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Transcript of China
By Carla, Jasmine and Alaysha
Western Imperialism and China!
Government couldn't keep up
Declining of Qing Dynasty
Lead to many peasant rebellions. Such as Taiping Rebellion.
People living in harsh conditions
Was it good??
"Self-Strengthening" ultimately failed
No Industrial Revolution= No major change
Boxer Rebellion to get West out!
Borrowed from the West during self-strengthening
They were Britain's informal empire
"Yesterday your Ambassador petitioned my Ministers to memorialise me regarding your trade with China, but his proposal
is not consistent with our dynastic usage
and cannot be entertained
. Hitherto, all European nations, including your own country's
merchants, have carried on their trade with our Celestial Empire at Canton. Such has been the procedure for many years, although our Celestial Empire possesses all things in prolific abundance and lacks no product within its own borders. There was therefore no need to import the manufactures of outside
in exchange for our own produce..."
Letter to George III (1873)
American Political Cartoon (1900)
What kind of debates, controversies and conflicts were generated by European intrusion with China?
Opium was an illegal import
1836- Emperor decided Opium import will be cracked down on
British went to war with them
Second Opium War (1856) involved more countries like France and Japan
Led to more unequal treaties and more Western Influence
"The Whole Country is tending towards a republican form of government. It is the Will of Heaven, and it is certain that we could not reject the people's desire for the sake of one family's honor and glory...We, the Emperor, hand over the sovereignty to the people. We decide the form of government to be a constitutional republic...We retire to a peaceful life and will enjoy the respectful treatment of the nation."
Proclamation of The Abdication of the Manchus (1912)
"self-Strengthening" tried to reinvigorate China
Attempted to bring back traditional China (Confucianism)
Strengthened Chinese authority
Nanjing Jinling Arsenal 1865
Violent rebellion against foreigners
Led by The Righteous and Harmonious Fists (Boxers)
Also directed towards Chinese Christians
Eight-Nation Alliance stopped it
Showed China's further dependence on Western Powers
"Throughout the empire all officials must every Sabbath, according to rank and position, reverently present sacrificial animals and offerings, sacrifice and worship, and praise the Heavenly Father, the Supreme Lord and Great God. They must also expound the Holy books; should any dare to neglect this duty, they shall be reduced to husbandmen."
From The Land System of the Heavenly Kingdom
Different than other rebellions
Rejected Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism
Quin Won but was weakened.
Leader was Hong Xiuquan
"younger brother of Jesus"
Becoming part of European's "informal system."
Not the center of civilization
Weak; benefited Europe
Wanted to change China for the better.
The Chinese ate the bark of trees and also the roots because there was no other choice.
"Day after day I sat at home. Hunger gnawed. What could I do? My mother was dead. My brother had gone away. When my husband brought home food I ate it and my children ate with me. A woman could not go out of the court. If a woman went out to work the neighbors all laughed. They said, "So and so's wife has gone out to service." Or they said, "So and so's daughter has gone out to service." I did not know enough even to beg. So I sat at home and starved. I was so hungry one day that I took a brick, pounded it to bits, and ate it. It made me feel better."
-Ning Lao Tai Tai in Norh China during 1887-88
Many intellectuals gave up on the Qing
They started clubs like Understand the National Shame Society
Admired Western Ideas
Started Chinese Nationalism
China was already suffering in the 18th Century
Conflicts with the West like the Opium Wars made things worse
Chin attempted to save itself with self-strengthening techniques, but failed
After two millenia, the dynastic cycle of China ended in 1911