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The Early Revolts of the Indios

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Hannah Alternado

on 14 July 2013

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Transcript of The Early Revolts of the Indios

The Early Revolts of the Indios
1. To attempt to overthrow the authority of the state;
2. To oppose or refuse to accept something;
3. A rebellion
Derogatory term for indigenous people (like Amerindians of America).
Hindi ko hahayaang kayo'y magtagumpaaaa-aaaaaay!! >:((
~Lapu-lapu (1521)
What are the reasons?
- Leaders who had lost their prestige, power and reputation to the occupying Spaniards
- They Wanted to go back to their old ways of living, culture and regain their freedom
- Ex datus used to regularly receive "handog" (annual tribute or gift) but they lost their influence
-Babaylans want to go back to their precolonial animism. They were declared idolatrous and unlawful; soon superseded by Spanish regular clergy
The religious worldview that natural physical entities—including animals, plants, and often even inanimate objects or phenomena—possess a spiritual essence.
Personal vendetta triggered kin-related uprisings
Revolts from Luzon
Rajah Sulayman
- He rejected the Spanish rule.
- Due to the invincibility of Spanish defense, the forces of Sulayman were defeated.
- Rajah Sulayman {baptized as Soliman} was exempted from tribute and forced labor {until 1884} and got to keep his family names.
Lakandula (1574)
- Lakandula cooperated with the Spanish rule
- He was given special privileges of not paying tribute and exemption from polo
- Gov. Lavezares confiscated the land properties and tolerated the corrupt encomendero.
“Conspiracy of the Maharlikas” (1578-88)
- Led by kin-related datus of Manila (the son of Lakandula and his first cousin)
- When caught, they were dragged on hurdles to the gallows, hanged, decapitated, and exposed in iron cages, as a grim warning against the crime.
- Their severed heads were stuck on pikes place in wicker baskets for public exhibition.
Magalat (1596)
- Refused to pay the tributes and to serve the polo
- The opposition to the unlawful tribute collection motivated the Cagayanons to revolt.
- He was assassinated.
Dayag and Catubay of Northern Isabela
-they killed the encomenderos and retreated to the hills
-they were against the abuses of Spanish authorities
-Fr. Sto. Tomas convinced them to surrender
Maniago (Pampanga) and Malong (Pangasinan)
-They resisted the imposition of Spanish rule in their respective provinces.
-Revolted in 1660 both ended in failure.
Diego Silang
- Opposed the exaction of the comun (annual tribute of one real fuerte), drafting of polistas, and other dishonest practices of the new alcalde mayor, Antonio Zabala.
- He headed revolt in 1762.
- He joined forces with the British.
- He was killed on May 1763 with a musket through his back by Pedro Buecbuec an ex-confidant of Silang.
Maria Josefa Gabriela de Silang
- the first woman to lead a revolt in the Philippines
- Joan of Arc of Ilocos
- She was then executed on Sept. 20, 1763.
Hermano Pule
-Racial discrimination is the primary reason
-In Dec. 1832, Ermano Pule with the Filipino secular priest (Br. Ciriaco de los Santos) and 19 others, founded the cofradia centering around the cults of San Francisco and the famous brown image of Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage of Antipolo
-5 years later, this was renamed as Cofradia del Sr. San Jose i voto del Santisimo Rosario.
Revolts from Visayas
The people of Visayas revolted because they wanted to go back to their own old tradition (animism).
Tamblot of Bohol (1621-22)
Bankaw of Carigara (Leyte)
Juan Ponce Sumodoy
- an outlawed babaylan.
- employed magic and religion in alluring the people to abandon Christianity and to return to their former beliefs.
- he promised that “mountains would rise against their foe; that the muskets of the latter would not go off or rebound on those who fired them; that if any Indian would die, the diwatas would resuscitate him.”
- he was crushed by Juan de Alcarazo (alcalde mayor of Cebu) with a number of men.
-Datu of Limasawa
-Like Tamblot, they used magic to attract devotees. Saying that they could petrify the Spaniards and that woman or child could easily change the enemies by simply hurling bits of earth on them.
-Alcarazo killed Bankaw and his severed head was impaled on a bamboo stake and publicly displayed it as a warning.
-A newly Christianized babaylan in Oton, Iloilo.
-Proclaimed himself “God Almighty” and who “went about in the garb of a woman.”
-In 1663, they killed Fr. Francisco de Mesa, burned the house and church, and fled to the mountains.
-The Spaniards captured the leaders and were killed.
- Leader of the uprising that spread as far as the Bikol region, central Visayas and northern Mindanao.
- This was a reaction to Gov. Diego Fajardo’s order of shifting recruitment of the tiresome polo y servicios personales from Luzon to Visayas.
- The Spaniards captured Sumodoy’s mother, dragged her and threw her over a cliff.
- Sumodoy’s head was later presented to the alcalde mayor by two of his former followers.
The most notable among Visayan revolt (18th century)
Dagohoy of Bohol
- a cabeza de barangay of Bohol
- longest revolt in the Philippine history taking 85 years (1744-1829)
- one of the causes of this revolt is forced labor but when Fr. Gaspar Morales refused to give his brother(Sagarino) a Christian burial, it triggered his revolt.
- He proclaimed “Free Bohol” in Inabangan and Talibon mountains and refused the unjust payment of tribute and rendering of forced labor.
- He died without seeing the end of the uprising which he successfully initiated.
As in other revolts elsewhere, this was a consequence of the realization of the Filipinos that the Spanish might was weak, as proved by their humiliating defeat with the fall of Manila in September 1762.
Religious Motives:
The continuous Hispanization of the Filipinos through religion was in line with Spain’s policy of “Gospel, Gold and Glory.”
All revolts ended in failure as they were routed by the combined forces of Spanish soldiers and the Cebuanos.
` abused by the government officials
` change their religion
` taxation
` forced labor
` galleon trade
"Filipinos were unhappy about the changes and they wanted the foreigners out of the Philippine soil.”
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