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Ecological succession

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by

Cassandra Wheeler

on 10 October 2013

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Transcript of Ecological succession

Ecological Succession
with Mrs. Wheeler
Two Types of Ecological Succession
Pioneer Species
Climax Community
Primary Succession
Secondary Succession
Natural
Ecological Succession
What environmental
changes/disturbances
have you witnessed?
Fire
Flood
Volcano eruption
Severe Winds
Earthquake
Changes that occur when an ecological community replaces another over time
http://www.mrphome.net/mrp/succession.swf
Establishment of an area where the ecosystem has been reduced to a smaller population of species but the soil or bottom sediment has not been destroyed
"Ground surveys, however, have found even this seemingly barren area is coming back to life: the first plant to re-appear was a prairie lupine, which can take nitrogen—a critical plant nutrient—straight from the air rather than from the soil. These small wildflowers attract insects and herbivores and they catch blowing leaves and other organic matter. The dead plants and insects, the windblown organic matter, and the droppings of herbivores slowly create pockets of soil on the volcanic deposits."
Human caused
Logging
Agriculture
Pioneer Species
Hardy species first to colonize a disrupted ecosystem
Click here to discover the difference!
Establishment of a community in an area where no soil exists.
A biological community that has reached a steady state through the process of ecological succession
"The word eruption cultivates mental images of catastrophic events, and perhaps more close to heart, the eruption of Mount St. Helens. But despite the enormous destruction and loss wreaked by this eruption, it also set forth an equal potential for creation."
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Mount St. Helens
Before and After
"When the mountain collapsed, it was like uncorking a bottle of champagne: hot rocks, ash, gas, and steam exploded upward and outward to the north. The outward blast spread volcanic debris (gray in the images) over 230 square miles (600 square kilometers) and blew down 4 billion board-feet of timber. All around the southern half of the mountain, volcanic mudflows poured down rivers and gullies."
Primary or Secondary
Succession?
Heading toward a Climax Community
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http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/sthelens.php
http://mountsthelens.web.unc.edu/ecological-succession-in-mount-st-helens/
More than just the forest...
"Even if many feel that the eruption of Mount St. Helens created an end of an ecological system, it is in fact a fresh start and a resetting of a biological clock that allowed for great changes to occur in the area."
Game Time!
You will represent groups of living things that are affected by ecological succession
Trading time!
Start with 100 points
Points = Survivability
Keep as many points as possible
30 seconds and G0!
100 years have passed.
Oaks and maples add 25
Insects add 15
Pines take away 5
Lichens add 5
Grasses take away 10
Mammals add 10
Lightning strikes and starts a fire.
Oaks and maples take away 15
Insects take away 10
Pines take away 10
Lichens take away 10
Grasses take away 10
Mammals take away 15
5 years after a forest fire
Oaks and maples take away 2 points
Insects add 5
Pines add 10
Lichens add 1
Grasses add 10
Mammals add 2
50 years after a forest fire
Oaks and maples add 20
Insects add 15
Pines add 2
Lichens add 5
Grasses add 5
Mammals add 2
A glacier edges through the area scraping down to bare rock
EVERYONE take
away all points
5 years after a glacier recedes
Oaks and maples do nothing
Insects add 2
Pines do nothing
Lichens add 10
Grasses add 5
Mammals do nothing
10 years after a glacier recedes
Oaks and Maples do nothing
Insects add 10
Pines add 2
Lichens take away 2
Grasses add 10
Mammals add 5
A volcano covers the area with ash
EVERYONE take away all points
5 years after the area is covered with ash from a volcano
Oaks and maples do nothing
Insects add 2
Pines do nothing
Lichens add 10
Grasses add 5
Mammals do nothing
25 years after a volcano erupts
Oaks and maples add 2
Insects add 5
Pines add 10
Lichens add 2
Grasses take away 5
Mammals add 2
You stop cutting the grass in your yard
Oaks and maples add 2
Insects add 10
Pines add 2
Lichens do nothing
Grasses add 10
Mammals add 5
Your yard 10 years after stopped cutting the grass
Oaks and maples add 2
Insects add 10
Pines add 10
Lichens do nothing
Grasses add 10
Mammals add 5
Your yard 50 years after you stopped cutting the grass
Oaks and maples add 15
Insects add 15
Pines do nothing
Lichens add 5
Grasses take away 10
Mammals add 10
Why did some groups do better than others?
What did this game teach you about the speed of plant and animal succession in an ecosystem?
Did you think it was realistic? Why or why not?
Show your understanding
Look for an environmental change in the Lakeshore community and try to determine the cause. What were the changes, what caused them, was it slow? Rapid? Take a picture and share with the class. {paper}
Sketch a timeline of the life of an ecosystem and how both biotic and abiotic factors have changed over time (must have at least three changes). {include explanation}
Choose one organism (insect, tree, lichen, etc.) in the community to tell the story of the environmental changes that may take place. Use this character as your narrator.
Create a comic strip to tell a possible history of the area. Be sure changes are realistic. Must include pictures, color and dialog.
vegetation is tolerant of environmental conditions
wide diversity of species
species composition maintains equilibrium
index of the climate
balanced ecosystem
Ponds
Coral Reef
Desert
Swamp
Rain Forest
Sea Shore
Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument
Homework is due tomorrow and is worth 20pts
Succession Pop Quiz
A forest of pine trees is burned over a 10 mile area when lightening strikes a tree. In the spring, a few seedlings begin to sprout
Secondary Succession
A glacier has scraped all soil
from a rocky area. As it slowly
retreats, some of the rock is
broken down by weathering.
Some moss begins to grow.
Primary Succession
A small symbiotic organism
secretes acid into the rock to
anchor itself in place.
Primary Succession
The old-growth forest has
remained the same
combination of hickories
and oaks for 100 years
Climax Community
Small organisms, such as
lichens, help break up
bare rock into soil.
Pioneer Organisms
A pond slowly fills in as algae
and other plants die and fall
to the bottom.
Secondary Succession
A volcano erupts creating a
new island. After a few years,
small plants begin to grow.
Primary Succession
Full transcript