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Engaging Students with Text:

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Christine Hasircoglu

on 21 October 2014

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Transcript of Engaging Students with Text:

CCSS Social Studies Reading Standard Grade 6-8
1. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.

California Social Science Content Standard
8.4 Students analyze the aspirations and ideals of the people of the new nation.
1. Describe the country’s physical landscapes, political divisions, and territorial expansion during the terms of the first four presidents.
Standards and Learning Objective
CCSS Social Studies Reading Standard Grades 6-8
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.

California Social Science Content Standard
8.4 Students analyze the aspirations and ideals of the people of the new nation.
2. Explain the policy significance of famous speeches.
The Jefferson Era: Expansion and A Developing Nation
Engaging Students with Text:
The Jefferson Era

CCSS Social Studies Reading Standard Grade 6-8
7. Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.

California Social Science Content Standard
8.5 Students analyze U.S. foreign policy in the early Republic.
3. Outline the major treaties with American Indian nations during the administrations of the first four presidents and the varying outcomes of those treaties.
Standards and Learning Objective
Jefferson's Inaugural Address of 1801
Untitled by unknown artist. Oil on canvas, date unknown. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.
Tecumseh Portrait by Benson Lossing, 1868. Ohio Historical Society.
LO: Using various depictions of Tecumseh, students will be able to compare and contrast the various points of view about the Shawnee Chief, and present their findings in a one or two sentence oral summary.
LO: Students will be able to determine the meaning of excerpts from Jefferson's 1801 Inaugural Address, and present their ideas in a summary paragraph.
"General Harrison and Tecumseh." Lithograph, 1860. Indiana Historical Society.
"But every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle. We have called by different names brethren of the same principle. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists."

"Still one thing more, fellow-citizens—a wise and frugal Government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned. This is the sum of good government...."

"Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political; peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none...."
LO: Using their textbook and excerpts from Jefferson's letter to Meriwether Lewis, students will be able to determine the importance of exploration for the growing nation, and present their ideas in a Socratic Seminar.
This text was chosen because it is a primary source document, explicitly named in the State Standard, yet not presented in the textbook.

Jefferson's Inaugural Address introduces a number of concepts (political parties, no foreign entanglements, the role of the Federal Government etc.), which students must understand in order to explore the policies, events and themes of Jefferson's presidency, and U.S History more broadly. This objective relates to the enduring understanding, "people create, change and interact with power authority and governance."

The text contains numerous content specific, and academic vocabulary words, which will develop academic language skills, and prepare the students for future learning within the discipline, and across disciplines.
Literacy Strategy: Frontloading with the Frayer Model
8th Grade U.S. History

Unit: Expansion and a Developing Nation
Standards and Learning Objective
The three depictions of Tecumseh were chosen because...
They present Tecumseh in three unique, and conflicting ways, whereas the textbook only contains the "Untitled" painting.
Visual elements such as paintings, make content more accessible to EL students.
The paintings connect to the enduring understanding of "historical perspective" in Social Studies.
The paintings align with the CCSS reading standard because they integrate visual media into textbook content.

"The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri river, & such principal stream of it as by it's course and communication with the waters of the Pacific ocean whether the Columbia, Oregon, Colorado or any other river may offer the most direct & practicable water communication across this continent for the purposes of commerce."

"Other objects worthy of notice will be the soil & face of the country it's growth & vegetable productions, especially those not of the US.The animals of the country generally, & especially those not known in the US....the mineral productions of every kind; but more particularly metals;limestone, pit-coal, & salt-petre...volcanic
appearances; climate, as characterized by the thermometer, by the proportion of rainy, cloudy, & clear days, by lightening, hail, snow, ice, by the access & recess of frost, by the winds prevailing at different seasons, the dates at which particular plants put forth or lose their flower, or leaf, times of appearance of particular birds, reptiles or insects."

"You will... make yourself acquainted... with the names of the nations & their numbers; the extent & limits of their possessions; their relations with other tribes of nations; their language, traditions, monuments; their ordinary occupations in agriculture, fishing, hunting, war, arts & the implements for these; their food, clothing, & domestic accommodations; the diseases prevalent among them, & the remedies they use; moral & physical circumstances which distinguish them from the tribes we know; peculiarities in their laws, customs... and articles of commerce they may need...."

Jefferson's Inaugural address contains numerous vocabulary words, which are integral to the conceptual understanding of U.S. History. The Frayer Model will provide students with the necessary background knowledge to comprehend the text, and the concepts embedded in the text.

In small groups, students will analyze the following words using the Frayer Model

This text was chosen because it is a primary source document that clearly outlines numerous objectives President Jefferson wanted the Lewis and Clark Expedition to achieve. The Lewis and Clark Expedition paved way for westward expansion, a concept discussed in subsequent units of study.

The text itself is difficult in that it contains some challenging academic vocabulary such as "communication", "agriculture", "course," and "production." However, the sentence structure, specifically the listing, makes this text more accessible to students.

This text supports the enduring understanding in Social Studies, "Change is inevitable."
Students will learn vocabulary terms necessary for this particular lesson, future lessons, and U.S. History more broadly.

Students will build a strong conceptual foundation on issues such as the role of government, foreign affairs, and political parties, on which they can build future knowledge.

