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The Periodic Table of Elements

Introduction and History of the Periodic Table. Resources: Modern Chemistry - Hold, Rinehart, and Winston
by

Renee Robinson

on 6 October 2015

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Transcript of The Periodic Table of Elements

Alkali

metals
- group 1 on the periodic Table; highly reactive, react vigorously with water, not found in nature as free elements
Alkaline earth metals
- group 2 on the periodic table; also too reactive to find as free elements in nature
Transition elements
- inner elements on the periodic table; nonreactive, found as free elements in nature
Halogens
- group 17 on the periodic table; most reactive nonmetals
Metalloids
- contain properties of both metals and nonmetals
Noble gasses
- group 18; nonreactive
Lanthanide series and Actinide series
The Periodic Table
of Elements

History, organization,
and periodic law

History of The P.T.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Dmitri continued
Henry Mosely
Periodic Table Organization
Dmitri continued
Organization
Italian Chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro - 1860 International Congress of Chemists: Karlsruhe, Germany
standardized the method for determining the average atomic masses of elements
Russian chemist; used Stan's way of determining atomic masses for his book
Decided to arrange the elements in an order that made since
To do this he put element names and properties on cards and arranged the cards based on various properties looking for trends or patterns
He noticed that when elements were arranged by increasing atomic mass, certain properties were at regular intervals (such pattern is periodic)
Published the first Periodic Table of elements in 1869
This table was created where elements with similar properties were grouped together, and in order of increasing atomic mass
Some elements were out of order of increasing atomic mass because their properties did not align
Dmitri left 3 spaces in his periodic table for elements he thought were not discovered yet
He predicted the properties of those elements based on the properties of the surrounding elements
By 1886, all 3 elements were discovered and his predicted properties were very similar to their actual properties
Now these elements are known as: Scandium-Sc;Gallium-Ga;Germanium-Ge
The success of predicting the properties of the missing elements led scientist to accept his periodic table of element and earned him the credit for the Periodic Law
In 1911, English Chemist Henry Mosely found that the elements fit into pattern better when they were arranged by nuclear charge, or number of protons in the nucleus.
Led to the modern definition of the atomic number
Corrected the Periodic Law (still true today): The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
The periodic table is an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic numbers so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column, or goup
Stanislao Cannizzaro
groups/families- the vertical columns of the periodic table; contain similar properties
Periods/series- the rows of the periodic table
Alkali Metals
Alkaline earth metals
Noble Gasses
Transition Metals
Metalloids
Halogens
Full transcript