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CLIMATE CHANGE PLACEMAT

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Sabrina Lin

on 17 June 2013

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Transcript of CLIMATE CHANGE PLACEMAT

REASONS
IMPACTS
SOLUTIONS
CLIMATE CHANGE
FACTORS THAT AFFECT
CLIMATE CHANGE
DESCRIBING CLIMATES
INDICATORS AND EFFECTS
OF CLIMATE CHANGE
ENERGY TRANSFER IN
THE CLIMATE SYSTEM
GREENHOUSE GASES
AND HUMAN ACTIVITES
CYCLING OF MATTER AND
THE CLIMATE SYSTEM
DISCOVERING PAST CLIMATES
MONITORING AND MODELLING
CLIMATE CHANGE
TAKING ACTION TO SLOW
CLIMATE CHANGE
THE EARTH AND THE SUN
HOW THE ATMOSPHERE
AFFECTS CLIMATE
HOW THE HYDROSPHERE
AFFECTS CLIMATE
HOW MOVING CONTINENTS
AFFECT CLIMATE
HOW HUMAN ACTIVITY
AFFECTS CLIMATE
The sun's energy is the most important factor to climate change
It affects the temperature of the air, water, and land
The heat produces features of the climate such as wind and rain
The Earth's tilt and orbit around the sun affects the amount of energy reaching Earth
Atmosphere absorbs thermal energy from the sun and thermal energy that is emitted by earths surface (Greenhouse Effect)
This process helps to keep Earth's temperature fluctuations in a certain range
Without this process, most of the solar energy reaching Earth's surface would radiate back into space and the planet’s temperature would be 34 degrees lower than it is today
The hydrosphere composes of all of the water in its different forms on earth
Together with the atmosphere, water transfers heat from one part of the planet to another
The changing distribution of land and water affects patterns of air and water circulation + the transfer of thermal energy on Earth
The formation of mountain chains also affects the pattern of wind and precipitation around the globe
The effect of human technology on the atmosphere
Human use of technologies that burn fossil fuels have grown around the world (This releases gases and other pollutants into atmosphere as waste products)
This, in turn, increases the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
CHANGES IN
SOLAR ACTIVITY
MOVEMENTS OF
EARTH IN SPACE
CHANGES IN EARTH'S
ROTATION, ORBIT, AND TILT
DISPERSION OF ENERGY THROUGH
WIND IN THE ATMOSPHERE
THE MOVING OF OCEAN
CURRENTS BY WIND
EFFECT OF WINDS
ON PRECIPITATION
VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS
OCEANS AND LAKES
ACTING AS HEAT RESEVOIRS
THE REFLECTION OF HEAT
THROUGH ICE AND SNOW
OVERUSE OF FOSSIL FUELS
SINCE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
HAS CAUSED AN INCREASE IN
GREENHOUSE GASES
CLIMATOGRAPHS
CLASSIFYING CLIMATES
CHANGING CLIMATE,
CHANGING LANDSCAPES
Climatographs are graphs of climate data for a particular region based on average measurements taken over several years
Includes figures for average monthly total precipitation (mm) and the average monthly temperature (°C)
Scientists use them to compare climates in different regions more precisely
To allow scientists to easily compare different parts of the world, they categorize the abiotic and biotic factors of a region.
Most climate classification systems involve creating and analyzing climatographs.
The pattern in those climatographs help scientists classify regions of the worlds into groups by climate.
Climate classification systems allow scienctists to organize large amounts of information into smaller, simpler pattersns
These patterns in turn help scientists analyse and predict different/future weather patterns around the world
CHANGES IN POLAR AND
GLACIAL ICE
RISING SEA LEVELS AND
OCEAN ACIDITY
CLIMATE AND HEALTH
CHANGING WIND AND
PRECIPITATION PATTERNS
CHANGING BIOMES
Satellite measurements have shown that large volumes of ice in Greenland and the Antarctic have been melting at much faster rates than previous years.
The amount of ice that has melted each year has been approximately 65 cube kilometers, which has caused the sea ice cover to significantly decrease each year
Other than raising sea levels, melting ice affects the habitat of many animals. As the ice melts, polar bears must travel farther and farther to be able to find enough food to support their population.
Oceans are a major part of Earth's climate system, so any change in the oceans will have a significant impact on our climate
Rising sea levels and ocean acidity are two major indicators of climate change
Climate is very closely related to health
As the climate changes, the risk of extreme weather such as floods, heat waves, tornadoes, lightning strikes and snowstorms increases as well
Climate change also effects human health because of factors like ozone depletion, desertification, freshwater decline and loss of biodiversity.
