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Roles (including Leadership) - Group Dynamics

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Jeff Dibble

on 10 February 2015

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Transcript of Roles (including Leadership) - Group Dynamics

Group Leadership
General Psychology
Theoretical Orientation
Positive Roles
What did we notice in our own roles and leadership in our group?
Maintenance Roles
The roles are needed to help the group build or preserve group relationships, cohesiveness and sense of community
More About Roles
How do roles show up?
Are roles shared or rotated?
What factors influence roles in groups?
What about role conflict?
Positive Group Roles
Task Roles
These roles are needed to help the group reach a goal, complete a task or make a decision.
Roles (including Leadership) & Group Dynamics
Interaction Theory
Carpenter, Mason, Bauer, Talya, & Erdogan, Berri
n (2014) The Basics of Power, in Principles of Management and Organization, v. 1.0.1: Flat World Education, Inc.
http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/2199?e=bauer-ch13_s01
Manish
(2012). INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY blog. Group Dynamics.
http://ip2012.blogspot.com/2012/02/group-dynamics.html
Solomon Asch
- Conformity and Group Dynamics
http://heroicimagination.org/public-resources/social-influence-forces/conformity-and-group-dynamics/
Macleod, Saul
(2008). Asch Experiment
http://www.simplypsychology.org/asch-conformity.html
Asch, Solomon
, 1907-1996 (2008). International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3045300122.html
Leon Festinger
- Cognitive Dissonance
http://www.simplypsychology.org/cognitive-dissonance.html
Festinger, Leon
, 1919-1989. Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations
http://search.credoreference.com/content/topic/festinger_leon_1919_1989
Roles and Teams -
LaFasto, Frank, & Larson, Carl
(2001). When Teams Work Best: 6,000 Team Members and Leaders Tell What It Takes To Succeed. Sage Publications, 2001. Summarized in execubooks.com
http://leadershiphq.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/when-teams-work-best1.pdf
Wikibooks
(2014). Managing Groups and Teams/Team Personalities
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Managing_Groups_and_Teams/Team_Personalities
Scapegoating -
Gemmill, Gary
(1998). The Dynamics of Scapegoating in Small Groups, at academia.edu.
http://www.academia.edu/1219842/The_dynamics_of_scapegoating_in_small_groups
General Psychology - Group Roles
Bales, Robert Freed
(1950) Interaction Process Analysis: A Method for the Study of Small Groups. Cambridge, Mass. : Addison-Wesley.
http://www.gdufs.biz/interactionproce00bale.pdf

Robert Freed Bales
-
http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/2006/04.20/20-mm.html

Robert Freed Bales
– Observation and Interaction Theory -
http://infed.org/mobi/robert-freed-bales-group-observation-and-interaction-processes/

George Homans
-
http://infed.org/mobi/george-c-homans-the-human-group-and-elementary-social-behaviour/

William Foote Whyte
, Street Corner Society and Social Organization
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jhbs.21630/full?globalMessage=0

William Foote Whyte
– Street Corner Society -
http://infed.org/mobi/william-foote-whyte-street-society-organizations-and-learning-from-the-field/
Interaction Theory
Psychoanalytic Group Theory
Bion, W. R
. (1961). Experiences in Groups, London: Tavistock.
https://www.google.com/url?url=http://scholar.google.com/scholar_url%3Furl%3Dhttp://books.google.com/books%253Fhl%253Den%2526lr%253D%2526id%253DHPnCW6mDm-AC%2526oi%253Dfnd%2526pg%253DPA3%2526dq%253Dwilfred%252Bbion%252Bon%252Bgroups%2526ots%253Dld7XlOWeGh%2526sig%253DnQEe-NVMFLffuymobaSZf6lHN70%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26scisig%3DAAGBfm3Tbsm2Sdyyoie7dUM3GFTiek7SCw%26oi%3Dscholarr&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&sa=X&ei=2hKiVOCCDYifyQTKgYGACA&ved=0CBwQgAMoADAA&usg=AFQjCNH5D916D_6DBVyG1m8jXVIrLEcjwQ

