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Year 10 PASS Muscular System

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Mr Mirza

on 26 November 2012

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Transcript of Year 10 PASS Muscular System

The Muscular System ROLE OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM MOVEMENT POSTURE Without muscles movement would not be possible. Neither would digestion, breathing, or carrying out many other biological functions. The muscular system has several functions including protecting the body’s internal organs, providing movement of the skeleton, maintaining posture and the production of heat. Skeletal muscles are arranged in pairs around joints, so that one muscle moves the joint in one direction and the other moves it back. In order for a muscle to move a joint, it must span the joint. This means that it must be attached to the bones on both sides of the joint, for example a muscle that moves the elbow must be attached to the lower arm, as well as the upper arm or shoulder. Muscles are attached to the bones by tendons. When a muscle contracts it gives off heat. Think of what happens when you exercise! So, one effective way of warming the body is to increase the level of activity. In a situation where it is cold, and a person is relatively inactive, the muscles of the skin contract to raise the hairs and induce shivering, which helps to warm the body. HEAT PRODUCTION When a person stands they do not necessarily think that their muscles are working because they are not moving. However, this is not the case. The postural muscles are constantly contracting and relaxing to keep the body balanced. Think of what happens to a person’s head who is nodding off to sleep while sitting!

Postural muscles are also of vital importance to sporting performance. They may work to keep one part of the body still while another part is moving e.g. the postural muscles of the back and stomach keep the body still and straight during a push up. They may also contract to stabilise joints and to help absorb force, such as playing football. Where are your quadriceps? Label them on your muscle diagram (Hint- they have been labeled with the other name they are known as)

Where are your hamstrings? Label them on your muscle diagram (Hint- they have been labeled with the other name they are known as) Structure and Function of the Muscular System Identify which definition is for skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle.

Found only within the heart. Cardiac muscle contracts and relaxes causing the heart to beat. Cardiac muscle is involuntary (not under conscious control). Example-heart

Is known as voluntary muscle and is anchored by tendons to bone. It is used to affect skeletal movement such as walking and in maintaining posture. Example- deltoid

Found within the walls of organs and structures of the body. Smooth muscle is also involuntary. Example- intestines Basic contribution of efficient movement Skeletal muscles operate to produce movement. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons. By pulling on the bone they are attached to, muscles produce movement. Muscles can only pull a bone, they cannot push.
Muscles are arranged in pairs, so that if one muscle moves a body part in one direction, another can move it back. Looking at the elbow joint as an example, the pair of muscles are the biceps and triceps. The bicep is positioned on the front, and the tricep on the back of the upper arm. The two muscles work as a pair, so that when the bicep is contracting to cause the elbow to flex, the tricep is relaxing. In this example the bicep is known as the agonist and the tricep is the antagonist.

Agonist- the muscle that is causing the movement
Antagonist – the muscle that relaxes to allow movement to occur. Practical Activity
Perform each of the following actions and state the agonist and antagonist muscles. It helps to feel and observe the muscle!

From a sitting position, extend one leg
Perform the downward movement of a squat
Perform the upward stage of a push up
Perform the upward stage of a sit up
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