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China Depth Study

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toby kroon

on 14 April 2013

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Transcript of China Depth Study

The Background to the Civil War European influence Who do the people blame? How to deal with the problems? But nothing is really solved. The rule of the Manchus is still very shaky despite the introduction of reforms. Revolution in 1911. The end of Imperial China. China Depth Study 1. Why did China become a Communist state in 1949? 2. How far had Communist rule changed China by the mid-1960s? 3. What was the impact of Communist rule on China’s relations with
other countries? 4. Has Communism produced a cruel dictatorship in China? Imperial China The Chinese Empire had grown very weak... After a series of wars with foreign powers China had fifty ports under foreign control. The European powers had also divided China up in to spheres of influence. What do you do about it? The Empress dies in 1908. Perhaps this will result in positive changes? This does not lead to a harmonious China. The period between 1912-27 is known is characterised by the rule of WARLORDS. New Revolutionaries Many young Chinese joined revolutionary groups hoping to improve their country. One group was the Chinese Communist Party founded in 1921 The other was the Guomindang. They worked together to gain control of China.... They managed to gain control of large parts of China. But then... The Guomanding are now nominally in charge of China. The communists retreated to Jiangxi province. Chiang Kaishek tried to exterminate the communists between 1930-34 The Communists undertake the Long March and end up based in Yanan The Japanese Invade • How far did the Second World War weaken the Nationalist government?
• How far did the Second World War strengthen the Communists?
• Why was there widespread support for the Communists amongst the peasants? Who's Who Two groups fighting the Civil War from 1946-49. 1. The Nationalists, aka the __________ or ____________ Abbreviated to _____ or _____ Their leader is ________________ 2.The Communists, abbreviated to the ______ or ______ Their leader is ___________________ Guomindang Kuomintang GMD KMT Chiang Kai Shek CCP CPC Mao Zedong • How far did the Second
World War strengthen the
Communists? How far did the Second World War
weaken the Nationalist government? Instructions: Read p 264 -268 of your 'new' Walsh and and p20-24 of Brooman. Look for evidence to put in to the table. You are looking for cause and effect relationships. EG When the Nationalists took this action it had this effect and therefore weakened their government. Group work first on boards/A3 and then on to your own copy. Homework Background reading of chapters 1-8 of Brooman Read extra notes on Q-drive and complete the activity Question 4 on p267. Why was there widespread support for the Communists amongst the peasants? The Chinese Civil War 1946-49 o the outbreak of Civil War
o reasons for the victory of the Communists
o the establishment of the People’s Republic, 1949 Americans didn't want communist control but neither did they want another civil war. They brought the two leaders together to broker a peace deal.

By early 1946 this had broken down and civil war ensued. KMT
- Powerful, 3 million strong army
- held the cities, the railways and the richest provinces
- money and weapons
- recognised by other countries CCP
- the opposite (1 million army) American Involvement Use 22 and 23 of Brooman for more information and the extra reading Before the civil war
After the Japanese surrender, the U.S. moved Chinese government armies from the southwest to key cities in a massive airlift. During Military and technological advice – in China and later Formosa (Taiwan) –
war equipment from uniforms to weapons;
advisers ;
money - $200m in aid since 1945. It was cut off in 1947 The Founding of a Republic Why did the Communists win the Civil War? The Founding of the People's Republic of China - 1st October 1949 Background: Open this document in the Q-drive Why did the Communists win the Civil War? Why did the Communists win the Civil War? Why did the Communists win the Civil War? Open document in Q-drive Complete table using:

•Youtube clip x2
•Extra reading
•P25 of Brooman
•P268 of Walsh
notes on Q-drive Optional viewing for homework. A retelling of this story to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the PRC Open 2008 paper 1 pdf and answer (b) and (c) on p12 Open the paper 4 in the Q-drive and answer a i, ii, iii and b ii, iii Your question was: ‘Mao’s leadership was the most important reason for the Communist victory in the Civil War.’
How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer. Mao’s leadership "A revolution is not a dinner party . . . it is an act of violence by which one class overthrows another." Starter: Highlight/underline the reasons for Communist victory on your handout. Using this sheet, and your answers to the past paper questions, devise a mnemonic to aid your recall of this information. The nature of Chinese Communism Choose one person in your group to be Mao Trace around your Mao with chalk Read the handout. Summarise the guerrilla tactics used by the communists. Mao believed that guerrilla warfare was like the battle between an elephant and a tiger. In a straight battle, the elephant would win because of its size. If the tiger, however, kept attacking and then running, the elephant would eventually die from blood loss and exhaustion. Maoist theory of people's war divides warfare into three phases.