French, R. B., & Simpson, P.
(2010). The ‘work group': Redressing the balance in Bion's Experiences in Groups. Human Relations.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=6&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEgQFjAF&url=http%3A%2F%2Feprints.uwe.ac.uk%2F12886%2F1%2FBION-THE_WORK_GROUP_-_final_resubmission_September_2009.doc&ei=2hKiVOCCDYifyQTKgYGACA&usg=AFQjCNEXSlGxxlPzmu_8LvKq51p6eVvHoA&sig2=MHn_y8mgl6Dafn8onqA6Nw

Jon Stokes, Stokes & Jolly Ltd.
-
http://www.academia.edu/1150053/The_Unconscious_at_Work_in_Groups_and_Teams_contributions_from_the_work_of_Wilfred_Bion

Matt Minahan, Carrie Hutton
– Studying Wilfred Bion (Work Group & Basic Assumption Groups) and William Schutz (Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation – FIRO )
http://www.ntl.org/upload/GroupDevelopmentTools.pdf

Changing Minds
– (focusing on Bion) ‘Explanations’ of both Work and Basic Assumptions Groups -
http://changingminds.org/explanations/groups/basic_assumption.htm
Field Theory, System Theory
What roles do leaders play in group dynamics?
What kinds of roles and leadership are appropriate in different situations?
Social Psychology in Group Roles
Conformity
– the process of going along with a consensus or acceding to pressure from other members in a group. Conformity may be motivated by group pressure, prestige, uniformity, relational validity and perception of norms/self and influence on the group.

Group effectiveness depends on independent thought and disagreement. Only by expressing and settling differences within the group can we gain enough perspective to understand the weaknesses of our own beliefs.


Groupthink
causes a close-knit group to squash dissent, critical thinking, or even rational decision-making in order to emphasize consensus. Groupthink suppresses outside information, exerts pressure to conform, and focuses only on data supporting the consensus.
Social Comparison -
People often evaluate their own opinions and abilities by comparing them with others – and seek out others with similar opinions and abilities.
“Instrumental communication” (Festinger) comes from reducing the discrepancies between an individual and others in a group.

The tendency to compare oneself with another decreases as the difference between oneself and the other increases. Yet we often try to narrow the discrepancies.

Cognitive Dissonance -
Dissonance between behavior, feelings, and external circumstances is psychologically uncomfortable and will motivate a person to close the gap – to reduce dissonance and increase consistency. People work to reduce dissonance and actively avoid increasing dissonance.
Scapegoating
- timeless and universal role in groups – often violent or destructive.
Scapegoating is used as a means of assigning blame for failings or crisis.

Leaders and isolated, undefended individuals may be targeted as scapegoats. This (temporarily) keeps others from having to take responsibility for their actions or emotions.
Psychoanalytic Group Theory

Unconscious Dynamics that play a
part in groups
Wilfred Bion (1897-1979)
Well Functioning Work Group
Basic Assumptions Group
...through careful, methodical observation of groups, observers can see patterns that explain group behavior. Factors such as group activities, individual personalities and external forces will influence group and group members to behave in fairly predicable ways.
Robert Freed Bales
- 1916-2004
Influenced by the work of Kurt Lewin he hoped to find a method of finding and documenting recurring patterns in the interpersonal interactions of small groups which could be used when forming and facilitating problem-solving groups.
Believed that behavior of individuals in group settings could be understood as the interaction between individual personalities and the influence of others in the group.
Pioneer in creating systematic methods of group observation and measurement of interaction processes. One approach was the SYMLOG system (an acronym for SYstematic MultiLevel Observation of Groups).
His goal in all of his work, as expressed by himself in his last book, Social Interaction Systems: Theory and Measurement (1999), was the development of "a theory of personality and group dynamics integrated with a set of practical methods for measuring and changing behavior and values in a democratic way."

George Casper Homas
, 1910-1989
Wrote two books on small group behavior, The Human Group. (1950) New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company and Social Behaviour: Its Elementary Forms. (1961) New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
The Human Group focused on a methodology of training students on how to analyze group behavior.
Social Behaviour, provides six propositions explaining the behavior of individuals within a small group setting.
Propositions included the Success, the Stimulus, the Value, the Deprivation-Satiation, the Aggression-Approval and the Rationality Propositions
William Whyte
1914-2000
Wrote ethnography Street Corner Society: The Social Structure of an Italian Slum University of Chicago Press (1943).
Book described behaviors of groups within community in Boston slum.
Pioneered participant observation – qualitative research data collection data collection through close and intimate familiarity with a group of individuals
To write Street Corner Society, Whyte lived in the community that was mostly inhabited by Italy immigrants for three and a half years, including 18 months he spent with an Italian family.

