
For excess black bile, the process called bloodletting was used. In the bloodletting process, the doctor begins with cutting a main vein.
If the blood comes out clean and red, the doctor will stop the bleeding.
If the blood comes out black and thick, the doctor will continue to let it bleed.
Ten to twelve days later the patient revisits.
This time the doctor will make the patient bleed from a vein in the forehead.
This process will overall cure the excess black bile in the patients
Shakespeare was born Catholic, and was fined for being absent in church
Queen Elizabeth I was given her position of queen 6 years before Shakespeare was born
Shakespeare was a Protestant
Shakespeare's parents were most likely Catholics
John Shakespeare was close friends with William Catesby, who was the head of the plots that were planned against the queen
Many of Shakespeare's plays were embedded with different belief's from Catholicsm and Protestantism
3 witches from Macbeth
Catholicism, Protestantism, and puritanism
Connection to shakespeare
of the church
was the Pope
Shakespeare's England- Life in Elizabethan England:
Author & Publisher: R.E. Pritchard, Place/Date of Publication:
United Kingdom, 1999, Dewey #: 942.05 SHA pages 104-128
North Park Secondary School's library
The ARCH - CONJUROR of England
Author/Editor: Glyn Parry
Publication: Yale College, 1917
Page referred to: 1
Dewey Number: 942.052 DEE PAR
Connection to Shakespeare
Started from the fear of witchcraft & the ill-treatment of witches, along with the fear of actual witches and their powers
Unexplained events would automatically be blamed on witches, who were said to be women
Witches could fly and women used brooms, so broomsticks were assiciated with witches
Witches made magic potions and it was common for women to know a lot about herbs, and this made people's beliefs even stronger
The myth about a devil entering your body after sneezing led to the superstition about saying "God bless you" ,since people believed that this would prevent the devil
At the top of the chain
Believed to stand outside the physical limitations of life
Possesses spiritual attributes like love
Serves as the model of authority for the most excellent type of being within a certain category
Ex. the king
Beings of pure spirit
Have no physical bodies of their own
Angels were thought to build temporary bodies out of particles of air
They lacked divine attributes
Lacked physical passions experienced by humans and animals
Thought to possess divine powers like love
Spiritual beings, like angels
Human souls were "knotted" to a physical body
They had passions and physical sensations like pain, just like animals
Humans were a balance between angels and animals
Humans were also grouped based on who they were (divine order)
They were also grouped family wise (divine order)
It is considered a sin against God if someone tries to change their position on the chain
Ex. If a human wants to put themselves in the spot of an angel
The chain would be considered broken if someone decided to be rebellious
The chain of being can be traced back to the time of Aristotle
His theory of
meanining "ladder of nature"
Limited intelligence and awareness of their surroundings
Thought to lack spiritual and mental attributes, unlike humans
The king of beasts is thought to be the lion or the elephant
Plants possess the ability to grow
Lack mental attributes
Ability to eat soil, air, and, heat
Have greater tolerances for heat and cold
Lowest on the chain of being
Lack the ability to grow
Lack mental attributes
Gifts: solidity and strength
Many minerals were though to possess magical powers, mainly gems
Shakespeare strongly believed in the divine order
Many of his plays involve the divine order
Romeo & Juliet
These plays reflect his belief in the Chain of Being
Also reflects the devotion he puts in to following God's orders