Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Chapter 8: Energy Balance and Body Composition

No description
by

Catherine Theodorou

on 20 April 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Chapter 8: Energy Balance and Body Composition

Energy In
Food
Beverages
Energy Out: BMR
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
Energy to support daily life
Varies from person to person
Varies for the same person with a change in circumstances
Factors affecting BMR:
Age
Height
Body composition
Fasting/starvation
Sleep

Energy Out
Energy expended:
Basal metabolism
Physical activity
Food consumption
Adaptation
Energy Balance
Energy In = Energy Out
Energy In > Energy Out
Energy In < Energy Out
Body Weight and Composition
What's the difference between body mass index and body composition?
Chapter 8: Energy Balance and Body Composition
Weight Gain and Loss
Quick changes in weight includes loss of:
Fat
Large amount of fluids
Some lean tissue
During starvation loss of fat and lean tissue are equal
Energy In
Hunger:
Physiological response initiated by the brain
Influenced by:
Presence or absence of nutrients
Size and composition of previous meal
Time of day: 8 am, 12 pm, 4 pm, 7 pm
Climate (hot versus cold)
Physical activity
Illness
Energy Out: BMR
Testing BMR:
Controlled environment
Comfortable temperature
Awake, but lying still
After restful sleep
Fast 12-14 hours
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR):
Similar to BMR
Food intake and physical activity not as strict
Use of equations
Energy Out: Physical Activity
Most variable component of energy expenditure
Energy needed to support activity dependent on
Muscle mass
Body weight
Activity
Duration
Frequency
Intensity

http://www.campusrec.uci.edu/testing/

http://metabolicratetest.com/

http://www.campusrec.uci.edu/testing/

Energy Out: Physical Activity
Energy Out: RMR
Thermic Effect of Food
GI tract activity increases with energy intake
Calories burned are negligible
10% of energy intake
Adaptive Thermogenesis
Body's response to a dramatic change
Extreme cold
Starvation
Trauma
Energy expenditure variable not included in energy requirements

Energy Out
Estimated Energy Requirements (EER)
Energy needs based on:
Gender
Growth (child vs. adult)
Age
Physical activity (intensity)
Body composition (% body fat)
Men EER:
[662 - (9.53 x age)] + PA x [(15.91 x wt) + (539.6 x ht)]

Women EER:
[354 - (6.91 x age)] + PA x [(9.36 x wt) + (726 x ht)]


Weight in kg = lbs/2.2
Height in meters/ = inches/39.37
Equation for EER
Energy In
Why do you stop eating?
Satiation versus Satiety
Satiation and Satiety
Sustaining satiation and satiety:
Depends on nutrient composition
Protein: suppresses hunger
High-fiber: fills stomach and delays absorption
High-fat foods: flavorful and enhances the desire to eat
Body Fat
Distribution of body fat impacts health
Visceral fat (central obesity)
Subcutaneous fat (lower-body fat)
Weight circumference risk
Women > 35 inches; Men >40 inches
Body Fat: Health Risks
Cardiovascular Disease
Central obesity raises risk
Weight gain
Type 2 Diabetes
Overweight and obese increase risk
Cancer
Increase risk in some cancers
Obese people have elevated hormones
Health Risks: Underweight
Individuals at risk
Elderly
Malnutrition
Substance abuse
Illness
Increased risk for:
Osteoporosis
Bone fractures
Unable to conceive
Body Mass Index
Height and weight only
BMI Classifications:
Healthy: 18.5 - 24.9
Overweight: 25 - 29.9
Obese: 30+
Increase disease risk with BMI 25+
Body Mass Index
BMI Calculations:

weight (kg) / height (m)2

OR

(weight (lbs.) / height (in)2 ) x 703
Body Fat
http://www.discoveryfitandhealth.com/wellness/diet-fitness/videos/diet-exercise-fat-in-the-body.htm
http://www.discoveryfitandhealth.com/wellness/diet-fitness/videos/dr-whytes-health-tips-how-to-measure-body-fat.htm
Full transcript