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The Psychology of Rape Culture

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Tavril Saint Jean

on 16 April 2013

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Transcript of The Psychology of Rape Culture

by Tavril Saint Jean The Psychology of Rape Culture Capstone Presentation What is Rape Culture?
Rape culture is a concept used to describe a culture in which rape and sexual violence are common and in which prevalent attitudes, norms, practices, and media normalize, excuse, tolerate, or even condone rape

Attitudes and behaviors commonly seen in rape culture include: sexism, misogyny, double standards, making jokes about rape, objectification of women, and victim blaming.
Other aspects of rape culture include:
Defining manhood as being dominant and aggressive
Defining womanhood as being submissive and sexually passive
The treatment of rape as a woman's problem instead of a man's problem (i.e., teaching women how not to get raped instead of teaching men not to rape) What is Victim Blaming? Victim Blaming is defined as holding the victims of a crime, an accident, or any type of abusive maltreatment to be entirely or partially responsible for the crime.
There are many forms of victim blaming, the most common including: Style of dress
Slut Shaming
Not working around someone else's violent triggers Studies Gender Consideration Women are two to three times more vulnerable to become clinically depressed than men. Women are naturally more emotional than men therefore they are much more exposed to emotional upset because of Hormonal fluctuations. Bulimia Symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa Affective Symptoms : Guilt , shame or feelings of inadequacy Behavioural Symptoms : Use of vomiting , laxatives , recurrent episodes of binge eating , exercise or dieting to control weight Cognitive Symptoms : Negative self image , poor body image Somatic Symptoms : Erosion of tooth enamel, stomach or intestinal problems , swollen salivary glands, heart problems in extreme cases. Biological level of analysis The Hormone Serotonin also plays a role in bulimia . The increased levels of Serotonin stimulate the medial hypothalamus and decreases food intake Cognitive Level of Analysis The Body-image distortion hypothesis claims that many eating disorder patients suffer from delusion that they are fat Brunch (1962). They overestimate their body size People who suffer from Bulimia tend to have and follow strict dieting rules in order to a chive their ideal weight. Sociocultural level of analysis The perfect body figure has evolved over time particularly in the west. Around 1950's female sex symbols had much larger curvier bodies compared to this present day. People tend to compare themselves to other people and this does affect their self esteem. The media has played a huge role in this through Magazines, billboards and so forth. One could say that women are much more vulnerable to the media This has lead to the Standards of beauty to increase and therefore becoming much harder to achieve. Continuation Children at a young age are exposed to this ideal Figure through children's fashion as well as through the design of their dolls. However this just not only happen to Women its slowly happening to men. where they feel the necessity to work out. Bibliography ... Images... http://www.minddisorder.com/photo/major-depresive-disorder-850.jpg http://www.shutterstock.com/display_pic_with_logo/168430/168430,1276621413,3/stock-photo-bulimia-nervosa-eating-disorder-as-a-concept-55295485.jpg http://www.addictionserch.com/_media/addictionsearch/stock/430_238/suffering_bulimia_nervosa.png http://howtoloosebellyfatfast.net/wp-content/uploads/44405693499291.jpg Crane,John,and JetteHannibal.IBDiploma Programme:Psychology Course Companion.Oxford:Oxford UP , 2009.Print. Nervosa Twin Research shows some support based on genetic diathesis for eating disorders.Kendler et al. (1991) Individuals who suffer from Bulimia follow a strong set of dietry rules. When they break thier rules their rules they tend to binge eat. April 16, 2013 Koss, Dinero, Seibel, and Cox (1988)
Koss, Gidycz, and Wisniewski (1987)
Lisak and Miller (2002)
McWorther (2009)
Hinck and Thomas (1999) Statistics 1 out of every 6 American women has been the victim of an attempted or completed rape in her lifetime (14.8% completed rape; 2.8% attempted rape).
17.7 million American women have been victims of attempted or completed rape.
9 of every 10 rape victims were female in 2003.
About 3% of American men — or 1 in 33 — have experienced an attempted or completed rape in their lifetime.
Victims of sexual assault are:

3 times more likely to suffer from depression.

6 times more likely to suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder.

13 times more likely to abuse alcohol.

26 times more likely to abuse drugs.