(Kurt Lewin, 1890 – 1947)

The Field Theory states that change cannot be understood by simply looking at a snapshot in time when the change occurs. Kurt Lewin believed that change in any human system requires a focus on all the factors influencing that change. Change needs to be understood as a continuum rather that a steady state.

Kurt Lewin talked about “Action Research” which means action on a realistic level, action that is followed by self-critical objective reconnaissance and evaluation of results. Lewin was promoting a dynamic interplay between theory and action, both for science and mankind.

Quote: “Many psychologists today working in an applied field are keenly aware of the need for close cooperation between theoretical and applied psychology. This can be accomplished if the theorist does not look toward applied problems with high-brow aversion or with a fear of social problems and if the applied psychologist realizes that there is nothing so practical as a good theory”.

Lewin promoted a single triangle of research, teaching and action.

A system can be defined as a set of social, biological, technological or material partners, co-operating on a common purpose.

Systems Theory is a philosophical doctrine of describing systems as abstract organizations independent of substance, type, time and space. A holistic perspective emphasizes the interplay between the different systems and their elements in determining their respective functions.

Systems Theory exists in different versions and is related to some other fields. There is a General Systems Theory (GST); the Systems Approach; Cybernetics and Operational Analysis. In recent years there has been a new version of Systems Theory from Niklas Luhmann (1927 – 1998) which has been very influential. He was a German sociologist.

GST is particularly an approach in the philosophy of science, aiming at understanding and investigating the world as sets of systems.

Systems Approach is the name of a methodology which solves problems from a holistic point of view.

The GST has been developed by Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901 – 1972). He created one of the most influential versions of General Systems Theory (GST). Bertalanffy and his followers tried to see the world as a whole and they were in competition with a more atomistic and mechanical approach in science.

Systems Perspective focuses on the communication which happens among the systems with the goal to adapt to a permanent changing environment.


Each person felt comfortable moving in and out of roles - including initiator, clarifier, coordinator and seeker or giver of information and opinion.

Certain people are more skilled and comfortable in certain roles: Kevin: Initiator, Carmen: Clarifier, Jeff: Information/Opinion Seeker, Steve: Consensus Taker
In Task Roles:
In Maintenance Roles:


Carmen and Steve were naturals in the roles of harmonizer and encourager, and at expressing group feelings.

Jeff and Kevin were more comfortable in task roles but wanted to create strong group cohesiveness.
Other Comments
No one showed negative or ego-driven behaviors in the project.

Each person was able to play and be comfortable in both team leadership and team participant roles. At key moments each person played a different role in order to contribute.

The team had a high level of trust and each person showed willingness and ability to play the role necessary to move the project along.
We cheerfully awarded ourselves an A+
in positive group dynamics. Overall - this was a great learning experience.

We hope you feel the same.

(Continue to Bibliography...)
Initiator
– Proposing the task or goal or defining the problem that needs to be solved. Make suggestions for procedures or solutions. Statements used: “It seems like we are being asked to solve….” “Does it seem like a good idea to being by….”
Information or Opinion
Giver
– Provides team relevant information, ideas, thoughts and facts about topic or issue. Statements used: “The data shows….” “I think that one solution may be…”
Information or Opinion
Seeker
- Requests relevant information and facts from group about task or issue. Asks others or their ideas, suggestions and opinions to make sure enough information is shared and discussed. Statements used: “What ideas do we have to solve ….?” “What facts do we know about the issues?”
Elaborator
– Takes an idea and expands the idea by providing examples or additional rationale. Helps team understand how the idea would work if adopted by the group. “I think that what Bills idea would do for our results …..” “One example of how this idea would work includes…”
Clarifier
– Makes sure that group has clear understanding of ideas, facts, suggestions and alternatives. Does this through defining terms, interpreting and clarifying ideas, and reflecting clarification. Statements used: “What I think you are saying is…””Can you explain your last statement more fully?”
Coordinator
– Pulling together related ideas and suggestions discussed by the group and offering a possible conclusion or direction for the group to agree with or reject. Statements used: “It seems like the main ideas we have heard include….” “Based on the discussion it seems like we all agree on the following…”
Consensus Tester
– Asks the group how close they are to an agreement or how ready are group member to make a decision. Statements used: “Are we ready to decide?” “Is there an agreement that we should decide on the three alternatives we discussed?"
Why is understanding roles important to OD work?

