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Transcript of Group 4
Mike Bulik, Sean Donlon, Katie Farrelly, Unice Kim, Marc Pittinsky
1) Record heart rate prior to riding the ride. (This will be the responding variable.
2) Ride the ride without listening to any music and record heart rate by counting the amount of beats over the course of 30 seconds and multiplying the number by 2. (This serves as the control group)
3) Ride the ride while listening to heavy metal and record heart rate afterward.
4) Repeat with classical music.
5) Repeat with each individual per ride.
6) Record the differences of heart rates before and after for each song during each ride.
To what extent do different types of music, along with different velocities, affect heart rate while on a ride?
The difference in heart rate will be the highest after the Frisbee while listening to heavy metal because the fast paced music along with the highest velocity should create a very stressful environment, raising the participants heart rate.
For this Group 4 Project we created an experiment which involved Physics, Biology, and Sports Med.
-music player (phone)
Fight or Flight - our body's primitive, automatic, inborn response that prepares the body to "fight" or "flee" from perceived attack, harm or threat to our survival
The goal of the experiment is to see how outside stimuli such as increased velocity combined with certain types of music will increase the heart rate of an individual. The "fight or flight" response dictates how the body reacts to certain stimuli and in this experiment we tested to see what combination of stimuli triggered this response the greatest.
Relationship between type of environment and Heart rate
-The reason why the heavy metal music along with the velocities of the frisbee ride caused the greatest heart rate difference, is that this was the most stressful environment that we were under while performing this experiment.
-This is also why listening to classical music led to a decreased difference in heart rate. The classical music created a more soothing environment and made the person feel at ease about the current situation.
Uses of this information
-This data can be used to benefit people who are constantly stressed.
-The data shows that despite outside influence (such as increased velocity from a roller coaster), you can listen to soothing music and you will calm down.
-If you are really stressed about something or you are in a stressful situation, you can listen to soothing music and you will feel better.
-It works the other way as well if you want to get your heart rate up for a workout.
How does the heart work and why do different environments alter its productivity?
-The heart pumps blood all around the body and therefore allows for oxygen to get to where it needs to go
-The heart is composed of two ventricles and two atrial (right and left)
-The left and right sides are separated by the septum with one ventricle and atrium on one side, and a ventricle and atrium on the other side
-The tricuspid valve connects the right atrium and right ventricle and the mitral valve connects the left atrium and left ventricle
-The cardiac muscle contracts and relaxes 70-80 times a minute under stable conditions
-With every contraction, nutrient rich blood from the pulmonary vein is pushed into the aorta (the main artery) which then distributes this around the body
Through this experiment we can conclude that the type of environment a person is put under directly affects the heart rate. The roughest ride in combination with the most unsettling music caused our heart rates to go up the most, proving our hypothesis to be correct. The high velocities and the harsh music caused the natural fight-or-flight response to kick in and made the heart beat faster.
We are fairly confident in our results since the data was constant for all of us and it was very conclusive. Some error in counting the amount of heart beats in a minute could be prevalent but not enough to throw off our data.
The only limitation was simply that we could not possibly bear to ride the rides any more times than we did to obtain a more accurate average.
Some improvements to this experiment could be expanding the genres of music we listened to, test more rides, and do more trials to get the most accurate results possible.
Processed data composed of the difference of beats per minute from the resting rate for each manipulated trial.
In order to determine the impact the ride had, velocities were calculated using the iPhone application "Velocity Speed Reader" for the Frisbee, Pirate Ship, and Musik Express.
The motion present in the Pirate Ship is a more linear motion mimicking that of a pendulum.
The motion present in the Musik Express is centripetal, leaving the Frisbee to be a combination of both sets of motion.
MUSIC EXPRESS- diameter of track is 12 meters, max speed is 13 rpm.
FRISBEE - diameter of gondola is 8.2 meters, max speed is 12 rpm.
PIRATE - length of boat is 10 meters, can swing up to 80 degrees.
The velocities calculated are shown below
Average speed-1.32 ms-1
Maximum speed-2.86 ms-1
Average speed-2.57 m s⁻¹
Maximum speed- 3.98 m s⁻¹
Average speed-4.01 ms-1
Maximum speed-5.77 ms-1
-Time interval between heart rate measurements
-Time interval between rides
-Amount of time music was listened to
How they were controlled
-After the ride was over, subjects waited 15 seconds before simultaneously measuring their heart rate for 30 seconds.
-After heart rates were measured and the rides were over, subjects waited 10 minutes before entering another ride.
-Music time was controlled by simply pausing music after 1:30 of exposure
Why they were Controlled
-The time intervals were controlled in order to sure each subject was given the same resting period to prevent the data from being skewed due to the fact that some subjects may have less time to return to normal.
Why does the heart rate change depending on our surroundings?
this response is hard-wired into our brains and represents a genetic wisdom designed to protect us from bodily harm
This response actually corresponds to an area of our brain called the hypothalamus, which—when stimulated—initiates a sequence of nerve cell firing and chemical release that prepares our body for running or fighting
WHAT IS FIGHT OR FLIGHT?
HOW IT WORKS:
When we feel threatened by our surroundings or bodies adapt to either "fight" or "flee". One of the body adaptions is increase in heart rate.
WHY DOES THE HEART RATE INCREASE?
The autonomic nervous system automatically puts body on alert.
The adrenal cortex automatically releases stress hormones.
The heart automatically beats harder and more rapidly.
Breathing automatically becomes more rapid.
Thyroid gland automatically stimulates the metabolism.
Larger muscles automatically receive more oxygenated blood
The fight of flight response occurs when the body perceives itself
in a harmful event.
in this case, the harmful event was all of the twists, turns and drops as well as the different velocities in each roller coaster
The velocity, sharp movements and two different genres of music the participants listened to are considered stimuli to the bodies senses.
The visual stimulus of the roller coaster paired with the auditory stimulus of the "threatening" metal music cause the hypothalamus to activate the sympathetic nervous system, causing the heart to race and the blood pressure to increase.
But when the visual stimulus was paired with the "calming" classical music, the body did not perceive itself in a harmful event so it did not go into Fight or Flight mode. This is why the heart rate after the classical music stimulus was lower than the heart rate after the metal music stimulus.
Since the velocity of each roller coaster was also different, that also affected how threatened the body felt during the ride, causing the extent to which the body responded in Fight or Flight mode to differ.
"Home: Where The Heart Is." The Human Heart: An Online Exploration from The Franklin Institute, Made Possible by Unisys. Franklin Institute, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2015.
cmhc.utexas.edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2015. <http://cmhc.utexas.edu/stressrecess/Level_One/fof.html>.
science.howstuffworks.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2015. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/inside-the-mind/emotions/fear2.htm>.