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Language & Class
Transcript of Language & Class
Ahmad Zaim Ismail
Ahmad Faris Mohd Din
Tengku Nurdiyana Tg.Aziz Presenters: Linguistic variation & social class How do people recognize one's social positions? ... small Stratification (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Trying to precisely define what social class is and
What criteria we would base an assessment of someone’s social class on is
QUITE HARD But, Used the term as if we all have the common idea of what it actually is. Social class Different and are not equal to the people on the other layers BUT Have similarities and equal to each other Dividing something into hierarchical layers so that one layer is above or higher up than another one Definition : People on each layer: The question of defining what is it that differentiates members of one social class from those of another still remains. As Wolfram and Schilling-estes (1998:152) put it: we would hardly mistake a chief executive officer of a major corporation who resides in a spacious house in a special part of town for an uneducated, unskilled labourer from the ‘wrong side of the tracks’. The reality of social stratification seems obvious, but identifying the unique set of traits that correlate with social status differences in a reliable way is not always that simple. Social class can be defined by the area we live in. THES, 18 April, 1997, conducted in London
People living in certain areas of London have a statistically m,ch greater chance of entering higher education (HE) at the age of 18
Participation in HE in Britain is still very much class-based. There are greater numbers of students from middle-class backgrounds than there are working-class students.
There is a direct link between the area you come from and your chances of entering college. * Surveys too can emphasize on specific social factors There are different order of importance or emphasis on the determining factors. Factors in Determining Social Class British initiative for encouraging people to save money in tax-exempt investment accounts.
A scheme which would benefit ‘the many and not just the few’ (The Independent, 3 December,1997)
Tax-free saving scheme, required a high level of investment.
Benefited only middle-class and high-income investors. Money A report published in 1997 proposed a new classification schemes for social class division in Britain. Occupation Problem:
It is not only the middle classes that have money Class 1: Professionals and senior managers: doctors, lawyers, teachers,fund managers, executive directors, professors, editors, managers (with more than 25 staff under them), top civil servants Class 2: Associate professionals and junior managers: nurses, social workers, estate agents, lab technicians, supervisors, managers with fewer than 25 staff under them, journalists, entertainers, actors. Class 3: Intermediate occupations: sales managers, secretaries, nursery nurses, computer operators, stage hands. Class 4: self-employed and non-professionals: driving instructors, builders. Class 5: other supervisors, craft jobs: charge hands, plumber, telephone fitters Class 6: Routine jobs: truck Drivers, assembly line workers. Class 7: Elementary Jobs: laborers, waiters, cleaners. Class 8: Unemployed. (David Walker, The Independent, 15 December, 1997) Accent & dialect: Regional & social variation Dialect: Definition:Refers to the grammar & vocabulary usage.
Differences in spelling & vocabulary usage
Accent : Definition: a form of a language that people speak in a particular part of a country, containing some different words and grammar, etc.
Differences in south-east England & North-England’s accents The Prestigious Dialects •Preferred by higher social groups
•More formal social situations
•Also known as standard English
•Example : Through grammar or accent & dialect?
Situation in Britain might be judged as: Answer: Accent & dialect 2 people from the same region might not speak with the same way (accent or dialect) Queen Elizabeth vs London cab driver Both are from London, but they speak differently due to social differences *Professionals are expected by the society to speak in a standard English Does a person's use of language indicate his/her social class?