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Stephen Krashen and Michael Long
Transcript of Stephen Krashen and Michael Long
By: Regina Ercolani
Stephen Krashen and Michael Long
By the 1980s, the theories of Stephen Krashen had become the prominent paradigm in SLA. In his theories, often collectively known as the Input Hypothesis, Krashen suggested that language acquisition is driven solely by comprehensible input, language input that learners can understand. Krashen's model was influential in the field of SLA and also had a large influence on language teaching, but it left some important processes in SLA unexplained.
The 1990s saw a host of new theories introduced to the field, such as Michael Long's interaction hypothesis,
The input hypothesis has been criticized by some linguists. It has, however, inspired much research, and many linguists praise its value.
The input hypothesis is related to Instructional scaffolding.
The interaction hypothesis may result in learners receiving more input from their interlocutors than they would otherwise. Furthermore, if learners stop to clarify things that they do not understand, they may have more time to process the input they receive. This can lead to better understanding and possibly the acquisition of new language forms.
Finally, interactions may serve as a way of focusing learners' attention on a difference between their knowledge of the target language and the reality of what they are hearing; it may also focus their attention on a part of the target language of which they are not yet aware.
What is the study of Linguistics?
The work of linguists falls into two main areas:
Language structure and Language use.
Linguists interested in language structure consider the formal properties of language, including word structure (morphology), sentence structure (syntax), speech sounds and the rules and patterns between them (phonetics and phonology), and meaning in language (semantics and pragmatics).
Linguists also study the way that language is used, and this can cover a very broad range of subjects, since language enters almost every area of human activity.
"Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding." Stephen Krashen
Why it is important to understand when teaching English Language Learners
Studying the nature of human language provides important insight into human cognitive abilities.
When you understand a person's language and not just how to speak it, but what it is about, you understand more about them and why they make certain errors. Language tells us what the culture finds important or unimportant, its history, and its expectations.
The input hypothesis, also known as the monitor model, is a group of five hypotheses of second-language acquisition developed by the linguist Stephen Krashen in the 1970s and 1980s. Krashen originally formulated the input hypothesis as just one of the five hypotheses, but over time the term has come to refer to the five hypotheses as a group. The hypotheses are the input hypothesis, the acquisition–learning hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the natural order hypothesis and the affective filter hypothesis. The input hypothesis was first published in 1977.
Krashen claimed that linguistic competence is only advanced when language is subconsciously acquired, and that conscious learning cannot be used as a source of spontaneous language production. Finally, learning is seen to be heavily dependent on the mood of the learner, with learning being impaired if the learner is under stress or does not want to learn the language.
Krashen's hypotheses have been influential in language education, particularly in the United States, but have received criticism from some academics. Two of the main criticisms are that the hypotheses are untestable, and that they assume a degree of separation between acquisition and learning that has not been proven to exist.
The five hypotheses:
The input hypothesis-
This states that learners progress in their knowledge of the language when they comprehend language input that is slightly more advanced than their current level.
learning hypothesis claims that there is a strict separation between acquisition and learning; Krashen saw acquisition as a purely subconscious process and learning as a conscious process, and claimed that improvement in language ability was only dependent upon acquisition and never on learning.
The monitor hypothesis-
states that consciously learned language can only be used to monitor language output; it can never be the source of spontaneous speech.
The natural order hypothesis-
states that language is acquired in a particular order, and that this order does not change between learners, and is not affected by explicit instruction.
The affective filter hypothesis-
This states that learners' ability to acquire language is constrained if they are experiencing negative emotions such as fear or embarrassment. At such times the affective filter is said to be "up".
Long introduced the concept of focus on form, which entails bringing linguistic elements (e.g., vocabulary, grammatical structures, collocations) to students’ attention within the larger context of a meaning-based lesson in order to anticipate or correct problems in comprehension or production of the target language. Long contrasted this approach with the older method of focus on forms, which calls for exclusive focus on the linguistic forms when teaching a target language, often consisting of drill-type exercises such as conjugation exercises. Long is also usually credited for introducing the Interaction Hypothesis, a theory of second language acquisition which places importance on face-to-face interaction.
Similarly to Krashen's input hypothesis, the interaction hypothesis claims that comprehensible input is important for language learning.
The Interaction hypothesis is a theory of second-language acquisition which states that the development of language proficiency is promoted by face-to-face interaction and communication.
There are two forms of the Interaction Hypothesis: the "strong" form and the "weak" form. The "strong" form is the position that the interaction itself contributes to language development.
The "weak" form is the position that interaction is simply the way that learners find learning opportunities, whether or not they make productive use of them.