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Water's Effect on Shaping Earth's Surface

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jacky L

on 6 January 2014

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Transcript of Water's Effect on Shaping Earth's Surface

You will learn...
Other ways water can reshape Earth's surface.
Glacier (water 's solid state) is not the only way water works to reshape the Earth's surface. Water in its gas and liquid states can also reshape Earth's surface as well.
As you may know, there are many different landforms all over the surface of Earth. That is because many natural processes are wearing down Earth's surface. Some of these natural processes that changed the earth's surface are related to the action of water in all its state.


After rock becomes weakened and broken down into fragments, they can be carried away from their original place. This process is called erosion. Two main transporters of erosion that work together with gravity are moving water and glaciers.
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Water's Effect on Shaping Earth's Surface

Weathering
Weathering is the gradual process of breaking down rock into smaller fragments. Physical weathering and chemical weathering are the two main types of weathering.
Physical Weathering
Biological Weathering
Physical weathering is when rocks are broken down by physical means, such as being scratched by harder rocks. the climate affects how fast or slow rock will weather. physical weathering is most effective in climates with a lot of moisture in the air or rain and snow, and where there are large temperature differences between summer and winter or between daytime and nighttime.
Biological weathering is when physical or chemical weathering are caused by plants or animals
How movements and build-up of water affects the surface of Earth.

One tiny fluffy and soft snowflake can't do much to Earth's surface, but a build-up of snow over many centuries will form ice (glaciers), which has the ability to scrape, tear, and carry large rocks.
Chemical weathering is when a chemical reaction causes rocks to break down or decompose. Chemical weathering is most effective in climates with high temperatures, a lot of rainfall and high levels of pollution in the air. The minerals that make up rock can decompose due to a chemical reaction caused by water and oxygen in the air. Another form of chemical weathering occurs when plants die and decompose. An example is lichen(flat, flakey, moss-like material). they release chemicals that break down rocks
Chemical Weathering
Erosion by Water and Ice
Moving Water
Moving water is the greatest agent of erosion. It can physically break down rock material by powerful waves or rapids into tiny pieces called sediment. Another way water breaks down rocks is by forcing itself into cracks in rocks, breaking the rock into pieces. rapids can from where a river channel is very rocky and steep. these sections of rivers can erode the landscape quickly.
The pieces or sediments are then
carried along and dropped somewhere else.

Gravity
When soil and other rock material become soaked when it rains, it can become so heavy that it can't resist the force of gravity, therefore, causing landslides, which can cause enormous amounts of damage.
Glaciers
British Columbia used to be covered with ice almost 2000m deep. As the sheets of ice were pulled downhill by gravity, they scraped and carved the land they were passing. The scratches are also known as striations.
Deposition
Deposition is the process in which eroded material are dropped by water or ice, creating build-up landforms. Moving water and glaciers not only erode the land, they also pick up materials and deposit them somewhere else. A delta for example is an area of built-up sediment deposited where a river empties into an ocean or lake
Water flows into small gaps eaten into the rocks. Then, little by little, over thousands of years, the gaps become bigger and create underground caves (a large underground hollow in rock created over time by weathering and erosion). This could be dangerous because the cave can collapse and a sinkhole could be created. An area with many sinkholes is called karst.
Natural Processes
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