In the first phase, the guerrillas gain the support of the population through attacks on the machinery of government and the distribution of propaganda.
In the second phase, escalating attacks are made on the government's military and vital institutions.
In the third phase, conventional fighting is used to seize cities, overthrow the government and take control of the country. Label your Mao with their beliefs/ideology linked to (appropriate) body parts. From 1942 to 1976 the ideology of the CCP was defined in terms of 'Mao Zedong' thought. Mao "sinified" Marxism - adapting it to Chinese conditions. Use handout(s), netbooks (search Mao ideology, textbooks, ppt on Q-drive Problems facing the communists 1) In 1949, China's economy and its people were exhausted after years of war and conflict in addition to eight years of war against the Japanese occupation 2) As peasants had been taken away from land in order to fight, agriculture production had fallen and food shortages was a serious problem in urban areas- industrial production had also fallen. 3) The financial situation of China had worsened by the fact that Guomindang officers had taken all of China's reserves of foreign currency with them when they fled to Taiwan. 4) The Communist victory had created a rift between China and the Western powers; cut off from trade and contact with the west, China's only source of foreign assistance was from the Soviet Union. 5) Internally, the new government was not yet in full control if all areas of China, especially provinces and semi-autonomous regions. No government since 1911 had managed to break down the power of local landlords or overcome China's social and ethnic divisions. http://rudbeck-ib-history-revision.wikispaces.com/2.9+Chinese+Civil+War Read p28-29 Brooman and 268 of Walsh The nature of Chinese Communism The people The party should have close relations with the people. 4.The peasant masses could
be used to overthrow feudalism and capitalism. (how is this different from Marxism? 1.People should be converted by persuasion.The party should listen
to criticism. 2.The party should have close
relations with the people. 3.The party should involve the people
in campaigns to build socialism 5.‘Wages were to be equal between all
classes, with the peasants sharing
in the greater wealth.’ The nature of Chinese Communism Maoism departs from conventional European-inspired Marxism in that its focus is on the *agrarian countryside, rather than the industrial urban forces. This is known as Agrarian socialism *An agrarian society is a society that depends on agriculture as its primary means for support and sustenance Industry was to develop but in small units scattered throughout the countryside (see first picture) Industry There was to be no middle class of specialist workers or managers Manual labour was the way forward in increasing China’s agricultural and industrial production. Revolution Revolution should be a permanent feature of communist rule.Remain in touch with the masses through 'rectification' and self-criticism. Avoid having a self-seeking elite. Worldwide revolution. Mao was committed to this idea until the early 1970s. On October 1, 1949, Mao proclaimed the birth of the People's Republic of China with the statement “The central government of the People’s republic of China is established!”before a crowd of 500,000 to 1 million people at Tiananmen Square. BUT...When Mao and the Communists took over China in 1949, after decades of civil war and Japanese occupation, the country was in terrible shape. Roads, railways, farms and factories where in a shocking state of disrepair and treasury was bankrupt after its entire gold reserves were taken away to Taiwan by the Nationalists. (c)‘By the end of 1949 the greatest problem facing the Communist regime was
international refusal to recognise the Communist government.’ How far do you agree
with this statement? Explain your answer. Open the 'problems facing communists' document Refer to the second page of 'problems facing communists' How to fix these problems? 2 How far had Communist rule changed China by the mid-1960s?

Focus Points
• What changes in agriculture did Communist rule bring?

• What was the impact of the Communists’ social reforms?

• How successful were the Five-Year Plans in increasing production?

• Did the Chinese people benefit from Communist rule? Browse through the following pictures.