To be effective with groups (2 or more people), an OD practioner needs to gain an awareness of the group dynamics and theoretical orientations that influence the group.

To affect deep change, though, might otherwise be impossible if an OD practioner is unaware of each of the roles currently employed in the group.

We also felt that many times organizations hire practioners to identify and play complementary roles that are needed or missing.

We invite you to evaluate roles (including leadership) that people play in group dynamics. How about we start with:
1.
Theoretical Orientations
, then move to
2.
Leadership roles
, then examine more about
3.
roles
within the group (positive & negative), and finish with
4. our
own group overview?
For a group to move forward with their primary tasks and to maintain effective, cohesive relationships...
most or all the
task and maintenance roles
(or functions) are essential and must be fulfilled.

What are task & maintenance roles?
Roles can be formally assigned, such as designating a chair-person/gatekeeper, or self-selected by team members.


A team member may satisfy several roles at the same time and may change roles during the course of the discussion.

Roles can be positive or negative. To end on a "positive note", let's look at negative roles first.
Team members can share the same role at the same time.

In well functioning teams, each team member will fulfill different roles at different times. No formal or assigned roles are necessary.

One of the group leader’s responsibilities is to identify and fulfill the missing roles during the discussion

Change-agent
&
Changee
Initiator
Encourager
fact seeker
analyzer
facilitator
compromiser
(hint: whatever role is needed)
Oh yeah...here's more about group dynamics and leadership...


Group Dynamics
in general terms:
In situations where a team struggles to make a difficult decision, teams often have the tendency to defer the decision making to the leader of the team

The leader should not feel tempted to make the decision but should do the following:

Leaders help the team to move forward by restating the goal and looking at the bigger picture.
Observe the group dynamics within the team. Are all team members participating and contributing? Are all opinions heard?
Assign group members the task of agreeing or disagreeing with a certain position during the discussion.
Field Theory

• Article
http://media.proquest.com.lib.pepperdine.edu/media/pq/classic/doc/765213321/fmt/ai/rep/SPDF?hl=kurt%2Ckurt%2Clewin%2Clewin%2Cfield+theory&cit%3Aauth=Wetton%2C+Ann+L&cit%3Atitle=Safety+measures+against+violence+in+community+health+centers+in+Massachusetts%3A+A+study&cit%3Apub=ProQuest+Dissertations+and+Theses&cit%3Avol=&cit%3Aiss=&cit%3Apg=n%2Fa&cit%3Adate=2003&ic=true&cit%3Aprod=ProQuest+Dissertations+%26+Theses+Full+Text&_a=ChgyMDE1MDEwODE1Mzk1MDczMDo0NjY1MzQSBTk5MjA5GgpPTkVfU0VBUkNIIgsxMzcuMTU5LjguNCoFMTg3NTAyCTMwNTIxNjIzOToNRG9jdW1lbnRJbWFnZUIBMFIGT25saW5lWgJGVGIDUEZUagoyMDAzLzAxLzAxcgoyMDAzLzEyLzMxegCCAShQLTEwMDc1ODEtODA2Mi1DVVNUT01FUi0xMDAwMDAxMS0xMDQ4MjMxkgEGT25saW5lygFETW96aWxsYS81LjAgKFdpbmRvd3MgTlQgNi4xOyBXT1c2NDsgVHJpZGVudC83LjA7IHJ2OjExLjApIGxpa2UgR2Vja2%2FSARZEaXNzZXJ0YXRpb25zICYgVGhlc2VzmgIHUHJlUGFpZKoCKE9TOkVNUy1QZGZEb2NWaWV3QmFzZS1nZXRNZWRpYVVybEZvckl0ZW2yAiYyMDE1MDEwODE1Mzk1MDczMDo0NjY1MzQ6MTQyMDczMjQ3OTAzM7oCKFAtMTAwNzU4MS04MDYyLUNVU1RPTUVSLTEwMDAwMDExLTEwNDgyMzHKAhNEaXNzZXJ0YXRpb24vVGhlc2lz0gIBWeICAPICAA%3D%3D&_s=kRqPhRHUeRuK2SvmN7ZncyWIqTk%3D#statusbar=1&zoom=110

