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Adjectives

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Erin Lehr

on 19 July 2013

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Transcript of Adjectives

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (2013). How does your child hear and talk?. Retrieved from http://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/chart.htm

Breban, T. (2010). English Adjectives of Comparison: Lexical and Grammaticalized Uses (Vol. 63). De Gruyter Mouton.

Child Development Institute, LLC (2013). Language development in children. Retrieved from http://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-development/language_development.shtml

Davis, J. (2004, 11 30). Grammatically correct: Using hyphens in compound adjectives. Retrieved
from http://www.uhv.edu/ac/newsletters/writing/grammartip2004.11.30.htm
Dictionary.com. (2013) Adjectives. Retrieved from
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/adjective
Elbourne, P. (2001). On the semantics of pronouns and definite articles. In WCCFL 20:
Proceedings of the 20th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (pp. 164-177).
Greene, Samuel. (1860-present). Greene Grammar. Retrieved June 2013, from
greenegrammar.finkink/2007/12/limiting-adjectives
Hacker, Diana. (2008). A Pocket Style Manual: fifth edition. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
Hacker, Diana. (2000). Rules for writers: fourth edition. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s.
Justice, L. (2002). The Syntax Handbook: Everything you learned about syntax (but forgot) . Pro
Ed.
Marinellie, Sally A. & Johnson, Cynthia J. 2013. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing
Describing the World 14
Research. Retrieved June 2013 at http://jslhr.asha.org/cgi/content/abstract/46/5/1061
Nikolaeva, I., & Spencer, A. (2008). Nouns as adjectives and adjectives as Nouns.
Nordquist, Richard. Compound Adjective-Grammar and Composition. Retrieved January 2012,
from http://grammar.about.com/od/c/g/compadjterm.htm
Paul Lynch, Chris Berry. (1995-2013). Purdue Online Writing Lab: Adjectives with Countable
and Uncountable Nouns. The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University.
Retrieved June 2013 at http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/537/01/.
Tatenhove, V. (2005). Normal language development, generative language & aac. Retrieved from
http://www.vantatenhove.com/files/NLDAAC.pdf
The Tongue United. (2008). Grammar United. Retrieved June 2012 from
www.thetongueuntied.com/Adjectives
Von Fintel, K. (1995). The formal semantics of grammaticalization. In PROCEEDINGS-NELS
(Vol. 25, pp. 175-190). University of Massachusetts.
WiseGeek Research Team (2003-2013). What is a Descriptive Adjective?. Retrieved from
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-descriptive-adjective.htm.
Yen-Ling, Teresa Ting. (2003). The Order of Descriptive Adjectives. The Internet TESL Journal.
Vol. IX, No. 11. 2003. Retrieved from
http://www.iteslj.org/Lessons/Ting-Adjectiveorder.htm
What is an adjective?
The Adjective: From Farm to Market
What is an adjective?
Give nouns and pronouns details and qualities

Third most common class of words (after nouns and verbs) (Justice, 2002).

Adjectives are an open word class
Examples of Adjectives
The
rich brown
soil

The
Asian
pear

The
heavy

apple
cart

The
happy
farmer
What does a Descriptive Adjective do?
Describes a noun
Usually right next to the noun it describes!
Limiting Adjectives
Proper Adjectives
Procedes a Noun or Pronoun
Possessive Adjectives
Used with Common or Proper Nouns
Demonstrative Adjectives
Serves an Adjectival Role
Cardinal & Ordinal Adjectives
Numbers
Nouns as Adjectives
Nouns used to describe a noun
Indefinte & Definite Adjectives
Also known as articles
Adjective Discussion Topics
Compound and simple adjectives
Comparative and superlative adjectives
Descriptive adjectives
Limiting adjectives
Sequencing adjectives
Development of adjectives
Cardinal Adjectives
One
Beetle
Ordinal Adjective
First, Second, Third, etc
Three
Trees
Noun as Adjectives
A noun that describes another noun
OR
Add a suffix to make it a noun (Justice,2002)
-ish, -like, -ly, -y, -en, -al, -ar, -ory
The
farm
house has a
shade
tree in the front yard.
Indefinite Articles
Definite Article
The
Describes something specific (Elborne ,2001)
An and A
Describes something non specific (Justice, 2002)
A
few leaves blew into my freshly raked yard.
The
sun was shining through the clouds.
Sequencing Adjectives
Sequencing Order
Sequencing Examples
Article or other noun marker
A, an, the, her, Joe’s, two, many, some


Juicy red peach
(evaluative + color)
Round new red potatoes
(shape + age + color)
A sturdy round wooden basket
(article + evaluative + shape + material)

Evaluative Word
Attractive, dedicated, delicious, ugly


Size
Large, enormous, small, little

Length or shape
Long, short, round, square

Color
Yellow, blue, crimson



Age
New, old, young, antique

Nationality
French, Scandinavian, Vietnamese
Religion
Catholic, Protestant, Jewish
Material
Silver, walnut, wool, marble

Noun/Adjective
Tree (in tree house)