Keep in mind the syllabus questions.

Successful?
Benefits?
Changes? • Communist rule in the 1950s and 1960s:
o agrarian reform from 1950
o people’s courts and the treatment of the landlords
o establishment of collectives and communes

• Industrial developments:
o the Five-Year Plans
o the Great Leap Forward • Social change:
o the role of women
o health
o education
o propaganda and the destruction of traditional culture. You have a sheet with the syllabus content on it. As you watch the video you must produce a mindmap using the headings. Starter: Open 'The ideology of Mao and the nature of Chinese communism' in Q-drive.Answer questions on p1. Starter: Richest kid on the hot seat. Rest of the class get to 'speak bitterness' at this oppressor. Why were land reforms introduced by the Communists as soon as they came to power? To increase agricultural output which had dropped drastically after three years of _____ ___ had taken peasants away from the fields. Communists wanted to reward the Chinese ________ for their support by re-allocating land Peasants were at the heart of the Chinese version of _______. To pay for China's development and make it a great power China would sell ____, produced by their greatest asset - the peasants. To enable Mao to get rid of the _________ (who would have opposed him). To make farming more ________. Previously, there was no incentive for landlords to use modern techniques because they could just use the ________. Equally, there was no incentive for the peasants to work hard because they couldn’t keep or sell all the _____ they produced. Civil War peasants Marxism food landlords efficient peasants crops REVOLUTION AND LAND REFORM Land reform was the major issue that persuaded many peasants to support the _________ Party. As the PLA moved into new areas they removed the landowners and redistributed their land amongst the local peasants. This process was formalised in the 1950 ________ Reform Law. Land redistribution was often accompanied by ‘Speak __________’ meetings against local landowners. A ‘Peoples _____’ was established which had Communist officials and poor peasants sitting upon it. The poorest peasants in the village would be invited to make __________ against the former landowners. Most landowners lost their lands and became poor peasants but over 1 _______ landlords lost their lives. Communist Agrarian Bitterness Court accusations million Open 'Revolution and Land Reform'
document in Q-drive. Joining the mutual aid teams is walking the road to common prosperity, 1954 Land reform made Mao popular but there still issues to resolve... Many peasants were ill equipped to use the land efficiently, lacking _________ and money to buy equipment. China's _________ was also increasing rapidly but food production was not matching it. Peasants therefore joined Mutual ___ teams. These consisted of around ___ households sharing equipment, labour, animals to make plots more productive.The govt supplied extra fertiliser and _____ to the most productive families. Aid population equipment ten tools Complete questions/activities on current document. How successful were the Five-Year Plans
in increasing production? Industrial developments:
o the Five-Year Plans
o the Great Leap Forward Today's Soviet Union is like our tomorrow, 1956 The first five year plan Read notes on this section and complete activities/questions:

Read p32 of Brooman and 270 of Walsh. Study graph on p 271 of Walsh. Answer questions 1 and 2 on p270 and Question B on p33 of Brooman.


Go to http://chineseposters.net/themes/first-five-year-plan.php and read through the five pages The Great Leap Forward The Great Leap Forward During the disastrous country renovation of the Great Leap Forward, China experienced one of its darkest periods, called the Three Years of Great Chinese Famine.

