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Theory of Human Caring

A presentation on Jean Watsons Theory of Human Caring
by

Shannie Johnson

on 8 December 2016

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Transcript of Theory of Human Caring

Jean Watson
Theory of Human Caring

Human Caring Theory
Jean Watson's Metaparadigm Concepts
Education and Career
1961- Received her diploma from Lewis Gale School of Nursing.
1964- Received her BSN from University of Colorado, Boulder.
1966- Achieved her MSN in psychiatric and mental health nursing.
1973- Doctorate in educational psychology and counseling from University of Colorado, Boulder.
1979- published her theory in “nursing: human science and human care'"
2005-she evolved her theory to create "caritas process"


Watson's Assumptions On Caring
1. Caring can be effectively demonstrated and practiced only interpersonally.

2.Caring consist of caritas process that can fulfill human needs.

3.Effective caring promotes health and individual or family growth.

Paradigm Identification?
What paradigm does Watson's Theory Identify with- Totality or Simultaneity?
Terminologies
Person
To be valued, nurtured, cared, respected
greater than sum of its parts

Health
Nursing
“ Nursing is concerned with promoting health, preventing illness, caring for the sick and restoring health”.
Importance of holistic health care
Caring, trusting relationship between nurse-patient

Dr. Jean Watson
American Nursing Theorist and Nursing Professor
June 10, 1940 – present

. Introduction to Watson's Human caring Theory
. Analysis of the model
. Metaparadigm concept
. Discuss Jean Watson's Application of theory in practice
Personal Life
1940-Jean Watson was born in Welch, West Virginia located in USA on June 10th,
She was the youngest child from her eight siblings
1997-Met with an accident and lost her left eye in.
1998-Her husband- Douglas Watson passed away by committing suicide.
Has two daughters, Jean and Jennifer, and five grand children
Environment

Influenced by society
Social, cultural, and spiritual aspects
Similar to WHO’s definition
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Subjective and unique to each person

Continuation...
4. Caring responses accepts a person as is and looks beyond to what that person may become

5. A caring environment allowing the person to choose the best action at a given time

6.Caring is as equally important as curing

7.The practice of caring is central to nursing
Caring Assumptions, Meaning Perspectives

Watson's background in philosophy and psychology played a key role in the development of her theory of caring.

Watson drew parts of her theory from nursing writers like Nightingale and Rogers and utilized concepts from her extensive experience.

Influences in developing the model



Background in philosophy and psychology.
Nightingale.
Carl Rogers, one of the innovators of the humanistic approach to psychology.

Philosophical derivation

Watson’s model is clearly a naturalistic, historicist and postmodernism approach to care.
Phenomenological perspective to nursing.




To put emphasis on the essence of caring in the nursing practice to restore balance in a person’s mind, body and spirit.




Caring Model Theory Purpose
Biographical sketch
Introduction to Watson Theory
Models, influence, Concepts, Meaning perspectives
Model Evolution
Metaparadigm concepts
Case Study

Clarity
Simplicity
Generality
Accessibility
Importance


Simultaneity

10 Caritas Process
10 Caritas Process
Caritas-
love of humankind
Carative
- Greek term-
meaning to cherish and to give special loving attention.
Humanistic-
philosophy and values reflect a belief in human dignity and science
Altruistic-
selfless concern for the well-being of others
Faith-
complete trust or confidence in someone
Trancendence
-existence or experience beyond the normal or physical level

Models Evolution
Dr. Watson modified and broadened her theory of caring science which was published in 1979 . She contributes two major life changes to influencing her more advanced theory of caring science in nursing

1. the loss of her left eye in an accident in 1987
2. the loss of her husband of thirty seven years in 1988
Models Evolution
Theory's Three Core Concepts
1. Transpersonal caring relationship
2. Caring occasion/Moment
3. Carative Model/Caritas process
2. Transpersonal caring relationship
3. Caring Occasion/Moment
Terminologies
Hope
-
feeling of expectation and desire for certain thing to happen
Cultivation-

process of trying to acquire or develop a quality or skill
Interpersonal-

communication between people
Gratification
-
fulfillment, satisfaction
Phenomenological
-
study of human consciousness and self-awareness
- heart centered encounters with another person
- Moral commitment to protect and enhance human dignity
Watson's original work in 1979 was organized around ten carative factors

She then expanded her definitions of the "Carative factors" to "Caritas Process" or "Cllinical Caritas"

Her Goal was to create a more fluid definition in which nurses would be able to apply in their clinical practice.
References
Watson, J. (1994). Applying the art and science of human caring, Parts I and II (Videotape). National League for Nursing, New York, NY in conjunction with the University of Colorado, Center for Human Caring, Denver, CO.
Watson, J. (1996). Watson’s theory of transpersonal caring. In P.H. Walker & B. Neuman (Eds.), Blueprint for use of nursing models: Education, research, practice, & administration (pp. 141-184). NY: NLN Press.
Watson, J. (1997). The theory of human caring: Retrospective and prospective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(1), 49-52.
Watson, J. (1999). Postmodern nursing and beyond. Edinburgh, Scotland, UK: Chur
chill-Livingstone: Harcourt-Brace.
Watson, J. (1988). New dimensions of human caring theory. Nursing Science Quarterly, 1(4), 175-181.
Watson J.(1985). Nursing: the philosophy and science of caring. Boston (USA): Little Brown. Boulder (Colorado/USA): Colorado Associated University Press.      
Watson J(1997). The theory of human caring: retrospective and prospective. Nursing SWcience Quarterly. Mar; 10 (1): 49-52.       
Watson J. (1985). Nursing human science and human care: a theory of nursing. Connecticut (USA): Appleton-Century Crofts.       
Watson J. (1999). Postmodern nursing and beyond. Edinburgh (Scotland): Churchill-Livingstone. New York (NY/USA):


Contents
Learning Objectives
Analysis of the Model
1. Practice love-kindness
2. Be authenticaly present
3. Be supportive and helping
4. Cultivate spirituality
5. Develop trust
6. Creativity and artistry
7. Create healing environment
8. Engage in teaching-learning
9. Assist with basic needs
10. Be open
Recently a 30 years old man from Brazil recently admitted in the oncology unit with history of lung cancer. When RN entered the room to do assessment, she noticed that patient was making minimal eye contact and giving very short answers. RN asked the patient to tell her a little bit about his culture, then she quickly realized that making an eye contact is the signs of disrespect in patient’s cultural belief. Patient also looked sad and cried. Nurse sat near patient and gently touched on his arm. Then patient told that he was missing going outside because he loves tree, flowers and plants that give him freshness. Then Nurse opened the window to display nature. She took him outside for a walk, which brought a smile on patient's face. Patient told the nurse that he wanted to do prayer. She provided him privacy to give strength to his spirituality. She also provided resource to the family for the coping with cancer.
Case Study
Person:
Accepted patient as it without any cultural judgement
Environment
: Nurse opened the window to exposure nature into the room along with sunlight.
Health:
Nurse addressed physical, mental, spiritual and social needs.
Nursing
: Nurse provided exceptional care as a good listener, engagement, and explore feeling to know about patient belief and strength.

Case Study con't
The following questions are examples of how one could enter in a
patient’s phenomenal field:
Tell me about yourself?
Tell me about your life experiences?
Tell me about your bodily sensations?
Tell me about your spiritual and cultural beliefs?
Tell me about your goals and expectations?
Such questions generally assist people to share their life story.
Metaparadigm Identification

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