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Modes of Learning Theory
Transcript of Modes of Learning Theory
was proposed in 1978. 3 modes of learning:
Tuning The addition of new knowledge to existing memory Accretion The formation of new concept structures or schemas Structuring 3 Modes of Learning Tuning Adjustment of knowledge of a specific task through practice. Slowest form of learning Accounts for expert performance Most common form of learning Occurs much less frequently Requires effort This theory is considered the general model for human learning. Classroom Implementation Model was originally proposed for
use in the context of learning language Have students reflect upon their learning How to use Restructuring... Relation to another theory; this step can be compared to metacognition Represents automatic behaviors How to use Tuning... Not available as reflection Learning procedures are a way to use tuning in the classroom Occurs naturally in the classroom, without teacher input. How to use Accretion... Observations:
Theory exists in most classrooms
Some teachers may not realize they already have the 3 modes of learning already present in their classrooms. Recommendations Accretion- Leveling the playing field with background knowledge for new information to be taught.
Recommendations My Student Teaching Structuring- Scaffolding and
differentiating for students to
create new ideas. Tuning- giving students the opportunity to take their new learned knowledge to the next level. From the expert, Norman (1982) Recommendations Learning Morse Code Initial learning of code= Accretion Restructuring= Recognition of sequences or words Gradual increase of translation&
transmission speed= Tuning 1. Instruction needs to be designed to accommodate modes of learning Keep in Mind 2. Refinement of skills is impacted by practice activities, not always the acquisition of knowledge. 3 modes of learning Summary Accretion, Structuring& Tuning Theory is general model for human learning Accretion& Structuring do not require as much effort as Tuning Citations Norman, D. (1982). Learning and Memory. San Francisco: Freeman. Rumelhart, D.& Norman, D. (1978). Accretion, tuning and restructuring: Three modes of learning. In. J.W. Cotton& R. Klatzky (eds.), Semantic Factors in Cognition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Rumehart, D.& Norman, D. (1981). Analogical processes in learning. In J.R. Anderson (ed.), Cognitive Skills and their Acquisition. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.