The number of casualties caused by widespread famine and policies of the Communist Party was between 15 and 40 million people. In some cases, local cadres made all sorts of abuse on unarmed people. There are widespread oral reports, and some official documentation, of cannibalism being practiced in various forms, as a result of the famine But what happened in Lixian County, Hunan, once renowned to be a land of abundance, is emblematic. The policy of terror implemented by local authorities impoverished the population. Liujia, a farmer always lived in humility, enlisted by force in the KMT in 1948 and shortly afterwards captured by communist forces, is a case in point. In 1950, Liu was released and he returned home. Here he tried to start a normal life with his family. But a few years later the policies implemented by the local commune forced him, as well as many other inhabitants of the area to a desperate life. Local inhabitants were not allowed to access the Dongting Lake, so people had to furtively reach the waters to catch some fishes and avoid starvation. However, one day Liu was beaten by local officials for theft and was forced to give all his stocks of food to the authorities. The following winter, the family had to live on. The children in the village were crying from hunger throughout the day. Soon many children and local residents had attacks of insanity and hallucinations. Liu Jia, in its reports to the police, told of children who moved like pigs, dreaming with open eyes to eat cups of rice. At night, watching his baby sleeping restless and hungry, Liu collapsed. He took a knife and killed him. Then he dismembered the body and cooked him with some carrots preserved. The next day the neighbours, suspicious by sudden silence, looked into the house. What they saw was a terrifying sight: served on top of an improvised oven made of bricks, there was a pot with the head, arms and legs of the mutilated child. Liujia was arrested and he confessed his crimes. He said he had killed the child as an act of mercy. Read article/book review on this The Great Leap Forward
(second five year plan 58-63) How did it get to this? Why did it fail? Following Mao’s belief in the manual labour of the Chinese peasant, Communes dug the equivalent of 300 Panama Canals. But all of this effort was largely useless. At the same time national income fell by 29% and inflation rose from 0.2% to 16.2%. Starter: First Five Year Plan Crossword Go to http://18069595.nhd.weebly.com/index.html Explore the website by using each of the tabs: Home Context TheLeap FacingReality Legacy Visuals Then visit:http://chineseposters.net/themes/great-leap-forward.php After reading: answer questions relevant to this section Extra reading = Wild Swans extract Past Paper starter
(open in Q-drive) (b) Why were communes introduced? Under the Five Year Plan, Mao believed China had become b__________ looking* and needed a new r__________ to inspire its people. It needed a ________ Leap forward and communes were an important aspect of this ‘Mao wanted ordinary people to get involved in _______-scale industry and so farmers’ cooperatives were to be joined together into communes and each would have industrial as well
as farming targets.’ The aim was to create a powerful nation and within __ years Chinese steel production would
be equal to the ____ ‘Life was to be organised communally and in this way it was hoped that the change to C____________ would be speeded up Other ideas?

Mao wanted to unleash the ‘tremendous energy of the m______’. This tied in with the S________ version of Marxism. Mao believed the peasants were China’s greatest asset.
This would also mean that time and effort were not wasted and the members of the commune could work at a variety of tasks. ackward evolution Great small 15 UK ommunism asses inified Read "Dikotter Great Leap Forward" document Read 'Why Did the Great Leap Forward Fail?' document

Complete questions/activities But it wasn't all bad, surely? 2 How far had Communist rule changed China by the mid-1960s? What is the message in this piece?

Focus Points
• What changes in agriculture did Communist rule bring?

• What was the impact of the Communists’ social reforms?

• How successful were the Five-Year Plans in increasing production?

• Did the Chinese people benefit from Communist rule? What was the impact of the Communists’
social reforms? • Social change:
o the role of women
o health
o education o propaganda and the destruction of traditional culture. The role of women Background: From all of that to... Women hold up half the sky Research the following question:

How did the lives of women improve under the Communists? Now label with the changes that were implemented.Changes could be laws, living conditions, jobs Resources:
PP40-43, Imperial China textbook, From Q-drive: Women ppt ,'women in communist China pdf' Label with their factors/challenges affecting Women in Imperial China. Health and Education Complete questions from handout Read p271 of Walsh. What changes did the communists introduce in Health and Education? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barefoot_doctor Use 'Before and After'document What was a barefoot doctor?
Open document and answer the question. Did the Chinese people benefit
from Communist rule? Positives negatives Women: Answer questions 1-4 on handout (2 pages) This man has been labeled a rightist Starter: Complete annotations on
cartoons on 'Hundred Flowers Campaign' document and fill in the blanks section. ‘How can we catch the snakes if we don’t let them out of their lairs? We wanted those sons-of-turtles [bastards] to wriggle out and sing and fart . . . That way we can catch them.’ Intellectuals are beginning to . . . change their mood from cautious to open . . . One day punishment will come down on their heads . . . We want to let them speak out. You must stiffen your scalps and let them attack! . . . Let all those ox devils and snake demons . . . curse us for a few months. I am casting a long line to bait big fish ’ Jung Chang: ‘Mao– the unknown story’, 2005.
P. 435 The _______-Year Plan put Chinese society under a terrific strain. There city population rose by around 40 __________, causing over__________, f________ shortages and housing problems, while many peasants found plenty to complain about in the new higher-stage ______________. The Communist party was losing some of its early p____________. Five million crowding ood cooperatives opularity Mao decided that the people should be able to c________ the Communist Party, its policies and its leaders. 'Let One Hundred _________ Bloom' meaning that free ______ should be encouraged ? riticize Flowers speech Complete questions while we work through ppt.

