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The Victorian Age

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Francesca Bormolini

on 18 May 2015

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Transcript of The Victorian Age

movements of thought basis of 'Victorian' values

The Victorian Age
Robert Louis Stevenson
- born in 1850

- travelled

- devoted to writing

- died in 1894
Emily Dickinson
- born in 1830

- life of seclusion

- letter-writing

- influenced by her reading

- poet of what is broken and absent

- died in 1886
Walt Whitman
Wuthering Heights
Francesca Bormolini Giulia Bormolini Valentina De Pinto Andreas Kuhnle Victoria Moroder
The Victorian Age
Aestheticism & Decadence
The early Victorian age
1837: only 18 years old
1840: marriage to Prince Albert of Saxe – Coburg – Gotha
First reform act ->
social and economic conditions
Factory act and Ten Hour´s act ->
limited the working hours to ten a day for all workers and established workhouses (Poor law amendment act)
The Victorian frame of mind
Evangelicalism
Inspired by John Wesley

Belifs:
Bring enthusiasm into the Church
Humanitarian causes and social reforms
Code of morality
Bible and pray at home
Utilitarianism
Jeremy Bentham's principles

Middle class

Any problem could be overcome through reason
Charles Dickens
John stuart Mill
utilitarian indifference to human and cultural values
attacked
John Stuart Mill

Happiness = state of mind
Legislation = shoul help man
Progress= education and art
Reforms
Trades union organisation
Emancipation of women
Charles Darwin - On the origin of species
Herbert Spencer
"economic competition is the same as natural selection"
Social Darwinism
Karl Marx - Capital
protested against the harm caused by industrialism in man's life
influenced
Rusikin
Morris
Arnold
The Victorian novel
The Victorian novel
Victorian writers = middle class
New forms = essay - verse -
novel
novel = literature and entertainment
scientific knowledge = realistic
1840 - novelists moral and social responsability
Didacticims
Narrator = omniscient
Setting = CITY
EMILY JANE BRONTË
First developement = France, Thèophile Gautier
(19th century, last decades)
Way of escape
-materialistic society
-restrictive moral code
-bourgeoisie
Through
-aesthetic isolation
=
L'Art pour l'Art
(Art for Art's Sake)
Main features
unconventional existence = perversity in subject matter
pursuit of pleasure and excess = hedonistic and sensuous attitude
art and beauty
disenchantment with contemporary society
evocative language
excessive attention to the self
France
Italy
Germany
Thèophile Gautier
Bohème
The Symbolists (Rimbaud, Baudelaire)
Gabriele D'Annunzio
(Il Piacere)
Pascoli & Gozzano
Rainer Maria Rilke
England
John Keats (as an escapist)
Walter Pater = the theorist
the Rhymers' Club = The yellow Book
Oscar Wilde

Demoralising message
Life as a work of art
Art is neither moral nor didactic
Oscar Wilde
Dublin, 1854-Paris, 1900
First class degree in Classics (Oxford)
Walter Pater 's disciple = Art for Art's Sake
London =
Dandy
Important travel to New York 1881
Marriage with Constance Lloyd 1883
Love story with Bosie
Trial, accused of sodomy = 2 years hard labour
The profundis

Died of meningitis
Dandy
Unconventional
Extravagant
Charming
Exaggerate
Refined
Extremely elegant
The Picture of Dorian Gray
The Preface

There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. Books are well written or badly written. That is all.

(11-12)

Thought and language are to the artist instruments of an art. Vice and virtue are to an artist materials for an art.
(24-25)

All art is at once surface and symbol.
Those who go beneath the surface do so at their peril.
(30-31)


Words appealing to the senses
allegorical meaning = Faust
immorality
hypocrisy
dark side
Art survives people,
art is eternal
The Aesthetic Movement
All art is quite useless.
(42)

Romantic elements

Opposing principles

Death

Stlyle

Human
passions

Nature

Heathcliff

Gotic
elements
Heathclif-Chatrine relationship
complementary chatacter
mirror of psychological conflicts
Byronic hero
Gothic villan
In order to convey the struggel between opposing principles
Two hauses
Wuthering Heights
Thrushcross Grange
reflects nature of Heathcliff
severe
gloomy
brutal
bourgeois Lintons
stability, kindness
RESPECTABILITY
STROM and
ENERGY
CALM and
ASSURANCE
DEATH = important theme in the
victorian novels
in Wuthering Heights
DEATH = liberation of the
spirit
Narrative mode = CHINESE BOX
story in a story
Two narrators
different point of view
different interpretations
Truth doesn't exist
Narration =
no chronological time
The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde
- dream

- duality of man's nature

Jekyll : respectable being
Hyde : evil genius

- double nature of the setting

- patriarchal world
- multi-narration structure
four narrators

- journey to the human
psyche



[...] a stranger in my own house; and coming to my room, I saw for the first time the appearance of Edward Hyde. [...]
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