Changes in heat distribution over Earth's surface have led to changes in wind speed frequency and direction all over the globe
In recent years, wind has been completely unpredictable, and researchers believe that unusual wind patterns are causing the increase in the amount of ice that is melting
Also, with these changing wind patterns, the amount of precipitation has decreased. Some sources predict that by 2025 more than half of the worlds population will be affected by scarcity of water
Research: 15% to 35% of the 1100 species studied were at risk of extinction by 2050
This shows that the environments were changing faster than the animals could adapt.
Some main cuases: deforestation, sea-level rising, decreasing crop yields, and greater risk of disease, which can all be linked back to climate change.
MELTING ICE
RISING SEA LEVELS
OCEAN ACIDITY
NO "REASON" FOR
CLIMATE CHANGE
NO "REASON" FOR
CLIMATE CHANGE
NO "REASON" FOR
CLIMATE CHANGE
CHANGES IN
PRECIPITATION PATTERNS
DEFORESTATION
SHRINKING
WETLANDS
EFFECTS OF
FEEDBACK LOOPS
A feedback loop is a process in which part of a system’s output is returned, or fed back, to the input.
There are two types of feedback loops, positive and negative feedback loops.
POSITIVE
FEEDBACK LOOP
NEGATIVE
FEEDBACK LOOP
Acts to increase the effects of the interacting parts. Because of positive feedback loops, small initial changes in climate can lead to larger and larger changes before the system as a whole achieves a new balance
Decreases the effects of the interacting parts and helps to maintain a system’s equilibrium.
Balances to prevent/slow or reverse change in a system. An example would be global warming.
Changing precipitation patterns are leading to an increase in the rate of melting ice. This is what is kickstarting the positive feedback loop.
HEATING
THE PLANET
Thermal energy is the energy that an object has because of the motion of its molecules. The transfer of energy between objects is known as heat.
There are three main processes transfer energy through Earth’s environment
IT IS BECAUSE OF THERMAL ENERGY THAT GLOBAL WARMING IS OCCURING TODAY
ENERGY TRANSFER
IN THE ATMOSPHERE
Land and water gain thermal energy by absorbing the Sun's short-wave radiation
As Earth's surface grows warmer, it converts some of its thermal energy into long-wave radiation, which is then emitted into the atmosphere (where it is absorbed by H2O and gases such as CO2)
This is the basis of the Greenhouse Effect
Changing wind patterns are affecting precipitation patterns
ENERGY TRANSFER IN THE OCEANS
The transfer of energy in the ocean plays several key roles in Earth’s environment by influencing the worlds climates through the exchange of thermal energy
Energy transfer in the oceans are influenced by several key factors: Winds, Water Temperature, and Water Salinity
Negative effect on living things in the oceans because of changing patterns of upwelling (upward vertical motion of an ocean current)
Upwelling brings nutrients from the sea floor into the surface currents
Changes in normal upwelling patters may jeopardize the survival of many marine species
CHANGING PATTERNS OF UPWELLING
WATER CURRENTS
Redistribution of thermal energy at the ocean surfaces
Decrease in speed of colder currents on the ocean floor
Winds create currents of water
THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION
A continueous, twisting ocean current that mixes ocean water from the North Atlantic to the South Pacific
By mixing waters from different oceans around the world, this creates a global system of thermal energy distribution
EL NIÑO + LA NIÑA
Impacts weather across North America.
