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Transcript of Biotech Timeline
People in Biotechnology
Inventor: Zachariars Jansenn
Centrifuge is developed by Laval
X-Rays were discovered by W. C. Roentgen
Discovery: Jansenn and his father placed spectacle lenses in a tube and noticed that the object near the end of the tube was greatly enlarged.
1900 - 1901
Inventor: Robert Koffler Jarvik
Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin
Jarvik successfully tested first permanently-implantable Artificial Heart on a human. He lived for 112 days before dying of Organ Failure.
The Internal Pacemaker
was created by Greatbatch
CREATED BY JOHN LARSON
California Medical Student
The Polygraph was created for use in law. The lie detector is connected to the person who is being questioned. A needle or computer records waves of stress when someone lies the stress level goes up in the person. A base line is established by the use of control questions. This gives the test administrator the ability to distinguish between true and false question answer.
Inventor: Alec Jeffreys
Date: September 10
Noticed while mapping DNA that they are so similar to tell individuals apart. Yet noticed that Microsatellites, which are groups of repeating DNA, are different and can thus can tell the difference.
Centrifuge is a device in which solid or liquid particles of different densities are separated by rotating them in a tube in a horizontal circle.
In 1879, Gustaf de Laval demonstrated the first continuous centrifugal separator, making its commercial application feasible
The Process of Pasteurization is discovered by Louis Pasteur
Centrifuge is commonly used for DNA analysis and forensic biology
Band-Aids were created by Dickson
Earle Dickson created the Band-Aid because his wife was constantly cutting her fingers while preparing dinner in the kitchen.
Pasteur was commissioned to determine what was causing beet root alcohol to sour.
Inner body features could now be viewed without cutting the flesh using electromagnetic radiation
First X-Ray was done on Roentgen's wife's hand
His investigation led him to find out that yeast, a living organism, as opposed to a chemical, was what turned beet juice into alcohol
This discovery gave birth to many new sciences
He accidentally discovered an image cast from his cathode ray generator, projected far beyond the possible range of the cathode rays (now known as an electron beam)
Edward Jenner, an English physician, realized that Milkmaids that had caught cowpox, a less dangerous version of small pox, would be immune to the deadly smallpox disease. In 1796 a local milkmaid approached for treatment for cowpox. Jenner took advantage of the situation and inoculated his gardener's son with cowpox.
As if that wasn't enough he proceeded to try to infect the child with smallpox but luckily his assumptions were correct and the boy was immune
The cell was first discovered and named by Robert Hooke. He named them cells because they looked like the small rooms that monks inhabited, called cellula. He actually saw the dead cells of plant cells (cork), and there was no indication of nucleus or any other organelles. He published all of his findings in .
To create the Band-Aid, he took a piece of gauze, attached it to the center of a piece of tape, and covered it in crinoline to keep it sterile.
E.D. was a cotton buyer for Johnson and Johnson
(Before Band-Aids were created, people would use a piece of gauze and some tape and cut it according to the size they needed)
Dickson's boss at Johnson and Johnson saw his invention and promoted him to vice president. He also made Band-Aids a public product.
The Iron Lung created by Dr. Phillip Drinker. He created the device for patients who had fatal Poliomyelitis. The device helped patients with irregular breathing achieve regular breathing through and artificial breathing device.
After returning to his lab after a vacation, Fleming noticed that mold had grown in some of his petri dishes he had left behind. After taking a closer look at the dishes, he realized that the mold had killed the bacteria in the dish.
Bacteria was first discovered by Antony van Leeuwenhoek. Leeuwenhoek ground up glasses lenses to make a better magnifying lens. He then took a sample of pond water and placed it under the lens, which allowed him to be the first person to see bacteria. He sent all of his findings to the Royal Society in England.
Fleming spent several weeks growing and studying the mold to find the substance in the mold that was killing the bacteria. He determined that the type of mold was Penicillin mold, so he named the antibacterial agent "Penicillin"
Greatbatch accidentally discovered the pacemaker when he was working on an oscillator to aid in recording abnormal heart rates.
The substance in the mold was not used to cure diseases until 12 years after Fleming's discovery
Greatbach used the wrong resistor when putting together the ocillator and ended up creating the first pacemaker.
Drinker and his fellow co-workers developed the machine to be adaptable to many people old, young, short, or tall. Phillip Drinker Jr. a biomedical engineer, son of the Iron Lung creator, said that "his dads creation was the first step in to biomedical engineering.
Laval's centrifugal separator was based off of his milk-cream separator, an important dairy contribution
It took him two years to finish and perfect the pacemaker and in the end he was rewarded with a patent for the world's fist pacemaker.
Karl Landsteiner discovered ABO blood types in humans. He discovered them when he was trying to learn why blood transfusions sometimes cause death and other times save a life. He said that there were four different types: AB, A, B, and O. He discovered that one's blood type is based on whether one has an Antigen A and/or Antigen B and an Antibody A and/or Antibody B.
Johan Kolff the inventor of kidney was the son of a doctor. He attended Leiden Medical School. He started working on kidney dialysis and has been noted as a "Junk-yard Challenge." His inspiration came from seeing a man dieing from kidney failure. He began to research kidneys and blood transfusions. He built his first from old car parts. His invention failed many times and in 1945 five years after he started working on the dialysis machine a female patient was brought back from a uremic coma and lived seven more years. He never patented his invention so he could share it with the world.
In 1926 Hans Busch developed the electromagnetic lens. After two years he was recommended to create an electron microscope but in 1931 German physicist Ernest Ruska and mechanical engineer Max Knoll beat him to it. The Ruska Knoll microscope could provide 400x magnification. Currently electron microscopes are based off of the Ruska Knoll prototype but can provide up to two million magnidication.
Gregor Mendel, also known as the father of genetics, was a scientist and a friar who did extensive research on the genetic patterns of pea plants. He discovered that the traits that offspring have aren't blended together from the parents. His studies showed that specific traits were dominant, in his case he realized that a green pea and a yellow pea would yield only yellow peas. Mendel was able to come up with these findings by taking diligent meticulous notes.