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How Animals Learn

By Melanie Weiss
by

Melanie Weiss

on 11 May 2013

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Transcript of How Animals Learn

Negative means minus not

Positive means adding not

Reinforcement is when you want a behaviour to continue

Punishment is when you want a behaviour to stop How Animals Learn By Melanie Browning All animals, including people, learn in the same way and by the same mechanisms. We will discuss the different styles of training that facilitate learning Classical Conditioning Type of learning discovered by Ivan Pavlov
Ran behaviour experiments with dogs in 1890s
This is a form of association learning that is a very basic type of learning
Very useful when working with emotional animals (fearful or aggressive)
Animal is not required to respond or perform an action to receive reward/punishment Classical Conditioning Pavlov continually would ring a bell before a dog was fed. Classical Conditioning Eventually he got a dog that would drool at the sound of the bell in anticipation of food Classical Conditioning So if an untrained signal (you waking up, leash) regularly precedes an event (cat food, walk) animals quickly form an association between the two and learns to anticipate the event by the first signal Classical Conditioning Can also be used to associate bad things Classical Conditioning Learning by association
Animal does not need to do anything to receive reward/punishment
Useful for animals in emotional states such as aggressive or fearful Operant Conditioning Basic principle is that an animal will present a behaviour and this behaviour will have a consequence
This is the basis for most training styles Four Types of Operant Conditioning Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Mel's Tips on How to Not Get Confused Negative Punishment Removing a good stimulus to decrease the occurrence of a behaviour
Examples
Giving affection to someone/something else
Eating the treat yourself
Taking a toy away
Time outs Negative Reinforcement Removing an adverse stimulus to increase the chance of a behaviour to occur
Examples
Pulling up on collar until dog sits
Nagging your husband to do something
Bit pulling in horse's mouth until head is turned Positive Punishment Adverse stimulus is presented to help decrease the behaviours occurence
Examples
Saying "No"
Shock Collars
Pinch or choke collars
Jail Positive Reinforcement Adding a good stimulus to increase the likelihood of a behaviour
Examples
Treats
Praise
Toys QUIZ TIME!!!! I have a cockatiel Coconut who will guard his cage and bite me when I try to make him step up off of it. I started training him by approaching him and if he did not try to bite me I would click him and remove my hand from his space.

This is considered:
A: positive reinforcement
B: negative reinforcement
C: positive punishment
D: crazy, you can't train a birdbrain! QUIZ TIME!!!! My neighbor has an annoying dog who barks at me when I am in my backyard. I started giving the dog a treat every time I see it through the fence.

This is considered:
A: positive reinforcement
B: positive punishment
C: classical conditioning
D: negative reinforcement Classical and Operant Conditioning are the basis for all training techniques used Clicker Training Clicker training is popular way to train any animal to do difficult tasks
Uses both classical and operant conditioning together What is a Marker? A marker functions to mark the precise behaviour
A reward/punishment should be presented within 3 seconds of the marker
This allows for classical conditioning learning to associate the marker with reward/punishment How Does it Work? You start by using classical conditioning
You click the clicker and give the animal a reward at the same time
The animal learns that the click means a reward is coming How Does it Work? You then click the animal at the exact second it is doing a desired behaviour
Timing is essential with clicker training By using a clicker as opposed to a voice (good) command you are far more accurate Shaping Is used in conjunction with clicker training
Select small steps to work up to the behaviour you desire Rat Going Through Tunnel Video Trainer starts off by rewarding the rat for just sniffing the tunnel
Then as it realizes that the tunnel is what gets it treats, the trainer waits until the rat offers a behaviour that is closer to what she is hoping to achieve What Clicker Training Can Do If that Doesn't Impress You... Or This... QUIZ TIME!!!! How you clicker train a fish if they can't hear the click? Hint same way you train a deaf dog. What is a Marker? Examples of markers:
clickers
saying good dog
saying bad dog or no QUIZ TIME!!!! When Cesar Milan trains dogs he uses a "shh" command. What does this mean to the dog? A: it means "bad dog"
B: it means "neck poke is coming"
C: it is meant to startle them Bonus:
What type of training is occurring? Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Other Aspects of Training Motivation An animal must be motivated to learn
Finding what motivates and animal may be the trickiest part of training
Most training uses treats/food
Some trainers will fast an animal to make it more motivated Motivation Motivation can come in many forms
praise
food/treats
leaving an animal alone
toys
learning itself can motivate
to avoid punishment Reinforcement Schedules This refers to how often you should give a reward when training
When first learning a new behaviour it should be rewarded every time it is presented
Once the behaviour is established you can move to an intermittent schedule so that the animal does not only perform when a reward is present Punishment Schedules When wanting to punish a behaviour it is best to keep a continuous schedule
If a behaviour is on an intermittent punishment schedule the behaviour may become stronger
Example: Lily french kissing Clicker Training Counterconditioning and Desensitization What is Counterconditioning? Used for fearful and some aggressive animals
Uses classical conditioning to change an association to a item from bad to good Remember the Annoying Chiweenie? By giving the annoying chiweenie treats every time I see him, regardless of whether he is barking or not, his initial association with me (stranger danger) will be replaced with the treat lady What is Desensitization? It is the process of starting small and taking baby steps remaining within the animals comfort level
Generally used in conjunction with counterconditioning Putting the 2 Together Let's pretend I have a strong fear of clowns. I also have a great love for ice cream.
This would be the protocol we would follow for counterconditioning and desensitization Putting the 2 Together So we start out by counterconditioning an object at a distance, where the animal shows no discomfort
Then we gradually move closer and continue the counterconditioning process QUIZ TIME!!!! A clicker is a __________.
Can it be used for punishment? Shaping Figure out your training plan step by step and train for each step of the process only advancing when the previous step is accomplished and consistent Shaping For Sit in Front of the Owner Wait until dog sit on its own, click and throw kibble away, continue until dog is sitting readily
Reward sits close to owner (always throw treat), ignore sits that are farther away, continue until dog is doing consistently
Reward only sits directly in front of owner (always throwing the treat), continue until dog is doing this consistently
After you have the behaviour you desire you can start to select for time (length of sit, how fast sit occurs, etc.)
Important to only select for one criteria at a time Quiz Time!!! Why should you always throw the reward when training to sit? Questions? Quiz Time!!! My 2 year old cousin cries every time she goes to the doctor because she knows that every time she goes she gets a shot. Is this classical conditioning? Quiz Time!!! In a lab, researchers have trained a rat to push a lever when a red light comes on to recieve food. Is this classical conditioning? Quiz Time!!! How can you tell an animal is uncomfortable in a situation?
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