Caused by the cooling of a huge mass of seawater in the middle of the Pacific Ocean
"Sea-surface temperature anomalies": During El Nino and La Nina, the temperature of the ocean surface in the Southern Pacific Ocean changes
EL NIÑO + LA NIÑA
Dramatic effects on the tranfer of thermal energy in the ocean
CHANGING ALBEDO
AND ENERGY DUGET
Nearly 1/3 of the Sun’s energy that reaches Earth is not actually absorbed
The biggest influences on Earth's albedo come from clouds, snow, and ice
A change in any of these factors can produce a change in the amount of energy in the atmosphere
DECLINE IN ARCTIC
SEA-ICE COVER
CONCENTRATIONS OF GREENHOUSE GASES IN THE ATMOSPHERE
The concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has increased from an average of about 315 parts per million in 1960 to about 370 parts per million in 2000
Water vapour in the atmosphere has increased as well
RISE IN GLOBAL TEMPERATURES
(because of increase in
water vapour and CO2)
A decrease in sea ice cover means an icrease in temperatures + the amount of water vapour released into the atmosphere
Humans have caused an increase in the concentration of Greenhouse Gases in the atmosphere
(ie. CO2 and CFCs)
MELTING ICE
IN THE ARCTIC
RISING TEMPERATURES
(because more ultraviolet
light is coming through)
RISING SEA LEVELS
Melting ice causes sea levels to rise
GROUND-LEVEL OZONE
Ozone occurs at the ground level as smog forming pollutant
This ozone is produced by a chemical reaction with vehicle exhausts (hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide)
Traps thermal energy close to Earth's surface
GLOBAL WARMING
BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE
CARBON CYCLE
NITROGEN CYCLE
Biogeochemical cycle is a natural process that exchanges matter and energy between abiotic environment to the biotic environment and back
Places where matter is stored and accumulated for a long period of time is known as a store, or reservoir
Cycle is usually in balance because a store will release the same amount of matter that it receives
The cycling of Carbon in our environment
5 major stores
Humans impact it through the burning of fossil fuels, which changes the balance of the cycle
GLOBAL WARMING
(when carbon builds up in atmosphere)
The cycling of Nitrogen in our environment
Humans affect it through the use of fertilizers and the production of vehicle exhaust, which can cause air pollution, water pollution etc.
SMOG
ACID RAIN
DEAD ZONES
GLOBAL WARMING
TREE RINGS
ICE CORES
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
FOSSILS AND
PRESERVED ORGANISMS
Scientists can use tree rings to determine what the weather was like in the past by examining its rings, colours etc.
SCIENTISTS CAN THEN USE THIS DATA TO PREDICT WEATHER PATTERNS ABOUT THE FUTURE
Paleoclimatologists uses ice cores to uncover evidence of past climate conditions (through dissolved matter in the ice, the physical characteristics of the ice, and the composition of the trapped air bubbles in the ice)
Records unveiled by ice cores go as far back as 800,000 years
SCIENTISTS CAN THEN USE THIS DATA TO PREDICT WEATHER PATTERNS ABOUT THE FUTURE
Scientists can analyze the composition of the sediments in sedimentary rocks to learn about climate conditions in the past
This can be done by studying the chemical composition of microscopic organisms inside the rock etc.
SCIENTISTS CAN THEN USE THE INFORMATION THEY COLLECT TO ESTIMATE RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE PATTERNS OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME
Scientists can use the fossils formed by dead organisms to obtain information about the composition of the oceans and atmosphere at the time the organism lived
THE TYPES AND AMOUNTS OF FOSSILIZED REMAINS IN ROCK LAYERS HELP SCIENTISTS RECONSTRUCT THE ENVIRONMENT AT THE TIME THE LAYER WAS FORMED (INCLUDING THE CLIMATE)
TECHNOLOGY
CLIMATE MODELS
Scientists use technology to collect accurate data over long periods of time
These observations and measurement allow scientists to identify climate trends and figure out ways to prepare for future trends/patterns
RADARS
WEATHER SATELLITES (Geostationary Satellites + Polar Orbiting Satellites)
THE EARTH OBSERVING SYSTEM
(Quick Scatterometer/Terra /Aura/Aqua)
To analyze and interpret data, scientists often use models or representations of objects or systems (ie. maps, miniatures, mathematical formulas, computer programs etc.)
EDUCATING YOURSELF
TAKING ACTION
ADVOCATING FOR ACTIONS
TO SLOW CLIMATE CHANGE
In order to make a change, it's important that you first understand the problem
Resources like the internet allow people to view data pertaining to climate change patterns + concerns etc. in order to better understand it
WORKING TO UNDERSTAND THE PROBLEM FIRST IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT ALLOWS PEOPLE TO UNDERSATND EXACTLY WHY THINGS NEED TO CHANGE. THIS, THEREFORE, WILL HELP THEM COME UP WITH APPROPRIATE SOLUTIONS TO CURRENT CLIMATE ISSUES
There are many ways people can take action to make a difference
The main way is by reducing their Carbon Footprint (Reducing the amount of greenhouse gasses they are releasing into the atmosphere)
This can be done by conserving electricity, driving less, carpooling etc.