The Noun Modified
House, sweater, bicycle, bread, woman

Guidelines regulate proper order when multiple adjectives occur in a row.
Without proper ordering, the phrase will sound wrong to a native speaker.
There are always exceptions to the guidelines!
Simple Adjectives
What do Simple Adjectives Do?
Eaxamples of
Simple Adjectives
What are Simple Adjectives?
A basic type of descriptor and usually only uses one word (Justice, 2002).
Used to express quality (Richard, 2012).
Feelings, time, sound, taste, appearance, size, age, color, material, and shape (Richard, 2012).
Sweet
Sour
Small
Big
Bright
Healthy
Loud
Happy
OLD
Complex Adjectives
Rules for hyphenating words
More Exceptions to Hyphenating Words
Complex Adjective Forms
What are Complex Adjectives?
Exceptions to hyphenating two words
Used in a more complex manner
1.
Combining two words to make one word (Justice, 2002).
2.
Using closely related words together (Justice, 2002).
3.
Hyphenating two words (Justice, 2002).
1.
If multiple words are being used as an adjective phrase before a noun then use hyphen to combine them (Dictionary.com, 2013).
2
.When multiple words are being used after the noun, there is no need for them to be hyphenated(Davis, 2004).
1.
A hyphen is not used after an adverb that has an -ly ending (Davis, 2004).
2.
Exception occurs when a compound is using a comparative (-er) or superlative (-est) (Davis, 2004).
3.
A hyphen is not used in a chemical term (Davis, 2004). e.g. anhydrous potassium aluminum sulfate
4.
Hyphens are not used in a compound that uses a letter as the second part of the adjective (Davis, 2004).
Examples of Descriptive Adjectives
The
fast
man.
The
lazy
dog.
My
red
apple.
Categories
Describe:
person
place
thing
Six categories:
age
size
shape
material
color
nationality
(Yen-Ling, Teresa Ting, 2003)
Categories Continued...
Table 1: Descriptive Adjective Categories Examples
Age: The
two year old
baby giggled.
Size: The
tall
man walked to the grocery store.
Shape: The
oval-shaped
door was red.
Material: The
log
cabin nestled deep in the woods.
Color: The teacher had on a bright
yellow
sundress.
Nationality: The
Italian
leather sofa was so comfortable!

What do they do?
Limiting Adjectives Modify Nouns (Von Fintel, 1995)
Proper Adjectives
Procedes a Noun or Pronous that it Modifies (Justic, 2002)
Monday
night
Possessive Adjective
Used with Common and Proper Nouns
Anderson's Market
baker's dozen
OR
Proper Noun
Common Noun
Can Act as a Possessive Adjective
Betsey is
his
cow.
Melinda sold
her
horse.
Demonstrative Adjective
Serves an Adjectival Role (Justice, 2002)
This
That
These
Those
This

apple is mine but you can have
that
peach.
These

pears should go inside. I will sell

those
tomorrow.


Developmetal Notes
Age 7-9
Ages 10+
Age 4-6
Age 0-3

Around 18 months children start using two word combinations (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), 2013).
At 30 months children use three word combinations (ASHA, 2013).
There are three common formats (Tatenhove, 2005).
1. N + Adj + Noun
2. Adj + Adj + Noun
3. Dem + Adj + N

At 3 years old children can produce four word combinations
During the preschool years, children refine their understanding of joining adjectives in a series and positioning of adjectives within complex noun phrases (Child Development Institute, LLC , 2013).
Sequencing Practice
Put the adjectives in the correct order
1. brown, small, smooth

2. large, scratchy, heavy

3. fast, long, new

4. French, yellow, round

5. Enormous, metal, blue

6. smelly, ancient, the

7.farm, antique, short


What adjectives are in this sentence?
What adjectives are in this sentence?
Great Job!
What adjectives are in this sentence?
What adjectives are in this sentence?
Name the Adjective
Last Monday night, a sweet girl visited the farmer's market.
What adjectives are in this sentence?
First she asked for one red, ripe peach, but the stand was sadly sold out.
She gave me a very sad look and tragically cried out, "I am so disappointed!"
We escorted her to our backyard garden to show off our three beautiful heirloom tomatoes plants, but she was unimpressed.
Thankfully, her smile returned when she saw a dozen gleaming jars of our special peach jam for sale.
This a
red
apple.
I love the
fuzzy
blanket.
Quite
1. Compound Adjectives
2. Hyphenating
The
young
man watches an
enormous
butterfly.
Italian
restaurant
*children reach school age~
-Descriptive adjectives are around 20% of spoken speech (Child Development Institute, LLC , 2013).
*age of 9, children begin to understand (60%) meaning of derivational suffixes (-ette, -ize, -ful, -like, and -able) (Child Development Institute, LLC , 2013).
Around 13 years, understanding approaches level of adult but still used less accurately than adults (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), 2013).
How would you describe me?
What would you say about me?
What am I?
What words would you use to describe me?
Describe These Hats Using Adjectives
Vickie Allison, Megan Havlin, Candace Hayden, Sarah Hwang, Jessica LeBrun, and Erin Lehr
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