4 times more likely to contemplate suicide. Famous Cases illustrating Victim Blaming in the media February 4, 2011: 16-year-old can’t press charges against UW basketball player because witnesses portrayed the act as consensual
February 16, 2011: Journalist Lara Logan blamed for sexual assault while covering Egyptian revolution
February 24, 2011: Rapist will not go to jail because “sex was in the air”
March 14, 2011: 11-year-old girl blamed for being gang raped
May 4, 2011: Cheerleader has to pay $45,000 to the school that kicked her off the squad for refusing to cheer for her rapist
May 5, 2011: Peace Corp volunteers speak out on being blamed for rape
May 14, 2011: Man admits to raping 4-year-old and 8-year-old but blames them for “initiating sexual contact”
May 16, 2011: Teen allegedly raped; forced to apologize for pregnancy before church
May 18, 2011: British Justice Secretary suggests “date rape” is not as serious as other kinds of rape
May 24, 2011: Kansas state Representative Pete DeGraaf supports bill banning insurance companies from covering abortion under under general healthcare plans; compares rape to getting a flat tire
May 26, 2011: Woman who claimed she was assaulted by two NYPD officers has credibility questioned and loses case because “she was very drunk” and an officer claimed “she actually came onto him”
June 10, 2011: NYPD officer stops cyclist for wearing short skirt
June 29, 2011: South African policemen suggest lesbians can’t be raped by men because they are not attracted to men
July 8, 2011: Jamie Leigh Jones loses rape case because her rapist claimed that she consented, even though she was blacked out and therefore incapable of consent
July 22, 2011: British judge frees six rapists, saying their 12-year-old victims “wanted” sex
August 15, 2011: Woman pays for reprting a rape
August 22, 2011: South African cabinet member says he hopes to “get lucky” at SlutWalk Cape Town
August 22, 2011: Washington State University writes off a rape as a “domestic dispute,” omits a reported rape from campus reports because a manager who was not a law enforcement official decided the case was “unfounded”
August 23, 2011: An outline of how victim-blaming influenced how Dominique Strauss-Kahn’s alleged raping of Nafissatou Diallo was viewed
August 24, 2011: Missouri school district punishes young rape victim for coming forward
October 8, 2011: The International Rescue Committee speaks about how very young girls (as young as 3) are being blamed for being sexually assaulted
November 1, 2011: Canadian rape case is a celebration of victim-blaming
November 4, 2011: A high court in Turkey rules that a 13-year-old actually consented to sex with the 26 men who raped her
November 9, 2011: Facebook is quick to pull sexual content off the site, but does not want to pull pro-rape pages because they are “just a joke”
November 19, 2011: 90% of survivors of sexual assault in the military are involuntarily discharged; federal judge says that sexual assault is a “military oversight issue” that cannot be addressed by the court system
November 19, 2011: Jerry Sandusky’s crimes are called “sex” instead of “rape”; author uses this case to examine how the language used when reporting rape contributes to rape culture
January 31, 2012: Internet commenters determine that a woman is making up her rape
February 13, 2012: Fox pundit says women in the military should “expect” to be raped
February 15, 2012: Republicans block the reauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act; survivors of sexual assault in the military are blamed for being assaulted
February 21, 2012: Jacksonville church hires registered sex offender as pastor, bans children from service
February 29, 2012: Rush Limbaugh calls Sandra Fluke a slut and a prostitute for speaking about women’s need for birth control
March 4, 2012: 16-year-old girl is bullied and called a slut by her classmates for using birth control; her classmates’ actions are influenced by Rush Limbaugh
March 8, 2012: USC frat email says that women are sexual “targets”
March 17, 2012: Women in Morocco are considered to have dishonored their family if they lose their virginity, even if they were raped; 16-year-old girl kills herself because she was forced to marry her rapist to avoid dishonor
March 25, 2012: Author explores how Trayvon Martin was blamed for his murder and how clothes do not make one a target for racism or sexism
March 29, 2012: Indonesia bans miniskirts because men “won’t be able to control themselves,” declares that miniskirts are “pornographic”
March 29, 2012: Republicans claim that using birth control makes a woman a slut; claim that women can’t become pregnant from rape, suggesting that women who seek abortions after rape are lying
March 30, 2012: Man acquitted of rape because victim couldn’t remember the color of a car that was nearby
March 30, 2012: Various representatives suggest that preventing rape in detention centers is a luxury that immigrants don’t need
April 7, 2012: Undercover investigation reveals rampant victim-blaming in Delhi law enforcement
April 11, 2012: Man says his rape victim was eating chicken suggestively
April 11, 2012: Teen rape victim detained by prosecutors
April 14, 2012: Banned from Kickstarter for being a stalking victim
April 14, 2012: Rape victims say military labels them “crazy”
April 17, 2012: Cop who took naked photos of rape victim can keep his pension
April 21, 2012: Ched Evans, a footballer, rapes a woman; Twitter users blame his victim
