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Medical Isotopes Used in Treatment of Disease

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Jumamadi .

on 7 November 2013

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Transcript of Medical Isotopes Used in Treatment of Disease

Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
Medical Isotopes Used in Treatment of Disease
A medical isotope is a safe radioactive substance used primarily to diagnose illness.

A very small quantity of these radioactive isotopes are used safely in treatment of disease
The energy given by radioisotopes are very effective at destroying disease cells. They are delivered straight to cancer cells; healthy tissues are spared while cancer cells are eliminated.

The medical branch that uses these isotopes is known as nuclear medicine
Medical Isotopes Used in Treatment of Disease
By: Renata Rodriguez, Maria Ines Contreras, Maria Calderon and Javier Martinez
The stability of an atom depends on the composition of it's nucleus (relative numbers of protons and neutrons). A stable isotope is a form of an atom that does not spontaneously degrade into another atom through some sort of radiation. Unstable isotopes can suddenly undergo changes by being transformed into other isotopes or other elements through radioactive decay. Generally, the process of decay leads to the eventual formation of a stable isotope of some other atom. There can be isotopes that exist for less than a second, meanwhile others can exist for a lot of time but remain unstable.
Radioactive decay is the spontaneous disintegration of unstable atomic nucleus, and as a result leads to release of energy.

Natural abundance of isotopes are naturally found in the Earth and they bond naturally normally in the earth and earth’s atmosphere.

The way to calculate the atomic mass of an element containing a mixture of isotopes is multiply the mass of each isotope by the percent of the isotope. Then add all of these numbers together and divide the answer by 100.
Medical isotopes are made in either particle accelerators and/or nuclear reactors.

Particle accelerators are apparatii used for accelerating subatomic particles to high velocities by means of electric fields. The accelerated particles are made to collide with other particles to generate high-energy X-rays and gamma rays.

Nuclear reactors are apparatii in which fissile (easy to break) material can be made to undergo a controlled and self-sustaining nuclear reaction to then release energy.
Medical isotopes are very good in treating cardiovascular diseases (involve the heart, blood vessels, or both) and cancer diseases.

To prescribe medicines that use these medical isotopes the measure known as the Curie (Ci) is used
There are different types of medical isotope treatments, for example: Brachytherapy (form of cancer treatment), and Radioimmunotherapy (doctors inject antibodies that flow through bloodstream and then attach to the cancerous cells).
Each year more than 18 million procedures using nuclear medicine are performed in the U.S.
In Canada medical isotopes are very important, for they use Technetium-99 (Tc-99m) as the primary medical isotope in tests to diagnose medical conditions of the heart, the circulatory system, and organs. Tc-99m is used in over 80% of all nuclear medicine scans in Canada.
- http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/brgtherap/activit/fs-fi/isotopes-med-faq-eng.php
- http://www.medicalisotopes.org/faq.html
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