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Japanese Modernization During the Meiji Era

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on 2 March 2014

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Transcript of Japanese Modernization During the Meiji Era

Reasons for Tokugawa Period’s End
Debt
Foreign Pressure
Internal support for the emperor
The Emperor and the Oligarchs
Emperor was restored to power
His advisors held government influence
Cultural Reforms
Duty to the emperor
Shinto-ism became the national religion
Adopted Western ideas
fukoku kyôhei (rich country, strong military)
Obedience to the state and the emperor
Japanese Modernization During the Meiji Era
What was the Meiji Restoration?
Industrialization and Modernization
1868-1912
Reform programs
Positively affected Japan during the early 20th century
The Need for Reform
Weak militarily
Little technological development.
Emulate Western countries
The Emperor
Some Members of the Advising Party
Educational Reforms
National education system
Introduced state universities
Demand for foreign knowledge
Students sent to Western countries to study modern subjects
Economic Reforms
Before the Meiji period, economy was based on agriculture
Built railways, communication systems, shipyards, mines, and factories
These were eventually privatized
Established
zaibatsu
(huge industrial and financial conglomerates)
Political Reforms
A constitution was established
A constitutional monarchy
A parliament (the National Diet)
Based off of Western models
Almost unlimited power for the Emperor
Other Political Reforms
New criminal and civil code
Revisal of unequal treaties
Military Reforms
National army
Conscription was undertaken
Modern weaponry
Modern naval ships
Imperialism and Military Strengthening
Imperialism
Boxer Rebellion
First Sino-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese war.
First Sino-Japanese War - control of Korea.
Japan acquired Taiwan and the Liaodong peninsula
Helped defeat the Boxer Rebellion in China
Russo-Japanese War - territorial disputes in Korea and southern Manchuria
Japan established itself as a colonial power in East Asia
The Tokugawa Era’s effect on the Meiji Period
Helped with Japan’s industrial growth
Daimyô travel spurred urban development
Transition from subsistence farming to commercial crops
Town industries developed
Conclusion: Effects of the Meiji Restoration
Centralized government
Became industrialized
Capitalist, technology-based economy
Educated population
Powerful military
Bibliography
“Excerpts from the Meiji Constitution of 1889.”
Asia for Educators
. Columbia University. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
"Meiji Restoration."
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia
, 6Th Edition (2013): 1.
Academic Search Complete
. Web. 27 Feb. 2014.
“The Meiji Restoration and Modernization.”
Asia for Educators
. Columbia University. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
al-Khaizaran, Huda Yoshida. "The Emergence Of Private Universities And New Social Formations In Meiji Japan, 1868-1912."
History Of Education
40.2 (2011): 157-178.
Academic Search Complete
. Web. 27 Feb. 2014.
Gordon, Bill. “Tokugawa Period's Influence on Meiji Restoration.”
Bill Gordon
. Wesleyan University, 2000. Web 26 Feb. 2014.
Gordon, Bill. “Explanations of Japan’s Imperialistic Expansion, 1894-1910.”
Bill Gordon
. Wesleyan University, 2003. Web 26 Feb. 2014.
Okuma, Count. “The Industrial Revolution in Japan.”
The North American Review
Vol. 171. (1900): 677-691.
JSTOR
. Web. 26 Feb. 2014.
Exported goods helped to stimulate the the economy
Ito Hirobumi
Okubo Toshimichi
The First Sino-Japanese War
Japanese Soldiers During Second Sino-Japanese War
Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito)
Matsukata Masayoshi
Image Sources:
http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027/throwing_off_asia_02/
http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/meiji.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Toshimichi_Okubo_4.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meiji_Restoration
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ministry_of_Education_of_Japan.jpg
Ministry of Education of Japan in 1890
Full transcript