Go back individually to complete questions. https://sites.google.com/site/mrwrighthistory/year-8/20th-century-china Great Leap Forward recap Chaos on a grand scale Political Effects? ...standing, precariously balanced, on a stool. Her body was bent over from the waist into a right angle, and her arms, elbows stiff and straight, were behind her back, one hand grasping the other at the wrist. It was the position known as "doing the airplane." Around her neck was a heavy chain, and attached to the chain was a blackboard, a real blackboard, one that had been removed from a classroom at the university where You Xiaoli, for more than ten years, had served as a full professor Volunteer? The Cultural Revolution Volunteer? In this photo taken in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China, on Aug. 25, 1966, the staff of the Heilongjiang Daily newspaper criticize Luo Zicheng, leader of the committee work group of the Provincial Communist Party, claiming that he follows "the capitalist line" and "opposes the revolutionary mass movement." His dunce cap announces his "crimes." Why did it fail? Power struggle 1962-66.
When it was clear that the GLF had failed Mao had adopted a less prominent place in politics. Mao sensed he was losing his grip on power He opposed the policies of the moderates. He said they were going down the capitalist road. Although not involved in the day to day running of China he was still popular with the masses. Closely follow the great leader Chairman Mao and forge ahead courageously amid great storms and waves Why launch the Cultural Revolution? On 16 July 1966, a great Crossing-the-Yangzi event was organized in Wuhan to commemorate his first swim in the river 10 years before.
Why? Reasserting his personal authority

Eliminate the record of failure of GLF

Belief in permanent revolution

Didn't want to betray the revolution like USSR
Preserve the revolution as a peasant movement By 1966 Mao was strong enough to launch a campaign against 'capitalists' and other 'reactionaries' who stood in the way of true Communism. It was officially known as 'The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution' The target: The four olds -culture,
thoughts, customs, habits Criticize the old world and build a new world with Mao Zedong Thought as a weapon, 1966 Complete activities on document Extension reading of Wild Swans extract Cultural revolution resource Guide http://82307029.nhd.weebly.com/index.html 4 Has Communism produced a cruel dictatorship in China?
Focus Points
• Why did Mao launch the Cultural Revolution?
• What was the impact of the Cultural Revolution on China? HW Welcome back.

Show me your homework! To reinforce this homework you must read the following:

a) page 272-273 of Walsh
b) handout - answer questions in handout (in your head) China was in a shambolic state when the communists came to power. Do you think the use of 'thought reform' and propaganda was justified? Explain Chinese Foreign Policy 3 What was the impact of Communist rule on China’s relations with other countries? Focus Points
• What have been China’s changing relationships with neighbouring states? • Why did China try to improve relations with the USA after 1970? • How far was China established as a superpower by the time of Mao’s death? • How far have China’s relations with other countries improved since Mao’s death? • Chinese foreign policy specified content:
o changing relationship with the USSR

o relations with other neighbouring countries, Tibet, India, Vietnam, Taiwan
• Closer relations with the USA from 1970
• Hong Kong
• Impact on China’s relations with the rest of the world of economic liberalisation since Mao’s death. 1. Read p44-45 of Brooman as your overview to this section. 2. Complete work section A p45. ... explain the significance of this. Hint: Ping Ping diplomacy