• Spectra
http://web.a.ebscohost.com.lib.pepperdine.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=14&sid=8bff742d-5153-46d6-8f70-f698e0039431%40sessionmgr4001&hid=4112


Systems Theory

• System Theory
http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Communication%20Processes/System_Theory/

• The Epistemological Lifeboat
http://www.iva.dk/jni/lifeboat_old/Positions/Systems%20theory.htm


Leadership roles in Group Dynamics

• Leadership and Group Dynamics
http://www.cpt.org/files/TB%20-%20GroupDynamics.pdf



Situational Leadership Styles

• The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_44.htm

Now, back to
Roles that Leaders play in groups...
Field Theory
• Article
http://media.proquest.com.lib.pepperdine.edu/media/pq/classic/doc/765213321/fmt/ai/rep/SPDF?hl=kurt%2Ckurt%2Clewin%2Clewin%2Cfield+theory&cit%3Aauth=Wetton%2C+Ann+L&cit%3Atitle=Safety+measures+against+violence+in+community+health+centers+in+Massachusetts%3A+A+study&cit%3Apub=ProQuest+Dissertations+and+Theses&cit%3Avol=&cit%3Aiss=&cit%3Apg=n%2Fa&cit%3Adate=2003&ic=true&cit%3Aprod=ProQuest+Dissertations+%26+Theses+Full+Text&_a=ChgyMDE1MDEwODE1Mzk1MDczMDo0NjY1MzQSBTk5MjA5GgpPTkVfU0VBUkNIIgsxMzcuMTU5LjguNCoFMTg3NTAyCTMwNTIxNjIzOToNRG9jdW1lbnRJbWFnZUIBMFIGT25saW5lWgJGVGIDUEZUagoyMDAzLzAxLzAxcgoyMDAzLzEyLzMxegCCAShQLTEwMDc1ODEtODA2Mi1DVVNUT01FUi0xMDAwMDAxMS0xMDQ4MjMxkgEGT25saW5lygFETW96aWxsYS81LjAgKFdpbmRvd3MgTlQgNi4xOyBXT1c2NDsgVHJpZGVudC83LjA7IHJ2OjExLjApIGxpa2UgR2Vja2%2FSARZEaXNzZXJ0YXRpb25zICYgVGhlc2VzmgIHUHJlUGFpZKoCKE9TOkVNUy1QZGZEb2NWaWV3QmFzZS1nZXRNZWRpYVVybEZvckl0ZW2yAiYyMDE1MDEwODE1Mzk1MDczMDo0NjY1MzQ6MTQyMDczMjQ3OTAzM7oCKFAtMTAwNzU4MS04MDYyLUNVU1RPTUVSLTEwMDAwMDExLTEwNDgyMzHKAhNEaXNzZXJ0YXRpb24vVGhlc2lz0gIBWeICAPICAA%3D%3D&_s=kRqPhRHUeRuK2SvmN7ZncyWIqTk%3D#statusbar=1&zoom=110
• Spectra
http://web.a.ebscohost.com.lib.pepperdine.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=14&sid=8bff742d-5153-46d6-8f70-f698e0039431%40sessionmgr4001&hid=4112

Systems Theory
• System Theory
http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Communication%20Processes/System_Theory/
• The Epistemological Lifeboat
http://www.iva.dk/jni/lifeboat_old/Positions/Systems%20theory.htm

Leadership roles in Group Dynamics
http://www.cpt.org/files/TB%20-%20GroupDynamics.pdf

Situational Leadership Styles
• The Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_44.htm

Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory

To be able to be an effective leader, leaders need to match their leadership style to the maturity level of the people they are leading.

Four leadership styles for different situations...
Telling (S1) – Leaders give clear directions what to do and how to do it.


S1 is focused on getting the task done
Selling
(S2) – Leaders provide information and direction, but there is no communication. Leaders “sell” their message to get people on board.

S2 is also focused on getting the task done
Participating
(S3) – Leaders give less direction and focus more on relationship. Leader works with group/team and shares decision-making responsibility.


