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Cross Linguistic Influence & Learner Language
Transcript of Cross Linguistic Influence & Learner Language
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
What is CAH?
The stockpile of comparative and contrastive data on a multitude of pairs of languages
The principal barrier to second language acquisition is the interference of the first language system with the second language
According to Fries's slot filler grammar would enable a linguist to accurately describe the two languages in question and to match those two description against each other to determine valid contrast, difference, etc.
Charles C. Fries
From CAH to CLI
Predicted the difficulties that a language could generate (a priori).
Used the categories of difficulty to interpret the errors made by a learner (a posteriori).
The weak version is what we
know as Cross-Linguistic Influence (CLI)
We all recognize the significant role that previous experience plays in any learning act, and that the influence of the native language as previous experience must not be
Markedness and Universal Grammar
Celse-Murcia and Hawking
It distinguishes members of a pair of related forms or structures by assuming that the marked member of a pair contains at least one more feature than the unmarked one. In addition, the unmarked (neutral) member has a wider range of distribution than the marked one.
Refers to a performance error, a "slip", and can be self-corrected.
Reflects the competence of the learner, and cannot be self-corrected
Strategy of avoidance
To analyze errors we need to follow 3 steps
Identifying and describing errors
Corder: proposed a model to identify errors.
OVERT: Erroneous utterances ungrammatically at the sentence level.
COVERT: Grammatically well-formed, but not according to context of communication.
ategories for descr
- Generalized: additio
mission, substitution, word o
- Level of langua
- Global or L
Source of errors
n and extent.
Yesterday, my the brain I lost.
Human learning theories described
elements of learning, concluding that where no interference could be predicted, if we could
positively all the other items in a language.
Stockwell, Bowen and Martin proposed in 1965 a
hierarchy of difficulty
, in order to teachers or linguists could make a prediction of the relative difficulty of a given aspect of the target language.
The learner can simply transfer a sound ,structure, or lexical item from the native language to the target language.
Two items in the native language become coalesced into essentially one item in the target language.
An item in the native language is absent in the target language.
An item that exits in the native language is given a new shape or distribution
A new item entirely, bearing little if any similarity to the native language item, must be learned.
one item in the native language becomes two or more item in the target language, requiring the learner to make a new distinction.
the book of Jack”
instead of “ Jack’s book”
“Does John can sing?”
Context of Learning:
Classroom or a social situation (untutored second language learning)
Students often make errors because of:
Misleading explanation from the teacher
Faulty presentation of a structure or word in a textbook
Teacher may provide incorrect information
The sociolinguistic context of natural may itself be a source of error
* Idiosyncratic dialect
STAGES OF LEARNER LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Brown proposed 4 stages based on a early model of Corder.
1. Random errors:
"John cans sing"
"John can to sing"
L : I go New York
NS: You're going to New York?
NS: You will go to New York
NS: Oh, you went to New York in 1972
L: Yes, I go 1972.
"Many fish are in the lake.These fish are serving in the restaurants near the lake"
Manifest more consistency in producing the second language
The learner understand and correct his errors when they are pointed out.
The learner mastered the second language system.
Fluency and intended meaning are not problematic
The learner have the ability to self correct without waiting for a feedback.
Variability in learning language
"it has to be you” or "it must to be you”
One of the controversial current debates in SLA is which variability can be systematically explained.
speaking and writing
According to Tarone “capability continuum paradigm”
1. Variation according to linguistic context
2. Variation according to psychological processing factors
3. Variation according to social context
4. Variation according to language function
type of task
The relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person's second language competence
Positive: Keep talking, I'm listening.
Neutral: I'm not sure I want to maintain this conversation.
Negative: This conversation is over
Positive: I understand your message; it's clear.
Neutral: I'm not sure if I understand you or not.
Negative: I don't understand what you're saying; it's not clear
"Any pedagogical pedagogical effort which is used
draw the learner's attention to language form either implicitly or explicitly"
According to Vigil and Oller's theory cognitive feedback must be optimal to be effective.
Error treatment options (Bailey)
1. To treat or to ignore
2. To treat immediately or to delay
3. To transfer treatment or not
4. To transfer to another individual, a subgroup or the whole class
5. To return, or not, to original error maker after treatment
6. To permit other learners to initiate treatment
7. To test for efficacy of the treatment
1. Fact of error indicated
2. Location indicated
3. Opportunity for a new attempt given
4. Model provided
5. Error type indicated
6. Remedy indicated
7. Improvement indicated
8. Praise indicated
Local or Global
Mistake or Error
Learner's affective state
Learner's linguistic stage