April 22, 2012: Ched Evans rape victim named and abused online
May 18, 2012: Girl gets sent to principal’s office for wearing “revealing” outfit
May 31, 2012: Oklahoman doctor refuses to provide rape victim with emergency contraception
June 8, 2012: Mob attacks women at anti-sexual assault rally
June 18, 2012: Sexual assault retconned into video game character Lara Croft’s backstory as a way of “strengthening” her character
June 26, 2012: Shanghai Metro ‘dress code’ warning full of slut-shaming, victim-blaming
June 27, 2012: Religious organization Trinity Broadcasting Network blames victim of child rape in order to maintain TBN’s image
June 29, 2012: Rape victim denied morning after pill by prison guard
July 3, 2012: 14-year-old boy who raped 5-year-old girl spared jail as judge says it’s society’s fault for exposing him to porn
July 5, 2012: Swedish court rules man cannot be charged with attempted rape because his victim was a trans woman; court apparently believes that only women can be raped and that trans women are not real women
July 27, 2012: West Mercia Police create victim-blaming campaign
August 6, 2012: ACLU sends demand letter to public school that forces female students to take pregnancy test, expels girls who are pregnant or refuse test
August 15, 2012: Facebook group denigrates women for drinking, being out at clubs, being overweight, etc.
August 19, 2012: Representative Todd Akin of Missouri believes that women cannot become pregnant as a result of rape March 14, 2011: 11-year-old girl blamed for being gang raped
May 4, 2011: Cheerleader has to pay $45,000 to the school that kicked her off the squad for refusing to cheer for her rapist
May 16, 2011: Teen allegedly raped; forced to apologize for pregnancy before church
May 18, 2011: British Justice Secretary suggests “date rape” is not as serious as other kinds of rape
May 24, 2011: Kansas state Representative Pete DeGraaf supports bill banning insurance companies from covering abortion under under general healthcare plans; compares rape to getting a flat tire
June 29, 2011: South African policemen suggest lesbians can’t be raped by men because they are not attracted to men
July 8, 2011: Jamie Leigh Jones loses rape case because her rapist claimed that she consented, even though she was blacked out and therefore incapable of consent
July 22, 2011: British judge frees six rapists, saying their 12-year-old victims “wanted” sex
February 13, 2012: Fox pundit says women in the military should “expect” to be raped
September 1, 2012: Town still blames 11-year-old for being sexually assaulted, despite DNA evidence, a confession, the girl’s testimony, and a video of her being assaulted; city tries to prevent sexual assaults from happening in the future by having a conference to “teach girls to respect themselves”
September 4, 2012: GOP Senate candidate supports life sentences for rape survivors who obtain abortions
September 4, 2012: Woman was sexually assaulted on the NYC subway and the police laughed, did nothing
September 7, 2012: No jail time for cop in sexual assault case; judge suggests victim “take something positive out of it”
September 26, 2012: Man acquitted of rape because his victim was standing up
October 12, 2012: 15-year-old Amanda Todd commits suicide as a result of misogynistic and slut-shaming bullying
November 27, 2012: Lawyer likens gang-rape victim to a spider luring men to web
December 7, 2012: Fox commentator says female victims of domestic violence “should make better decisions”
December 27, 2012: Woman victim-blames the survivor of a gang rape in Delhi, says she should have submitted to the rape
February 19, 2013: Colorado lawmaker: women can’t tell whether they’re about to be raped, may shoot the wrong person
February 25, 2013: College rape survivor faces potential expulsion for “intimidating” her rapist
March 12, 2013: Steubenville lawyers to argue blacked-out rape survivor actually consented Tour de Resistance There are many programs and events that fight to educate and promote an anti-victim blaming attitude in others. These include:
RAINN (Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network)
SlutWalk
Take Back the Night
The Clothesline Project
Yes Means Yes
and many, many more QUESTIONS/COMMENTS? References http://slutwalkseattle.com/faqs
http://www.rainn.org/
Hinck, S.S. & Thomas, R.W. Rape Myth Acceptance in College Students: How Far Have We Come. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (1999). Print.
Koss, M. P., Dinero, T. E., Seibel, C. A. and Cox, S. L. (1988), Stranger and acquaintance rape. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 12: 1–24.
Koss, M.P., and Gidycz, C.A. (1985). “The Sexual Experiences Survey: Reliability andValidity.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,53(3), 442-443.
Koss, M.P., Gidycz, C.A., and Wisniewski, N.(1987). The Scope of Rape: Incidence and Prevalence of Sexual Aggression and Victimization in a National Sample of Higher Education Students. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology,55(2), 162- 170.
Lisak, D. & Miller, P.M. (2002). Repeat rape and multiple offending among undetected rapists. Violence and Victims. 17 (1): 73–84.
McWhorter, S.K., Stander, V.A., Merrill, L.L., Thomsen, C.J. & Milner, J.S. (2009).Reports of Rape Reperpetration by Newly Enlisted Male Navy Personnel. Violence and Victims, 24(2),204-218.
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