DOING THINGS LIKE CARPOOLING/CONSERVING ENERGY IS IMPORATANT BECAUSE GREENHOUSE GASSES IS THE LARGEST SINGLE CAUSE OF GLOBAL WARMING RIGHT NOW
Even though taking action is very important, it's actually equally important to try to get others to do the same
You can do so by educating others or trying to influence how governments and individuals respond to the issue of climate change
IDENTIFY AND JOIN GROUPS OR INDIVIDUALS WHO CHAMPION ACTIONS THAT YOU SUPPORT
LEARN ABOUT THE PROCESSES BY WHICH GOVERNMENTS AND ADVOCACY GROUPS ENACT AND INFLUENCE ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS
SET AN EXAMPLE BY REDUCING YOUR CARBON FOOTPRINT
WRITE LETTERS TO CORPORATIONS AND GOVERNMENT REPRESENTATIVES TO ENCOURAGE THEM TO SUPPORT INITIATIVES TO SLOW CLIMATE CHANGE
LEGEND:
GENERAL TOPIC
SUBTOPIC
Information about topic
REASON/IMPACT/SOLUTION
(for specific subtopic)
Reason why it's important
CHANGES IN THE BALANCE OF BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES LIKE NITROGEN AND CARBON CAN LEAD TO GLOBAL WARMING, DEAD ZONES ETC.
NO "REASON" FOR
CLIMATE CHANGE
*
Describes connection
One of the best ways to stop/slow global warming is to get everyone to work together to change their lifestyles. Things will not improve if people don't work together to make a change.
Since human activities are one of the main causes of Global Warming, it makes sense that we should be the ones working to stop it as well
Climate models can help scientists predict the rate at which sea levels will rise
Technology is an important tool scientists use to figure out temperature patterns. This enables them to adequately come up with climate change projections + solutions
Scientists can look at the salinity of ice cores from millions of years ago, and compare it to ocean water present in the same area today. This can help them compare/contrast the changes in the Earth's climate.
By reducing the amount of Greenhouse gases we release into the atmosphere, we can lower the thermal energy prensent on Earth, thus slow Global Warming
WHEN THE EARTH RECEIVES TOO MUCH SHORT WAVE RADIATION FROM THE SUN, THE HEAT IS ABSORBED BY GREENHOUSE GASES, WHICH RAISES GLOBAL TEMPERATURES
Oceans acting as heat resevoirs are causing global temperatures to rise through thermal radiation.
Volcanic eruptions cause a buildup of Carbon in the atmosphere, which leads to Global Warming.
INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVES
The impact of climate change varies from country to country, but what is important is that each and every country work together to prevent/slow down climate change
THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL
PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE
THE KYOTO PROTOCOL
An international treaty produced as a result of the Earth Summit in Rio de Janiero, Brazil
It acts as a legally binding commitment to climate change between nations
A panel formed by the UN Environement Programme and the World Meteorologic Organization
The panel's goals are to assess the role of human activities in prroducing climate change and to recommend ways to respond
EDUCATING AND
EMPOWERING CONSUMERS
Governments help individuals combat climate change by educating consumers on how to make choices that benefit the environment
They implement programs like the ecoEnergy Efficientcy Initiative in order to do so
CAP-AND-TRADE SYSTEMS
A program developed by governments to encourage businesses/corporations to limit their carbon production
This is done when governments put a "cap" or limit on the amount of carbon each corporation is allowed to produce
CARBON-TAX SYSTEMS
This is when the government levies a tax on either the source of carbon compounds or the emission of greenhouse gases produced by a corporation
This causes products with higher Carbon outputs to be more expensive, which discourages consumers from buying it
LOWERING GREENHOUSE EMISSIONS
BY USING ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY
About 18% of greenhouse gases produced in Canada results from teh burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity
Because of this, the best long-term way to reduce the production of greenhouse gases is to develop sources of energy that can produce fewer greenhouse gases
GREEN ENERGY
INSTALLING GEOTHERMAL
HEATING/COOLING SYSTEMS
SINGLE-HOME SOLAR AND WIND POWER SYSTEMS
Having governments set goals/make changes is one of the most important/effective ways to stop global warming
STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION
Since the 1970s, there has been a slow, steady decline in the total amount of ozone in the stratosphere
This is creating large patches of areas where ozone concentration is declining (Ozone "Hole")
MODELS ARE IMPORTANT IN UNDERSTANDING/SOLVING
CLIMATE CHANGE BECAUSE IT ALLOWS SCIENTISTS TO
OBSERVE PATTERNS/TRENDS FROM THE PAST TO
PREPARE FOR THE FUTURE
Full transcript