It is based on real events. Do not write about Forrest Gump in your exam. 3. Read p280-283 of Walsh Chinese Foreign Policy 4. Answer questions 1 and 2 p280 and both of the focus tasks on p283 6. One country - Two systems. Explain what this means with regard to China and Hong Kong 5. Read 'Reasons for the Chinese-Soviet Dispute' handout.Complete exercises. To what extent was China a superpower by the time of Mao's death in 1976? 1. Read 'Half a superpower' handout 2. Complete focus task on p283 of Walsh China after Mao • Did the death of Mao lead to improvements in the lives of Chinese people?
• How far did economic development in the 1980s also produce social and political change? o the power struggle after Mao’s death and the re-emergence of Deng
o the social and political consequences of economic change in the 1980s and 90s Starter:
1. Read p40-43 of Brooman and 'Deng Xiaoping's China' handout
- complete crossword using these pages. China under Deng Xiaoping: economic policies and the Four Modernizations 'You can't eat socialism' The Four Modernisations ST. DAI ST D A I Science and Technology Defence Agriculture Industry Three things to cover to complete the topic:

Chinese Foreign Policy
China as a superpower?
China after Mao I will set you a range of activities so you can work at your own pace and help you individually. Submit work to me as you finish these activities. 2. Open 'the struggle for power' document. We will complete as a class The trial of the Gang of Four Why were they arrested? Who or what is
really on trial now? Democracy Wall: Criticisms of Mao and the Cultural revolution appeared on a wall on the main street of Beijing. Deng tolerated this as it helped to strengthen his control
over the party. Why was this tolerated? By March 1979 Deng decided to crack down on dissidents as there had been calls for democracy China after Mao: A new path? Did the death of Mao lead to improvements in the lives of Chinese people?
• How far did economic development in the 1980s also produce social and political change? The Four Cardinal Principles 1.the principle of upholding the socialist path 2.the principle of upholding the people's democratic dictatorship 3.the principle of upholding the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), and 4.the principle of upholding Mao TseTung thought Any word or deed which denies or undermines these four principles can not be tolerated Annotate your cartoon on the 'Four cardinal principles' document. What is the main message? Read the three Tiananmen Square ppts in the China after Mao folder.Answer questions 1,2,3,4 p279 Walsh and China after Mao reading as well as 'Progress and Problems'. 5. = greater personal freedoms? Read the four ppts in the 'Deng's Economic Policies' folder and Deng Xiaoping's China reading and write a definition for each of the key terms.Complete the table as well. 1. Why do you think the authorities waited until Gorbachev had left to crush the Tiananmen Square protests?

2. Why do you think they crushed it so ruthlessly?

3. What do you think is the biggest change since the death of Mao?*

4. What things have not changed since the death of Mao? Walsh questions: Copy on to handout Summary activity Has Communism produced a cruel dictatorship in China? Did the death of Mao lead to improvements in the lives of Chinese people?
• How far did economic development in the 1980s also produce social and political change? List all the ways that lives of Chinese people improved under Deng Xiaoping. List the problems they faced. Wrapping the depth study up... How far did Mao’s death in 1976 lead to an improvement in the lives of the Chinese
people? Explain your answer. [8] How far did economic changes in the 1980s improve the lives of the Chinese people? Explain your answer. [8] You must be able to answer these summary/evaluation classes that relate to the Key Questions. How far did Mao’s death in 1976 lead to an improvement in the lives of the Chinese people? Explain your answer. [8] How far did economic changes in the 1980s improve the lives of the Chinese people? Explain your answer. [8] Both of these questions focus on the post-Mao era. Remember that you need to focus on both sides of the question and then come up with an overall conclusion. Improve: Not Improve: Many peasants became prosperous
Peasants were allowed to control individual plots Standard of living improved for many people esp. with more consumer goods Prosperity not evenly shared. Town and cities did far better than rural areas. Many still living below poverty line. Inflation went up to 30% in the late 1980s Little change in personal freedoms as shown by Tiananmen square incident. 1990s saw a massive economic boom Pay of civil servants did not match this petty crime increased in cities one child policy Infrastructure run down as villagers focused on own sidelines Your turn... How far had the lives of Chinese people become more difficult between 1949-58? How far had communist rule benefited from Communist rule by 1962? How far did the Communist government improve the lives of Chinese people between 1949-60? Open 'Early years of Communist rule summary (c) questions' document and complete one example.
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