Checks for understanding will take place throughout the lesson using formative assessments, conducted mainly through questioning (the smart board and student clickers will be utilized to assess factual knowledge). Teacher will assess students during the Frayer Model activity, to ensure students do not have any misconceptions or misinformation, and finally when reading and providing feedback about the students' summary paragraph.

Students will complete a Double Entry Journal for each depiction of Tecumseh. On the left side of the journal, students will describe the literal characteristics of each painting/lithograph. On the right side of the journal, students will record their personal reactions to the three depictions.

The Double Entry Journal supports instruction towards the Social Studies enduring understanding of "historical perspective" through the use of visual elements.

Because the students describe each visual text, and record their personal reactions, the strategy supports the process of analysis, and serves as "pre-work" for the two sentence oral summary they will share upon completion of the lesson.

The Double Entry Journal builds on socio-cultural learning theory. While Double Entry Journals are an independent activity, students draw from past experiences when writing their reactions on the right side of the journal. In this way, Double Entry Journals also promote metacognition and self-regulation, as they allow students to record and reflect on their own thinking process.
Literacy Strategy: Double Entry Journal
Why and How
Why and How
Why and How
Anticipated Student Learning and Assessment
Anticipated Student Learning and Assessment
Text 1
Text 2
Text 3
Jefferson's Letter to Meriwether Lewis
Anticipated Student Learning and Assessment
Literacy Strategy: Graphic Organizer
Students are given a graphic organizer, "Reasons for Exploration" with three main ideas in bubbles:
Route to the Pacific
Physical and geographical information
Information about Native American Tribes

Teacher will model how to use the graphic organizer, by locating a quote in the text that supports one of the three concepts, and recording it in a connecting bubble. Students will independently read the excerpts, and with their group locate and record two direct quotes in support of each of the concepts in the graphic organizer.

The graphic organizer supports the CCSS standard, in that it requires students to cite specific textual evidence from a primary source.

Graphic organizers are grounded in Cognitive Theories. Graphic organizers allow students to visually organize and connect new knowledge with pre-existing knowledge. They allows students to integrate new information into existing schema, thus assisting in higher-level concept development. The teacher uses modeling to demonstrate the proper use of the graphic organizer, a technique demonstrative of Social-Cognitive Learning Theory.
Beck, I., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Choosing words to teach. In Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction (15-30).

California Social Studies Standards http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/documents/histsocscistnd.pdf

Frayer, D.A., Frederick, W. C., Klausmeier,H. J. (1969) A Schema for Testing the Level of Concept Mastery.
Technical Repor
t, No. 16.

Hintze, J. (2013). NCSS 9. NCSS, LLC. Kaysville, Utah. Retrieved from www.ncss.com

Jefferson, T. (1801, March 4). [Inaugural Address of Thomas Jefferson]. Library of Congress. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mtj1&fileName=mtj1page023.db&recNum=58

Jefferson, T. (1803, June 20). [Letter to Meriwether Lewis]. Library of Congress. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mtj:@field(DOCID%2B@lit(je00048))

Klingensmith, B. (2000). History–social science content standards for california public schools, kindergarten through grade twelve
Sacramento, CA. Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/

National Governors Association Center for Best Practices & Council of Chief State School Officers (2010).
Common Core State Standards for English language arts and literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects
. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/

Omrod, J.E. (2011).
Educational psychology: Developing learners
(7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

R. Billmeyer and M.L. Barton (1998).
Teaching Reading in the Content Areas
. Aurora, CO: McREL.

W. M. Olson, T. C. Gee (1991). Content reading instruction in primary grades: Perceptions and strategies.
The Reading Teacher
45, 298–307.

Students will be expected to learn how to use textual evidence to support an idea or argument.

The teacher will assess student learning throughout the lesson using formative assessments, visiting each group during groups work, and asking guiding questions and clarifying as necessary.

The Socratic Seminar will serve as an assessment, as students will be asked to cite specific textual evidence as they pose a question to the group, or share their ideas.
The Frayer Model
Definition (in own words)
Economical in spending
Example (from own life)
Someone who doesn't go out and buy whatever he/she wants
Someone who makes conscious spending decisions
My parents
Non Example (from own life)
Kanye West
Flashy Celebrities
People who have shopping addictions and max out their credit cards

Not cheap, but conscious of spending/saving
Frontloading these vocabulary words using the Frayer model directly addresses the CCSS standard in which students are to understand the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text. Furthermore, students must understand these terms in order to determine the meaning of the excerpts, and will be expected to use the words in their summary paragraphs.

The Frayer model builds on Constructivist learning theories, in that students are working together to determine the meaning of the words, based on prior knowledge. Students learn concepts more effectively with exemplars, according to Constructivist learning theories, and this The strategy asks students to generate examples and non-examples of the word based on authentic life experiences. Additionally, frontloading these terms and concepts prepare students to construct more knowledge in this unit, and future units, again tapping into Constructivist learning principles. Finally, because students are working collaboratively and generating exemplars based on their own experiences or knowledge, this exercise is also using Socio-Cultural learning theories to creating meaningful learning.
Students will not only learn how to compare and contrast visual text sources, but they will be able to visualize the idea of "Historical Perspective."

Students will learn to use personal experiences to contribute to their analysis of text.

Formative assessments will be conducted throughout the lesson. The teacher will read the students' Double Entry Journals, and finally assess students when listening to their oral summary.
Christine H
EDUC 505
February 9, 2014
Monique Datta
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