S3 is focused with developing team members’ ability to work independently.
Delegating
(S4) – Leaders pass most of the responsibility onto team/group and monitors progress, but is less involved in decision making.

S4 is also focused with developing team members’ ability to work independently.
Systems Theory
Field Theory
Leader Roles
Leader Roles
Leader Roles
Leader Roles
Leader Roles
Leader Roles
Leader Roles
Is the leader is just another role in the group?

Leadership should really be about others (or fruit), right?

What about other roles?
Group 7 - Carmen, Jeff, Kevin & Steve
Enough theory! Tell me about the group roles (including leadership).
Individual (Negative) Roles in Groups


Individual roles attempt to satisfy individual needs which are irrelevant to the completing group tasks or hinders group maintenance and growth.

Any of these behaviors present in a group will negatively affect the overall effectiveness of task and maintenance functions.
Dominator
Follower
Aggressor
Uncooperative
Blocker
Recognition
Seeker
Self
Confessor/
Promoter
Playboy/
"Joe-Cool"
Help Seeker
(for self only)
Zero-Sum
"Scarcity
Mentality"
Now I'm blue - what about positive roles?
Encourager
– Being friendly, warm or responsive to others. Recognizing and accepting others for their contributions. Statements used: “That is a really good suggestions Bill.” “I think this has been very productive meeting, thanks.”
Harmonizer
– Maintains group cohesion through reconciling differences, suggestions alternatives or finding common ground. Statements used: “We seem to be stuck. What can we to move the discussion along?” “It seems like we cannot reach an agreement, what can we all agree on?”
Expressing Group Feelings
– Senses the feelings, moods or tension in the group and oneself and verbalizes it to being it out in the open. Statements used: “I am sensing that there is tension on this point, does any else feel this?” “It seems like many of us have become quiet in this discussion, is there something that needs to be discussed?”
Facilitator/Gate Keeper
– Keeps the channels of communication open and helps facilitate participation from all group members. Suggests any procedures that helps maintain or create open communication. Statements used: “Bill, what do you think about this suggestion?” “Before making a decision, why don’t we have each member provide their views on …..”
Compromiser
– Similar to harmonizing. Keeping group cohesion when your own ideas or status are in conflict by offering or accepting compromises, yielding status, admitting error or modifying your ideas. Statements used: “How about if we modifying both our ideas to ….?” “Maybe Bill’s idea will solve the issue better than mine so let’s move forward using Bill’s.”
Evaluator
- Evaluating whether group is satisfied with the processes and procedures, suggesting new ones when necessary. Makes sure that team feels that they are making progress towards the goals or tasks. Statements used: “Does everyone feel comfortable with our decision making process for ….?” “Does everyone feel we are making progress?”
And now we have the dubious distinction of our own group evaluation. We have an "experienced" group here (in terms of years with leadership)...so how did we do?
Wow! You're still here? Ease up on the caffeine - it may help.

If you're still hungry for more - I'm sure there are other bloviating groups in MSOD 613...look 'em up!
Bion's basic premise using Freudian and Kleinian principles of psychoanalytic theory within group dynamics was this:
Within each group there are two groups which exist, the "work group" and the "basic assumptions group". These are two dimensions of the group.
The self-regulating, mature work group is what we aspire for our groups to be/become...and it's rare. Often the "work group" becomes less effective due to the contradictory assumptions or beliefs that sabotage the otherwise productive efforts.
These assumptions are subconscious and "hidden". (Minahan & Hutton)
Concerned with tasks/productivity/work of group
Awareness of tasks and group members grows.
This awareness will help the group define it's purpose.
If mature and well defined, this work group has tremendous awareness of it's purpose.
With known purpose, the group defines/redefines it's tasks.
Members cooperate and unselfishly do their part because they find purpose and identity in the group.
The group validates it's existence, tests, refines and grows from experiences.
The Basic Assumption group can be divided into three groups based on the assumptions the group is behaving on "as if" they were true (Minahan & Hutton for image and "as if" phrase).
Dependency example - orthodox church
Fight-Flight example - military
Pairing example - royal monarchy
It's important for OD Practitioners to know which basic assumption group they lean towards.
Organizations can use basic assumptions in a sophisticated way too. their advantage (example -military to train against the 'enemy')
Full transcript